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Lewis Publishing Company.

Biographical history of Pottawattamie County, Iowa. Containing portraits of all the presidents of the United States, with accompanying biographies ... history of Iowa, with ... biographies of the governors ... and engravings of prominent citizens of Pottawattamie County, with personal histories of m online

. (page 1 of 90)
Online LibraryLewis Publishing CompanyBiographical history of Pottawattamie County, Iowa. Containing portraits of all the presidents of the United States, with accompanying biographies ... history of Iowa, with ... biographies of the governors ... and engravings of prominent citizens of Pottawattamie County, with personal histories of m → online text (page 1 of 90)
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Containing Portraits of all the Presidents of the United States, with accompanying

Biographies of each-, a Condensed History of Iowa, with Portraits and

Biographies of the Governors of the State; and Engravings

of Prominent Citizens of Pottawattamie County, with

Personal Histories of many of the Early

Settlers and Leading Families.



Biography is the only true history." — Emerson.






THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY

1891.

- •



r



THE NEW YORK
PUBLIC LIBRARY

453425 A

AS TOR, LENOX AND

TILDEN FOUNDATIONS

H 1929 L




PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED
STATES.

George Washington

John Adams 14

Thomas Jefferson 20

James Madison 26

James Monroe 32

John Quincy Adams 38

Andrew Jackson 47

Martin Van Buren 52

William Henry Harrison 56

John Tyler 60

James K. Polk 64

Zachary Taylor 68

Millard Fillmore 72

Franklin Pierce 76

James Buchanan 80

Abraham Lincoln 84

Andrew Johnson 93

Ulysses S. Grant 96

Rutherford B. Hayes 102



James A. Garfield 109

Chester A. Arthur 113

Grover Cleveland 117

Benjamin Harrison 120

HISTORY OF IOWA.

Aboriginal 183

( 'aucasian 124

Pioneer Life 133

Louisiana Territory 137

Iowa Territory 139

State Organization and Subse-
quent History 141

Patriotism 146

Iowa Since the War 151

State Institutions 151

Educational 154

Statistical 157

Physical Features 158

Geology 158

C'l imate 163



Census of Iowa 164

Territorial officers 104

State Officers 165

GOVERNORS OF IOWA.

Robert Lucas 171

John Chambers 173

James Clarke ....175

Ansel Briggs 179

Stephen Hempstead 183

James W. Grimes 187

Ralph P. Lowe 191

Samuel J. Kirkwood 195

William M. Stone 199

Samuel Merrill 203

Cyrus C. Carpenter 207

Joshua G. Newbold 211

John H. Gear 215

Buren R. 'Sherman 219

William Larrabee 223

Horace Boies 223



OS-



-*-• sSi



HISTORY OF POTTAWATTAMIE COUNTY,

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.



Abbott, E.J 539

Abel, Joseph 622

Ackels, Paul 689

Acker, W. C 694

Agnew, S. G 599

Afdridge, 11. L 267

Alexander, C 376

Allee, F. M 388

Allen, A. L 540

Alleusworlh, J. P 246

Alston, Joshua 669

Altmannsperger, C. A 632

Anderson, Andrew 590

Avery, A. E 535

Axtell.J.M 364

Axtell, L. S 317

Aylesworth, E. E 688



Bair, I. F 408

Baldwin, Caleb 231

Baldwin, J. N 279

Baldwin, J. T 443

Ball, W. I) 679

Barnett, E. S 412

Barstow, J. M 583

Barstow, Samuel 245

Barton, J.J 633

Barton, Reuben 417

Battin, Vincent 434

Beck, C. H 258

Beezley, Paul 562

Beezley, William 666

Bell & Berlinehof 485

Bellinger, F. P. & M. J 486

Bevan, S. E 275



Beyer, Win 567

Bisbee, A. C 286

Bixby, B. F 530

Blain, David 594

Blakely, John 333

Blanchard, W. A 451

Bloom, J. C 155

Bloomer, Amelia 242

Bloomer, D. C 241

Boiler, Cyrus 335

Boiler, James 259

Bolton, C. H 578

Bolton, George 299

Bolton, J. M. 439

Book, John 466

Boren, I. A 417

Boren, J. B 508



Iv



CONTENTS.



Boruff, I). W 302

Borutl", J. C 508

Bosen, C 408

Hosted, August 442

Boulden, J. P 306

Boulden, J. R 382

Bowman, Thomas. 385

Braden, Peier 528

Bradley, J. G 179

Bray, Theodore 650

Breneman, N E 010

Briggs, I). M 509

Brown, A. 1 004

Brown, 0. II 898

Brown, Wm 348

Brown, Wm. K 437

Bryant, T. G 554

Bullis, Allen 51*0

Bunker. W. W 820

Bunnell, J. A 682

Burckhalter, DA 574

Burckhalter, J. W 852

Bnrke, Finley 447

Burke, F. A 446

Burke, J. P 703

Burnett, G. V 500

By bee, Alfred 064

Cady.T.J 371

Campbell, Lyman 881

Campbell, Iiasmus 882

Carley, E. B 591

I larson, George 475

Carson, A. S 710

Carter, I G 692

Casady, .1 P 431

Casady, T. E 439

Cater, K. II 834

Chambers, II. J 458

Champ, G. II 477

Chaney, C. II 595

Chaney, Win L 481

Charles, Wm 345

Cheney, M.J 506

Chicago Lumber Co 381

Citizens' Bank of Oakland 200

City Holler Mills 838

Clark, I). B 311

Clark, F. C 487

Clark, John 568

Clark, J. II. E :;i 'l

Clayton, B. F 458

l'i»' I) A 570

Cole, W.T 651

Coleman, Frank 504

Coleman. W. .1 611

Collaiil. Frank 818

Collins, N. 8 576

Coiner, S. U 628

Confarr, W N ••■ -541

Conklin, .1 F 658

Consigny, E. A 623

Converse, Win 500

Cook. II. C 652

Co.,1, John 344

Coons, .1 M 815

Cooper, A. 1' 183

Cooper, W. A... 541

Copeland, T N 816

Council Bluffs Limber Co 031



Craft, W. P 505

Crippen C. M 379

Croghan, J. M 236

Cuppy, Win. B 035

Currie, John, Jr 683

Currie, Hubert 081

Dailey, D. B 467

Davis, Fred 051

Davis, J. C 380

Davis, J. H 691

Dean,W..rren 250

Dean, W. L 254

Dellait, F. A 527

Dentler, B. B 514

Devol, P. C 327

Devol, David 327

DeWilt, W 309

Dial, W. II 655

Dingmau, J B 458

Dohany, John 328

Doner, II. A 616

Duner, Jacob 377

Doner, I. E 402

Dool, Thomas 580

Dorton, J. M 371

Dowty, Joseph 612

Dunkle, David 347

Dunn, S. T 581

Durham, W. E 670

Dye Bros, it Co 668

Dye, G. S 543

Earnest, Solomon 2411

Edie, Wm. S 270

Ellis, F. M. & Co 052

Ellis, MP 037

Elswick, J. C 374

Evans, John .653

Evans, Joseph 0*2

Evans, T. J 471

Everett, Horace 519

Everett, Leonard 615

Everson, J. W 672

Exchange Bank 702

Fay, Wooster

Ferguson, M. W 672

Flint. John 518

Flood. Thomas 676

Ford, Fred 270

Forsyth, Mrs. S 422

Foster, C. P 161

Foster, J. B 057

Foster, S. II 465

Foxlev, A. H 492

Frank". J. A 861

Frazter, Allied 662

Freeman B. F 260

Frisbie, Ml! 40 4

Frizzell. A. L 200

Fii/./.ell, J. O 502

Fuller, A E 584

Gardner, I.N

Garner, F G 822

Garner, Wm 288

Gault, .ID I5H

Caul!. T 280



Gerlz, II. P 695

Gittens, Henry 854

Glynn, A 409

Godfrey, C 645

Gordon, <> W 429

Gorrell, J. V 593

Goudie, M. C 518

Gould, J. II 644

Graff, w 11 555

Graham, (). W 414

Grass, F 489

Graybill.H 481

Graybill, (J. II 602

Green, Charles 511

Green, John 686

Green, Norman 882

Gregg, J. II 280

Gress, Beruhard 598

Groneweg, Win 449

Croat, Alonzo 547

G Hi liar, Francis 505

Guittar, TheoJore 564

Gustiu, Wm 288

Haines, David 399

Hall, A. J 531

Hamilton, G.W 508

Hammer, Lewis 649

Hanchett, A. P 379

Hansen, Isaac 810

Harbert, B. F 315

Harcourt.B 307

Hardenbergb, Otis 532

Hardin, \W D 455

Harding, B. G 659

Hardin-, John 680

Hail, C. M 305

llaiie, M. E 568

Harris, A r ' s ''

Hartwell, T. J 656

Hats well, L. A 657

Ha/.leton, A.S 308

Headlee, Joseph 865

Heagney, C. F 391

Heileman, Wm 885

Hell man, Andrew 4ii0

Hendricks, A. I ".07

Hendricks, I. F MM

Henry, J. H 7u2

HetZel. F. G 616

Hewitt, G. W 415

Hicks, G. W 704

Hitchcock, F.G 479

Hoffmayer, J. C :::;s

Holmes, G. A 375

Hoogewoning, A 480

Hooker, J. D 360

Hoops, Isaac 602

Horner, Albert 592

Hose Co. No, 8 179

llouhkiss, 0.0 628

Bough, II. C 618

Houyh, J. R 321

Hough, Morris 653

Hough, Warren 890

Houghton, F. W 687

Hul'Ih's. Martin 469

Huff, A. M 690

llulchinsi n. A A 668



CONTENTS.



Ingram, Robert 073

Irwin, H. T 392

Jack, H.B GOG

Jameson Bros 387

Jameson, W.J 007

Jefferson, T. II 835

Johns, T.J 661

Johannsen, J. B 698

Johnson, A. W 329

Johnson, P. T. C 70S

Jones, J. G 325

Jones, L. G 330

Jones, O. W 34!)

Jones, K. P 309

Jones, T.J 440

Judd, C. B 324

Kaven, August 611

Keast, Thomas 704

Keller, A. H 322

Kenedy, Alex . r )4fl

Kerney, Lawrence 295

Kerney, Perry 491

Kiel Stables 651

Killion, I. C G40

Killion, J. A 490

Kill pack, James 304

Kimball, Caleb 3G8

Kimball, J. F 41(5

Kincaid, A. E 566

Kinnehan, L 474

Kirby, Joseph 515

Kirkwooil, Robert 478

Kleppinger, W. C 490

Knepher, W. II 630

Knotls, Joseph 493

Knotls, L. G 494

Kulin, W. H 685

Lacey, T. B 434

Lacy, Patrick 412

Lainson, A. T 530

Lange, J. C 474

Larson, C. A 389

Lathan, Edmond 675

Lebeck, A 099

Leland, H. C 592

Leland, L. S 594

Leonard, Thomas 288

Lerette N 511

Leslie, P. N 558

Levin, P. R 644

Lewis, F. M 348

Lewis, Jackson 510

Lewis, Nelson 252

Lewis, Win 512

Lewis, Wm 681

Livingston, James 579

Lodge, O. P 535

London Bros 370

Long, Wm. C 239

Loudenheck, J. A 482

Lowe, H. G 350

MacConnell, S. P 381

MacKay, T. J 532

Mackland, Elizabeth, 282

Macrae, Donald 271

Manhattan, The 492



Martin, Andrew 330

Martin, I. L 402

Martin, Martha - 531

Martin, W.J 041

Maxfield, Wm. II 380

Maxwell, W. E 595

Mayue, W. S 285

McDonald, J. II 561

McDonald, Wm 590

McFall, S. T 041

McGee, II. G 480

McGee, J. E. F 407

McGinuis, Joseph 540

McKenzie, K 577

McKeown, Wm 350

McMaster, D. B 336

McMenomy, B. P 247

McMillen, W. A 483

McMullen, C. E 234

McPherron, F. T 428

McReynolds, L 357

Merriam, F 237

Meneray, F. W 454

Metcall, George 453

Mickelwait it Young 340

Mikesill, J. W 630

Miller, J. W 400

Miller, Robert 499

Minahan.M 373

Mitchell, A. 1 340

Montgomery, H 308

Montgomery, P. J 372

Morris, F 274

Morrison, S. . . v 480

Mulholland, J.'P 396

Muller, Julius 428

Murchison, J. K 552

Murphy, J. A 503

Murray, James 634

Mynster, 0. O 319

Mynster, W. A 087

Nellis, L. D 393

Nicholas, A. B 378

Nixon, Wm 289

Nordyke, Albert 324

Nusum, J. W 444

O'Brien, N 492

Officer, Thomas 495

Olds, James 413

Olney, J. J 243

Orr, William 675

Osborn, G. H 084

Osier, Alex 320

Owens, F. M 684

Packard, W. S 557

Painter, Lewis 490

Palmer, M 695

Parish, E 292

Parker, D. K 441

Parker, Henry 404

Parker, Joseph 488

Passmore, S. B 251

Pearce, A. W 283

Peck, G. W G60

Perkins, A. B 674

Peters, Wm 290

Peterson, E. W 457



Peterson, II II 558

Peterson, M. P 312

Phillips, John M 346

Pieper, Henry 546

Pierce, O. W 254

Pilling, T. A 450

Pinney, C. II 272

Plank, M. V 575

Pleak, D. S 329

Plumb, George 246

Plumer, H. P 654

Plummer, A 608

Plunket, W. F 678

Poland, G. W 600

Potter, L. F 260

Powell, Isaac 700

Pratt, C. F 670

Prentice, A. R 403

Price, C. S 577

Pusey, W. II. M 487

Putnam, A. D 277

Quick, Wm 646

Quick, W. S 677

Rainbow, James 596

Randall, A. A 550

Rankin, S. L 298

Read, S. R 372

Reed, J. 1 597

Reed, J. R 609

Reel, C. D 301

Keichart, E 602

Reimer, Max 515

Reynolds, C 291

Reynolds, Simon 341

Reynolds, S. W 520

Rishton, Henry 362

Riss, F. X 275

Ritter, Adam 451

Robbins, T. M 313

Robertson, .1.0 305

Robinson, OS 572

Robinson, James 323

Rock, Wm V 517

Rodenbough, J. j 278

Rodwell, John 281

Rohrer, M. F 255

Rollins, J. Q 248

Roop, M. S 343

Roosa, Isaiah 679

Boss, L. W 351

Rush, J. W 452

Rust, S. S 260

Saint, James 643

Sanderson, Charles 480

Sapp, W. F 423

Sarr, II. M 401

Schlicht, John 480

Schmoock, A. 362

Schultz,J. II 363

Scott, G. W 269

Seward, L. D 350

Seybert, P. T 711

Sheldon, L 470

Sherraden, C. H 706

Shinn, Frank 603

Sidener, Wm 653

Sides, John 614

Siedentopf, Wm 567



\i



- "AT AW 7 s



Sims, Jacob 262

Srvers,J.H 396

Smart, G. F C 560

Smith, E. C 268

Smith, J. F 605

Smith, Peter 121

Smith, W. I 249

Snyder, C. W 823

Snyder, Wesley 688

Spetmao, P. W 421

Spetmari, II. II 528

B ie, Win 521

Stephens, S. 1 664

Stephenson, A. J 1 15

Stevenson, Henry 631

Stevenson, Wm 525

St. Francis Xavier Church 2 17

Slidham, Wm 647

Stillings, Origan 558

Stoker, Margaret ; ! s "'

Stone, Albert 854

Stone, ('. E 100

Strong, S. (' 571

Straub, Christian 7(11

Stuhr, .1. II. C 488

Stnhr, .1. P 485

Sullivan & Virtue 668

Sylvester, J. A 420

Taylor, .1. A 502

Taylor, W. II 524

Templeton, J. L 649

Terry, II. A 472

Thayer, John 483

Thomas, P. s 389

Thomas, Zeph 640

Thompson, Joseph :ms

Throp, W. 1 673

Tilton, Preston 705

Timberraan, Isaiah en;

Tinley, Emmet 392

Tipton,.!. 6 331

Tittswortb, \V. (i 584

Tompkin, Wm 667

Tostevin, Thomas -1111)

Treynor, I. M 303

Underwood, s. <; 619

UUerback, W. C 384



Vallier, Alex 264

Van, S. F 516

Van, W. H 488

Van Brunt, II. II 383

Vandruff, C II 014

Voorhis, Cornelius 711

Wadsworlh, s. B 287

Waldo, Mary A (09

Walker, K. F 555

Ware, Mrs. E 897

Ware, W. II 867

Waterman, E.T 108

Way, W. .1 627

Weak, A. I, 481

Weaver, .1. P. F 843

Weeks. F. G 887

Wells, Lucius 551

Wells, Win. S im

West, II. S 116

Westcolt, J. II 411

Western Lumber & Supply Co. .649

Wheeler. Wm. .1 358

While, R. M 548

Whitney, Wm 268

Wickham, James .648

Wickham, O. P 642

Wicks, N. 11 479

Wilding, David 639

Williams, J. E 300

Williams, N. W 538

Williams, W.S 867

Wilson, II. M 0.18

Wilson, James 500

Winans, J. II 6W

Winchester, 11 542

Wind, P. II ".v.i

Winterstein, Wm 4117

Wolf, J. A - r ,.-,2

Wood, Alex. 539

Wood, E. A 545

Woodbury, E. 1 406

Wright, Fred 817

Wright, George 81 1

Wright. G.F. 295

Wyland, J. M 569

Wyman, A. W 621



Young, J. F., Jr 651

Young, J. N (i!i7

Young, T. J 340

Young, W.0 529

Zahner, Jacob 271

ILLUSTRATIONS.

Baldwin, Caleb 281

Baldwin, J. N 270

Barstow.J. H

Bloomer, Amelia 241

Bloomer, 1). C 241

Bowman. Thomas 385

Burke, Finley . . .» 1 17

Casady, J. P Ml

Casa.lv, T.E 189

Clark, I). B :ill

Clark, Eleanor :'. II

Clark, J. H. E 391

Devol, P. 3 7

Evans, T.J 171

Everett, Horace 519

Everett, Leonard 615

Grand Hotel 177

Haines, David 399

Hewitt, George W 415

Holmes, (1. A :!75

Lodge, O. F 585

M acrae, Donald 271

McGee.J. E. F 407

McMenomy, B. P 217

Murphy, J. A !>0:5

Mynster, C. 0. and Mrs. M :'.l!i

Officer, Thomas 4!C>

Pusey, W. H. M 4S7

Robrer, M. F ..255

Ross, L. W 351

Sapp, W. P ...428

Smith, E. C 208

Treynor, I. M 308

Van Brunt, II. II 38-t

Wadsworlh, S. 1! 887

Ware, W. II 867

Weaver, J. P. F :;4:t

Wells, Lucius 651

Wind, P. II 359

Wright, G. F 295




THE NEW YORK
'PUBLIC LIBRARY



-




GEORGE WASHINGTON.



-l-^EEL.^-^t.- l-.,^ _>k © Bcl<ryt^)l bg(g) ■4,_^_^_^ _ ? |. „^_^» l-_c^>.«n'|g is-3§!l





EORGE WASHING-
TON, the "Father of
his Country" and its
first President, 1789—
'97, was born Febru-
ary 22, 1732, in Wash-
ington Parish, West-
moreland Count y, Virginia.
His father, Augustine Wash-
ington, first married Jane But-
f^l^S^j ' er ' wno bore mm ' our chil-
^'wj$i clren - and March 6, 1730, he
married Mary Ball. Of six
children by his second mar-
riage, George was the eldest,
the others being Betty, Samuel, John, Au-
gustine, Charles and Mildred, of whom the
youngest died in infancy. Little is known
of the early years of Washington, beyond
the fact that the house in which he was
born was burned during his early child-
hood, and that "his father thereupon moved
to another farm, inherited from his paternal
ancestors, situated in Stafford County, on
the north bank of the Rappahannock, where
he acted as agent of the Principio Iron
Works in the immediate vicinity, and died
there in 1743.

From earliest childhood George devel-
oped a noble character. He had a vigorous
constitution, a fine form, and great bodily
strength. His education was somewhat de-



fective, being- confined to the elementary
branches taught him by his mother and at
a neighboring school. He developed, how-
ever, a fondness for mathematics, and en-
joyed in that branch the instructions of a
private teacher. On leaving school he re-
sided for some time at Mount Vernon with
his half brother, Lawrence, who acted as
his guardian, and who had married adaugh-
ter of his neighbor at Belvoir on the Poto-
mac, the wealthy William Fairfax, for some
time president of the executive council of
the colony. Both Fairfax and his son-in-law,
Lawrence Washington, had served with dis-
tinction in 1740 as officers of an American
battalion at the siege of Carthagena, and
were friends and correspondents of Admiral
Vernon, for whom the latter's residence on
the Potomac has been named. George's
inclinations were for a similar career, and a
midshipman's warrant was procured for
him, probably through the influence of the
Admiral ; but through the opposition of his
mother the project was abandoned. The
family connection with the Fairfaxes, how-
ever, opened another career for the young
man, who, at the age of sixteen, was ap-
pointed surveyor to the immense estates of
the eccentric Lord Fairfax, who was then
on a visit at Belvoir, and who shortly after-
ward established his baronial residence at
Grcenway Court, in the Shenandoah Valley.



PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES



Three years were passed by young Wash-
ington in a rough frontier life, gaining ex-
perience which afterward proved very es-
sential tn him.

In 1751, when the Virginia militia were
put under training with a view to active
service against France, Washington, though
only nineteen years of age, was appointed
Adjutant with the rank of Major. In Sep-
tember of that year the failing health of
Lawrence Washington rendered it neces-
sary for him to seek a warmer climate, and
Gorge accompanied him in a voyage to
Ba? ladoes. They returned early in 1752,
and Lawrence shortly afterward died, leav-
ing \\.< large property to an infant daughter.
In his will George was named one of the
executors and as eventual heir to Mount
Vernon, and by the death oi the infant niece
s 1 succeeded to that estate-.

On the arrival of Robert Dinwiddie as
Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia in 1752
the militia was reorganized, and tin- prov-
ini e divided into four districts. Washing-
ton was commissioned by Dinwiddie Adju-
tant-General of the Northern District in
17; ;, and in November of that year a most
important as well as hazardous mission was
assigned him. This was to proceed to the
Canadian posts recently established on
French Creek, near Lake Erie, to demand
in the name of the King of England the
withdrawal of the French from a territory
claimed by Virginia. This enterprise had
been declined by more than one officer,
since it involved a journey through an ex-
tensive and almost unexplored wilderness
in the occupancy of savage Indian tribes,
either hostile to the English, or of doubtful
attachment. Major Washington, however,
ted the commission with alacrity ; and.
npanied by Captain Cist, lie reached
Fort Le Bceul on French Creek, delivered
iiis dispatches and received reply, which, of
Course, was a polite refusal to surrender the
posts. This reply was of such a character



as to induce the Assembly of Virginia to
authorize the executive to raise a regiment
of 300 men for the purpose of maintaining
the asserted rights of the British crown
over the territory claimed. As Washing-
ton declined to be a candidate for that post,
the command of this regiment was given to
Colonel Joshua Fry, and Major Washing-
ton, at his own request, was commissioned
Lieutenant-Colonel. On the march to Ohio,
news was received that a party previously
sent to build a fort at the confluence of the
Monongahela with the Ohio had been
driven back by a considerable French force,
which had completed the work there be-
gun, and named it Fort Duquesnc, in honor
of the Marquis Duquesnc, then Governor
of Canada. This was the beginning of the
great " French and Indian war," which con-
t inued seven years. On the death of Colonel
Fry, Washington succeeded to the com-
mand of the regiment, and so well did he
fulfill his trust that the Virginia Assembly
commissioned him as Commander-in-Chief
of all the forces raised in the colony.

A cessation of all Indian hostility on the
frontier having followed the expulsion of
the French from the Ohio, the object of
Washington was accomplished and he re-
signed his commission as Commander-in-
Chief of the Virginia forces. He then pro-
ceeded to Williamsburg to take his seat in
the General Assembly, of which he had
been elected a member.

January 17, 1759. Washington married
Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, a young
and beautiful widow of great wealth, and de-
voted himself for the ensuing fifteen years
to the quiet pursuits of agriculture, inter-
rupted only by his annual attendance in
winter upon the Colonial Legislature at
amsburg, until summoned by his
country to inter upon that other arena in
which his fame was to become world wide.

It is unnecessary here to trace the details
of the struggle upon the question of local



CEottaE Washing ton.



ii



self-government, which, after ten years, cul-
minated by act of Parliament of the port of
Boston. It was at the instance of Virginia
that a congress of all the colonies was called
to meet at Philadelphia Septembers, 1 774.
to secure their common liberties — if possible
by peaceful means. To this Congress
Colonei Washington was sent as a dele-
gate. On dissolving in October, it recom-
mended the colonies to send deputies to
another Congress the following spring. In
the meantime several of the colonies felt
impelled to raise local forces to repel in-
sults and aggressions on the part of British
troops, so that on the assembling of the next
Congress, May 10, 1775, the war prepara-
tions of the mother country were unmis-
takable. The battles of Concord and Lex-
ington had been fought. Among the earliest
• acts, therefore, of the Congress was the
selection of a commander-in-chief of the
colonial forces. This office was unani-
mously conferred upon Washington, still a
member of the Congress. He accepted it
on June 19, but on the express condition he
should receive no salary.

He immediately repaired to the vicinity
of Boston, against which point the British
ministry had concentrated their forces. As
early as April General Gage had 3,000
troops in and around this proscribed city.
During the fall and winter the British policy
clearly indicated a purpose to divide pub-
lic sentiment and to build up a British party
in the colonies. Those who sided with the
ministry were stigmatized by the patriots
as " Tories," while the patriots took to them-
selves the name of " Whigs."

As early as 1776 the leading men had
come to the conclusion that there was no
hope except in separation and indepen-
dence. In May of that year Washington
wrote from the head of the army in New
York: "A reconciliation with Great Brit-
ain is impossible When I took

command of the army, I abhorred the idea



of independence ; but I am now fully satis-
tied that nothing else will save us."

It is not the object of this sketch to trace
the military acts of the patriot hero, to
whose hands the fortunes and liberties of
the United States were confided during the
seven years' bloody struggle that ensued
until the treaty of 1783, in which England
acknowledged the independence of each of
the thirteen States, and negotiated with
them, jointly, as separate sovereignties. The
merits of Washington as a military chief-
tain have been considerably discussed, espe-
cially by writers in his own country. Dur-
ing the war he was most bitterly assailed
for incompetency, and great efforts were
made to displace him ; but he never for a
moment lost the confidence of either the
Congress or the people. December 4, 1783,
the great commander took leave of his offi-
cers in most affectionate and patriotic terms,
and went to Annapolis, Maryland, where
the Congress of the States was in session,
and to that body, when peace and order
prevailed everywhere, resigned his com-
mission and retired to Mount Vernon.

It was in 1788 that Washington was called
to the chief magistracy of the nation. He
received every electoral vote cast in all the
colleges of the States voting for the office
of President. The 4th of March, 1789, was
the time appointed for the Government of
the United States to begin its operations,
but several weeks elapsed before quorums
of both the newly constituted houses of the
Congress were assembled. The city of New
York was the place where the Congress
then met. April 16 Washington left his
home to enter upon the discharge of his
new duties. He set out with a purpose ot
traveling privately, and without attracting
any public attention ; but this was impossi-
ble. Everywhere on his way he was met
with thronging crowds, eager to see the
man whom they regarded as the chief de-
fender of their liberties, and everywhere



PRESIDENTS OF THE r SITED STATES.



he was hailed with those public manifesta-
tions of joy, regard and love which spring
spontaneously from the hearts of an affec-
tionate and grateful people. His reception
in New York was marked by a grandeur
and an enthusiasm never before witnessed
in that metropolis. The inauguration took
place April 30,in the presence of an immense
multitude which had assembled to witness



Online LibraryLewis Publishing CompanyBiographical history of Pottawattamie County, Iowa. Containing portraits of all the presidents of the United States, with accompanying biographies ... history of Iowa, with ... biographies of the governors ... and engravings of prominent citizens of Pottawattamie County, with personal histories of m → online text (page 1 of 90)