Lewis Cass. cn Aldrich.

History of Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, with illustrations and biographical sketches of some of its prominent men and pioneers; (Volume 1) online

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June 24, 1865.

Edwin R. Dailey, August 29, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate
April I, 1863.

Jas. H. Daugherty, August 29, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate
April I, 1863.

Wm. Davis, August 15, 1863; drafted; died at Washington, D. C. Janu-
ary 2, 1864.

John Darcy, August 29, 1862 ; died at Belle Plain, Va. March 11, 1863.

Tobias Edward, August 15, 1S63 ; drafted; captured at Weldon Railroad,
Va. August 21. 1864; discharged by general order June 12, 1865.

John Funk, August 15, 1862 ; drafted ; wounded at Petersburg, Va. June
18, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865.

James M. Fox, August 23, 1S62 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate March
21, 1864.



Clearfield's Military History.



Frank Freel, August 23, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa. July I, 1863 ;
transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps February 15, 1864.

Charles Fry, August 15, 1862 ; drafted; died December 27, 1863 — burial
record December 28 — at Alexandria, Va. ; grave 1236.

James W. Goss, August 23, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa. July 1,
1863 ; absent in hospital at muster out.

Edward Goss, August 23, 1862 ; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa. July i, 1863 ;
mustered out with company June 24, 1865.

Chas. H. Garrison, August 29, 1862 ; wounded at Wilderness, Va. May 5,
1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865.

Frederick Gamp, October 16, 1863 ; drafted; discharged by general order
June, 1865.

Samuel C. Gephart, August 24, 1863; drafted; wounded at Laurel Hill,
Va. May 8. 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865.

Jas. W. Guthery, September 22, 1863 ; drafted; mustered out with com-,
pany June 24, 1865.

Augustus Grey, February 7, 1865; discharged by general order June 2,
1865.

Wm. Grey, February 24. 1865 ; mustered out with company June 24, 1865-

Henry P. Hummel, August 29, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July
I, 1863 ; mustered out with company June 24, 1865.

Wm. Gready, August 29, 1863 ; deserted January 29, 1863.

Nathan Haring, August 29, 1863; missing in action at Gettysburg, Pa.
July I, 1863.

Andrew Hamaker, August 14, 1863; drafted; wounded at Wilderness,
Va. May 5, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865.

Wm. Hoover, August 23, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate March
20, 1863.

Michael Hinkle, August 15, 1863;. drafted; wounded at Wilderness, Va-
May 5, 1864; discharged by general order May 17, 1865.

Elias Heddings, October 15, 1863; drafted; died at Washington, D. C.
May 19 of wounds received at Spottsylvania C. H., Va. May 12, 1864; buried
in National Cemetery, Arlington.

Martin Hashuishall, August 17, 1863 ; drafted; wounded and captured at
Wilderness, Va. May 5, 1864; died at Andersonville, Ga. September 27, 1864;
grave 9843.

Wm. H. Ike, August 25, 1862; captured at Wilderness, Va. May 5, 1864;
died at Wilmington, N. C, March 26, 1865; buried in National Cemetery;
grave 1002.

John C. Johnson, August 23, 1862; absent in hospital at muster out.

James T. Jones, August 23, 1862; died at Washington, D. C. November
20, 1862.



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200 History of Clearfield County.

Oliver H. P. Krise, August 23, 1862 ; wounded at Wilderness, Va. May
5, 1S64; mustered out with company June 24, 1865.

Daniel S. Kepliart, August 23, 1862 ; missing in action at Gettysburg, Pa.
July I, 1863.

John Kivlan, August 29, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate Decem-
ber 28, 1862.

Andrew Krise, August 23, 1862 ; deserted; dishonorably discharged June
18, 1864.

Christian Lanich, August 23, 1862 ; mustered out with company June 24,
1865.

James Lucas, August 29, 1862 ; wounded and missing in action at Gettys-
burg, Pa. July I, 1863.

Joseph Linard, August 17, 1863; drafted; wounded at Wilderness, Va.
May 5, 1864; mustered out with company June 24, 1865.

Chas. Larimer, August 23, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa. July i,
1863 ; discharged by general order June 12, 1865.

Harvey Lloyd, August 23, 1862; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps
December 15, 1861.

William Mays, August 30, 1862; mustered out with company June 24,
1865.

John Miller, September 14,1863; drafted; mustered out with company
June 24, 1865.

David S. Maxwell, August 17, 1863 ; drafted; mustered out with com-
pany June 24, 1865.

James D. Maffit, August 23, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Jan-
uary 12, 1863.

Alonzo J. W. Merrell, August 23, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certifi-
cate February II, 1863.

Thomas E. Miller, August 23, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate
April I, 1863.

William L. Mackey, August 2^, 1862; died at Washington, D. C, January
12, 1863 ; buried in Military Asylum Cemetery.

WiUiam H. Miller, August 25, 1862 ; deserted February 16, 1863.

George McCanns, August 17, 1863; drafted; mustered out with company
June 24, 1865.

James D. McMuUin, February 7, 1865 ; mustered out with company June
24, 1865.

Patrick McCaii, August 29, 1862 ; deserted January 29, 1863.

LeviF. Noss, August 14, 1863; drafted; mustered out with company June
24.;,! 865.

John H. Ogden, August 2^, 1862; mustered out with company June 24,
1865.



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Clearfield's Military History. 201

William H. Phillips, August 23, 1862; missing in action at Gettysburg,
Pa., July I, 1863.

Henry W. Peters, August 23, 1862 ; mustered out with company June 24,
1865.

Benjamin F. Peterson, August 27, 1862 ; drafted ; mustered out with com-
pany June 24, 1865.

Peter Phefifer, August 23, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate April
I, 1863.

James Rinehart, August 23, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July i,
1863 ; absent, sick, at muster out.

Henry Rose, August 14, 1863 ; drafted; discharged by special order June
29, 1865.

Lazarus A. Riggle, August 15,1863; drafted; wounded at Wilderness,
Va., May 5, 1864; mustered out with company June 14, 1865.

Cortes Reams, August 23, 1862; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps
December 15, 1863.

William S. Renshaw, October 16, 1863; drafted; captured at Weldon Rail-
road, Va., August 21, 1864; died at Salisbury, N. C, December 26, 1854.

J. C. W. Reynolds, August 23, 1862; deserted November 26, 1862.

Elias Schoepp, August 23, 1862; mustered out with company June 24,
1865.

Henry B. Snyder, September 14, 1863; drafted; missing in action at Wil-
derness, Va., May 5, 1864.

Henry A. Snyder, August 14, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company
June 24, 1865.

James Steele, August 28, 1863 ; drafted ; mustered out with company June
24, 1865.

James C. Sutton, February 7, 1865 ; mustered out with company June 24,
1865.

Oliver Smith, August 29, 1862; died at Washington, D. C, June 18, 1863;
buried in Military Asylum Cemetery.

Henry Shafter, August 13, 1863 ; drafted ; died at Warrenton Junction,
Va., November 9, 1863.

William F. Snyder, September 14, 1863 ; drafted ; died at Warrenton Junc-
tion, Va., November 12, 1863.

William O. Snyder, August 27, 1863 ; drafted; died at PaoH Mills, Va.,
December 18, 1863 ; buried in National Cemetery, Culpepper C. H., block i,
section A, row 9, grave 302.

Samuel Smith, August 23, 1862; deserted February 3, 1863.

Levi L. Tate, August 23, 1862 ; absent on detached service at muster out.

John Titus, August 29, 1862 ; killed at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864.

Edward Tinsdale, October 6, 1863 ; drafted; captured May 21, 1864; died
at Andersonville, Ga., July 28, 1864, grave 4160.



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202 History of Clearfield County.

Joseph R. Weasner, August 2^, 1862; mustered out with company June ,
24, 1865. 1

John Woleslagle, August 29, 1862 ; discharged on surgeon's certificate Oc- ;
tober 2, 1864.

Chester O. Wells, August 23, 1862; discharged on surgeon's, certificate
Januray 30, 1863.

Phil. M. Woleslagle, August 29, 1S62 ; transferred to Veteran Reserve
Corps December i, 1863.

Edward Williamson, October 16, 1863; drafted; wounded and captured at
North Anna River, Va., May 23, 1864 ; died at Richmond June 6, 1864.

Samuel Yocum, August 14, 1863 ; drafted; wounded at Wilderness, Va.,
May 5, 59th Regiment, 2d Cavalry, 1864; mustered out with company June
24, 1865. ■ i

Company F. j

Recruited tJi Clearfield a7id Centre Counties. \

Captains. — P. Benner Wilson, August 18, 1861 ; promoted to major Oc-
tober 28, 1862.

W. W. Anderson, September 14, 1861; promoted from ist lieutenant, com-
pany E, to captain, February 2, 1863 ; to major i8ist Regiment P. V. Feb-
ruary 18, 1864.

Clement R See, November 10, 1861 ; promoted from 2d to 1st lieutenant
October 2, 1862; to captain April 23, 1864; wounded at St. Mary's Church,.
Va., June 24, 1864; discharged September 6, 1864.

William H. Sheller, October 10, 1861 ; promoted from ist sergeant to 2d
lieutenant May 2, 1864; to captain December 25, 1864; transferred to com-
pany F, 1st Cavalry, June 17, 1865 ; veteran.

In Other Commands.

From the upper part of the county a contingent of some fifteen men were
enlisted, which formed a part of Company H, of the Sixty- fourth Regiment —
the Fourth Cavalry. They were enlisted mainly in Burnside and the surround-
ing townships, but the military record gives this county no credit for any part
of that or any other company of the Sixty-fourth. The regiment entered the
service in October, 1861, and was mustered out in July, 1S65.

Clearfield county was also represented in Battery A, First Regiment of
artillery — Campbell's Battery, the Forty-third in the line. The contingent
was small, comprising less than ten recruits.



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Geology of Clearfield County,



203



CHAPTER XIII.



GEOLOaY OF CLEARFIELD COUNTY.



I'^HE geology of Clearfield county has been written by numerous gentlemen,
notably Professors Leslie, Pratt, Chance, Hoover, and Scott, while local
geologists have all had a say, and the consequence has been a difference of
opinion as to what should be the name, and what letter or letters should be
assigned to the several coal beds.

With all due deference to the opinions of these eminent geologists, yet the
necessary hurried examinations made by Messrs. Pratt and Chance, oftentimes
through a primeval forest, or over nearly impassable jungles where the meas-
ures could not be exposed, and where it would take months to make a thor-
ough examination, the chance for error would seem to be great, and their
scientific knowledge could not guard them from making reports that the pick
and shovel would disprove in after years ; and therefore, no credit is asked for
the later facts herewith presented, and it is trusted that where this paper differs
from the reports named, the gentlemen will be assured that no blame is
attached to their several papers, but that the region being more thoroughly
developed, it is very easy to give facts that they could possibly know nothing
about.

Before starting on the geology of the county, it is necessary that the reader
should be made acquainted with the general principles governing the science,
and what is meant by the terms employed to describe the material composing
the planet called earth, and how this material was formed. The classification
of formations of organic history and geological time is inserted in the following
table :



JEona.

Caenozoic



Organic Reigns.



MesozoiCj



Palaeozoic,



Eozoic,



Reptiles and Birds.
> Amphibians and Land Animals.



C Quaternary, • Man.

( Tertiary, Mammals.

Cretaceous,

Jurassic,

Triassic,

Upper Carboniferous,

Lower Carboniferous,

Devonian,

Silurian,

Cambrian,
C Huronian,
( Laurentian,

The portion of this table most nearly concerning Clearfield county is the
lower carboniferous measures of the Palceozoic formation. The rocks compos-
ing the other divisions of this aeon are far below the surface, and do not crop



Fishes.

Marine Invertebrates.

Protozoans.



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204 History of Clearfield County.

out within the county, if we except the No. XI Red Shale and the No. X
Pocono Sandstone, which are above water level for short distances along the
Susquehanna and Moshannon valleys.

The base of \\ hat is known as the Lower Productive Coal Measures, is the
Pottsville or Serai Conglomerate. This rock is the foundation of all the great
coal measures of the Appalachian basin. It belongs to the coal era, and extends
from the southeastern part of Pennsylvania, to and beyond the coal fields of
Alabama and Missouri. In thickness it reaches i,ooo feet in the anthracite
regions, gradually tapering to ten feet at the southwestern extremity. Its
composition is a concretionary silicious quartz, in the form of a coarse sand
rock, containing large, white, flint-like pebbles. In this region, the outcrop of
the conglomerate forms the main crest of the Alleghenies, and is exposed by
the deep basins of mountain streams, whose waters wash its surface. The
Moshannon heads in this formation about twelve miles above Osceola Mills,
and its presence is a never failing indication of coal.

Taking the Serai Conglomerate, or No. XII, as the foundation, a true sec-
tion of the coal measures of the county would read upwards as follows, accord-
ing to J. W. Scott, esq. :

" From the cannel slate and coal to Bed A, 30 feet. From A to B, 50 to
60 feet. B to intermediate vein 30 feet, and from latter to C, 30 feet. From
C to slate vein (slate and coal mixed) 30 feet, and from latter to D (Lower
Freeport) 30 feet. D to D2, 30 feet, and from D2 to E or Moshannon bed,
40 feet. From E to F or Rider Bed, 40 feet, and from F to G or Cap Bed,
30 feet.

" After 30 feet of cover on Cap Bed, we reach the Mahoning Sandstone with
the barren measures and barren beds rising above.

"The Mahoning Sandstone does not appear in place until we pass Houtz-
dale. At Ramey large accumulations of barren measures superimpose the
Mahoning.

" This is what may be properly called an average section, varying with local-
ity. Each bed has its own specific bed rock as well as cover, varying in dif-
ferent places. The different seams or beds of coal are not uniform throughout,
but vary in size and quality."

The rocks composing the barren measures are found only in a few town-
ships of the county. According to Dr. H. M. Chance in his report H. 7, "they
are capping the high summits of the Bloomington ridge, south of Curwensville
and Clearfield, and also in the trough of the Andersonville sub-basin. They
also cover a considerable area in Beccaria and Guelich townships."

Between these two rocks therefore lie all the mineral wealth of the Clear-
field region, viz., the Serai or No. XII Conglomerate and the Mahoning Sand-
stone.

"The county is divided into three great coal basins, known respectively as



YDrtl



Geology of Clearfield County.



205



the First, Second, and Third Basins, which pass through the county in a gen-
■eral southwest and northeast course.

"They are separated by two aiiticUnal axes, commonly known as the First
and Second axes, the third basin being separated by the Third or Boon's Moun-
tain anticlinal from the Fourth basin of Jefferson and Elk counties.

'* Beginning at the southeastern corner of the county, and passing northwest
to Boon's Mountain at the northwestern corner of the county, we pass over the
following axes and basins :

f Eastern sub-basin (?)
p. -p • j Guelich township sub-anticlinal (?)

j Utahville-Ramey-Houtzdale-Osceola-Philipsburg-Morrisdale

(^ basin.
First Anticlinal Axis — Laurel Hill axis.

( Ansonville sub-basin — Karthaus basin.
Second Basin. -^ Marion sub-anticlinal — Nolo axis of Indiana county.

( Pennville sub-basin.
Second Anticlinal Axis — Chestnut Ridge — Driftwood axis.

( Eastern sub-basin.
Third Basin. <? Second sub-anticlinal.

( Du Bois — Benezette basin.
Third Anticlinal axis — Boon's Mountain axis.

"The significance of the lines marked upon geological maps to show the
axial line of anticlinal uplifts is not understood by many persons. Some
imagine a distinction is to be made between an 'anticlinal' and an ' axis;' that
one brings up the conglomerate, No. XII, and throws the coals out into the
air, while the other does not. Others suppose that this occurs where an
' anticlinal ' or an ' axis ' is marked upon the map. It is, therefore, proper to
•explain here that — '

" 1st. An anticlinal is simply a fold or roll in the rocks, or a line along
which they are uplifted. .

" 2d. An axis is the central or crest-line of an anticlinal ; in other word.<;
the line along which the greatest uplift is found. The term axis is often used
synonymously with anticlinal^ — Report H. 7.

The trough of the first basin extends from Utahville through Ramey,
Houtzdale, and Osceola. It crosses the Moshannon Creek into Centre county
at the Mapleton Branch Railroad, re-crossing again into Clearfield county near
the schutes of the Atalanta No. 3 colliery, crossing back into Centre county
below the town of Phillipsburg, and again crossing into Clearfield county at
the mouth of Emigh Run. where it gradually rises until near Morrisdale, when
it "spoons" out. But still the basin can be distinctly traced north through
Kylertown, when it deflects . towards the east and passes over into Centre
•county.

The central line of this basin follows the valley of the Beaver Run from
Osceola Mills to Houtzdale. The Centre county side of the basin catches only

27



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2o6 History of Clearfield County.

a small area of the upper beds, the rise on the southeast side of the axis being
very steep.

The basin is full of faults. Three of these are found in the Moshannon
workings. Serious faults have also been encountered in the Morrisdale mines
(an upthrow of 42 feet) in the Allport, Franklin, Penn, Arctic, and many other
collieries ; in fact there are very few mines in this basin in which more or less
serious disturbances have not been found.

The mines opened along the Beaver Run on the Moshannon Branch Rail-
road show that the measures rise towards the northwest and southwest. But
in nearly all of the collieries reverse and local dips are encountered, and in
some cases they are of such a serious nature as to cause much extra expense
in overcoming them ; Eureka No. 5 and No. 10 being examples. Clay seams
and a pinching down of the roof, thereby thinning down the coal, often occurs;
but the most serious disturbances, and the most difficult to overcome, are the
numerous dislocations or displacements of coal seams. In every case of a
" downthrow " it goes to the southwest, and in the line of fracture or slip has
a southeast and northwest bearing. On the north of the Beaver Run, and
extending northeast from Houtzdale to Morrisdale, these dislocations occur
very often, showing displacements of the coal bed from ten to fifty feet. The
first on the north side of the Beaver Run is at Stirling mine. No. 2, which
shows a " downthrow " to the southwest of twenty-one feet, and having a
southeast and northwest course. The next are two faults in the Laurel Run
mine, which occurred within forty-five yards of each other. One indicates a
" downthrow " of twelve feet, and the line of slip is south ten degrees east, the
other bearing north forty degrees east, and is a " downthrow " of fifty-three
feet; line of slip north. forty degrees west. The next fault is at the Decatur
mine, which shows a " downthrow " to- the southwest of ten feet. At the Em-
pire mine there is one twenty feet. At the Pardee, one half mile from Decatur
mine, there is another, but do not know the number of feet of displacement.
The general direction or -bearing of the sHps are southeast and northwest, and
"downthrows" toward the southwest. When these faults are encountered
they often destroy the whole plan of the under-ground workings, and unless
the mine manager has the necessary skill and general adaptability, they are
very expensive to overcome.

The majority of the mines opened in the first basin are opened on the E
Bed. The exceptions are named below. This bed is called the D by Pro-
fessor Chance, and the B by Professor Piatt, but later developments plainly
show that it is the E or Mammoth Bed of the Anthracite region.

The first bed above the Serai Conglomerate is known as Bed A, the next
as Bed B, the next Bed C, and so on to the top bed which is known as Bed
G, and is immediately underneath the Mahoning sandstone. If there were
no disturbances it would be easy to know what bed was being worked by



^firMl;



Geology of Clearfield County. 207

counting either from the bottom or from the top rock, but sundry local beds
appear now and then, not true beds, but oftentimes offshoots of the regular
bed, and these sporadic beds may exist over miles of area. When first found
they mislead the miner and geologist into thinking they have another persis-
tent bed, and behold another letter is wanted for it, but the letters all being
appropriated some years ago they tack to their new found child a letter with
the second power — for in.stance, A Prime, B Prime, etc. This is often the case
in the Clearfield region, and thus the geologist is wrong from no fault of his.
To get at the true letter then of the bed so extensively worked in the first
basin' we commence at the top and count down. We find first the Cap Bed,
G, next the Rider Bed, F. This bed is worked by W. C. Langsford & Co.,
and the coal sold in the borough of Houtzdale for home consumption. Under
Bed F is the Moshannon Bed, or E.

The reason Professor Piatt called the bed at the Moshannon mine B, was
due to the (then undefined) faults at this and the Beaverton mines, which
throw the coal down to within a i^w feet of the railroad. The same mistake
was made in naming the bed at the Franklin colliery, while local geologists
claimed that the bed worked in the Penn colliery was not the same bed that
was worked in the Eureka No. i mine, and this, too, after a person could
enter the one mine and pass out through the other one. An erroneous opinion
is one of the hardest things to correct, sometimes even when ocular proof is
offered. These mistakes do not matter much to the general reader, or to the
average citizen, but oftentimes properties have been condemned which have
since been reclaimed by local, competent men.

The coal worked at the Philadelphia mine at Osceola Mills, and at the Re-
liance mine near the same place, and at the Powelton Black Diamond mine,
is taken from Bed B. The coal worked in the Morrisdale mines is taken from
Bed C, as traces of the ferriferous limestone is found beneath that bed. The
coal from the mines on Pine Run is taken from Bed B. Bed F was opened on
Hughes's Farm, and found' to be two feet, six inches thick.

The mines worked along the line of the Bells's Gap Railroad are all on
Bed B.

There is very little known about the second basin as yet ; the region not
being opened, and the country but sparsely settled, and covered in most places
by dense forests.

A sub-anticlinal enters the county from Cambria county, a little southwest
of East Ridge, and runs near Marion towards Kerrmoor. This anticlinal has
not been fully developed. It is known as the Marion AnticHnal. The center
of the trough of the second basin is supposed to extend from Lumber City,
south from Curwensville and Clearfield, along the upper portion of Bradford
township, and the lower east end of Girard township, and about through the
center of Covington and Karthaus townships, and thence into Cameron county.



2o8 History of Clearfield County.

The mountainous wilderness north of Clearfield borough, embracing an area
of about one hundred and fifty square miles, is without human inhabitants, is
traversed by few roads, and according to Chance, is principally occupied by
rocks of the Conglomerate series, forming sterile soil. Therefore it is impos-
sible to say what this land may contain.

" North of Clearfield the measures rise steadily towards the second anticli-



Online LibraryLewis Cass. cn AldrichHistory of Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, with illustrations and biographical sketches of some of its prominent men and pioneers; (Volume 1) → online text (page 22 of 42)