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Lewis Randolph Hamersly.

A naval encyclopædia: comprising a dictionary of nautical words and phrases; biographical notices, and records of naval officers; special articles of naval art and science online

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COMPRISING



A DICTIONARY OF NAUTICAL WORDS AND PHRASES; BIOGRAPHICAL
NOTICES, AND RECORDS OF NAVAL OFFICERS;



SPECIAL ARTICLES ON NAVAL ART AND SCIENCE,



WRITTEN EXPRESSLY FOR THIS WORK



BY OFFICERS AND OTHERS OF RECOGNIZED AUTHORITY IN THE
BRANCHES TREATED BY THEM.



TOGETHER WITH



DESCRIPTIONS OF THE PRINCIPAL NAVAL STATIONS AND SEAPORTS OF THE WORLD.



COMPLETE IlSrONE VOLUME.




PHILADELPHIA:

L. R. HAMERSLY & CO.

1884.



Copyright, 1880, by L. B. HAMERSLY & Co.



PREFACE.



THE great abundance of encyclopaedias that distinguishes our day would, at first
sight, seem to discourage any attempt to add to that department of literature. But
among all the works coming properly under the name of encyclopaedia there is
not one, at least in the English language, that supplies the want which it is the aim
of this volume to meet. The sea is, so to speak, a world in itself. It has its own
vegetable and animal life, and its own natural laws; while on its surface floats a
multitude of vessels that serve either as the outlying defenses of the nations which
border upon it, or as the carriers of the commodities which they find a profit in
exchanging. This world of men and things, so peculiar and distinct, necessarily
has a peculiar language, peculiar customs, and peculiar belongings. It is, more
over, a progressive world, and the arts and sciences that have relation to it are
moving and developing pari passu with those that relate solely to the terrene por
tion of the globe. When to these considerations is added the fact that the sea is the
especial field of operations of a profession which unites in itself the characteristics of
the sailor and of the soldier, and to which is committed the high trust of maintaining
the honor and dignity of the nation which it represents in all parts of the globe, and
of extending over the citizens of its own country, wherever their business or pleasure
may call them, the protecting segis of the national flag, it would certainly appear
that sufficient warrant exists for the issuing of this work, which has for its object the
bringing together in one view, and within convenient compass, the several kinds of
information most useful to naval officers, and most likely to be sought for by sea
faring men of every name and grade. Nor is it only those that are by profession,
or calling, identified with the sea who will find profit and instruction in this volume.
There is a large and increasing class among the gentlemen of our own and other
countries who cultivate the sea for the pleasure that it yields, and who take a manly
delight in the danger and excitement incident to sporting upon its surface, to whom
a book like this must prove an auxiliary of great value. To these may be added,
as likely to find advantage in this book, all whose business, or love of knowledge,
prompts them to investigate the science of that world which has its habitation in,
under, or upon the waters of the great deep.

We have already intimated that this work claims to be unique. It embraces,
first, a complete dictionary of marine words and phrases; second, a large number of
original articles on special topics ; third, a copious fund of biographical data ; and,
fourth, a gazetteer of the principal naval stations and seaports of the world. No
other work uniting these several features exists in our language, nor, we think we
may confidently add, in any other.

Custom, no less than justice to those whose labors have produced the volume



iii



;i



iv PKEFACE.



now offered to the public, makes it proper to assign to the several collaborators the
credit due for their respective shares in its preparation.

To Mr. Lewis R. Hamersly, who saw service with the navy during the war of
the Rebellion, and who, as the compiler of " The Records of Living Officers of the
Navy," and as the head of the military and naval publishing house of L. R. Ham
ersly & Co., is well known to the naval profession, credit is due for the conception
and plan of the work, and also for the preparation of the general mass of records
of officers which it contains.

On Lieutenant J. W. Carlin has devolved the main burden of the editorial
conduct of the work. Besides numerous articles in other departments, he has ex
clusively written or compiled the astronomical articles and definitions, as also the
entire mass of nautical definitions not herein specifically credited to others.

Medical Director Edward Shippen, whose biographical sketches of distin
guished naval men of our own and former times constitute a feature of the work,
has, besides the articles bearing his signature, given it the benefit of his editorial
assistance in ways that have contributed largely to improve and perfect it.

Rear- Admiral George Henry Preble, besides the articles which appear over his
signature, has contributed the definitions of naval titles, and has greatly assisted the
work by his advice and encouragement.

Chief Engineer Albert Aston has contributed the general mass of definitions
relating to machinery and steam-engineering, and Passed Assistant Engineer L. W.
Robinson has also made valuable contributions to the same department.

To Naval Constructor S. H. Pook belongs the credit of having furnished the
definitions of the terms pertaining to ship-building.

Lieutenant E. T. Strong, in addition to the articles signed by him, has con
tributed the definitions of nautical and naval terms which occur under the letters
K, L, and T, respectively.

Lieutenant F. S. Bassett, in addition to the articles which appear over his sig
nature, has compiled, or written, the greater part of the definitions included under
the alphabetical headings F, S, W, and X.

In several departments of the work Colonel George A. Woodward, U.S.A.,
has assisted by contributions and editorial supervision.

The following is a list of the principal works consulted in the preparation of
this volume: Smyth s Sailor s Word-book, Falconer s Marine Dictionary, Burn s
Naval and Military Technical Dictionary, Cooper s Naval History, Bedford s
Sailor s Pocket-book, Luce s Seamanship, Nares s Seamanship, Totten s Naval Text
book, Dana s Seaman s Friend, Harbord s Glossary of Navigation, Bowditch s
Navigator, Loomis s Astronomy, Peabody s Astronomy, Proctor s Hand-book of
the Stars, Cooke s Naval Gunnery, Ordnance Instructions (1880), Lippincott s
Gazetteer, Wilson s Ship-building, Very s Navies of the World, King s War-ships
and Navies of the World, Knight s Mechanical Dictionary, Sleeman s Torpedoes and
Torpedo Warfare (Electricity), Myer s Manual of Signals, Navy Regulations, Web
ster s Dictionary, Worcester s Dictionary, Brande s Encyclopaedia, Chambers s En
cyclopaedia, Appleton s Encyclopaedia, Johnson s Encyclopaedia, Kent s Commen
taries, Sharswood s Blackstone.



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS AND ARTICLES.



AMMEN, DANIEL, Kear-Admiral U.S.N.
Balsa.

Canals, Interoceanie.
Cushing, W. B. ; Commander U.S.I*.
Life-boats and Life-rafts.
Marine Rams.

ASTON, ALBERT, Chief Engineer U.S.N.
Compound Engine.
Compound Screw.
Condenser.
Crank.

Expansion of Steam.
Marine Steam-boiler.
Marine Steam-engine.
Ship-building, Iron.

BASSETT, F. S., Lieutenant U.S.N.

Barren, James, Commodore U.S.N.

Barry, John, Commodore U.S.N.

Bay.

Cape.

Continents.

Currents.

Decatur, Stephen, Commodore U.S.N.

Elliott, Jesse Duncan, Commodore U.S.N.

Exploring Expeditions.

Fire-ships and Bafts, Explosion-vessels and

Booms.
Gulf.

Hopkins, Esek, Commodore U.S.N.
Hull, Isaac, Commodore U.S.N.
Islands.
Lake.

Lawrence, James, Commodore U.S.N".
Oceans.

, Perry, M. C., Commodore U.S.N.
Perry, O. H., Commodore U.S.N.
Bivers.

Boutine of Duty in a Man-of-war.
Sea.
Ship.
Sound.

Stewart, Charles, Commodore U.S.N.
Wilkes, Charles, Bear-Admiral U.S.N.

BELKNAP, GEORGE E., Captain U.S.N.
Deep-sea Sounding.
Navy-yard, Pensacola.

BLACK, C. H., Lieutenant-Commander U<S.N.
Compass, The Mariner s.

BLODGETT, LORIN, Esq. .
Commerce, Modern.

BLOODGOOD, DELAVAN. Medical Inspector

U.S.N.
Naval Hospital, Brooklyn.



BROOKE, J. M., Professor Virginia Military In
stitute.
Ordnance.

BROWN, B. M. G., Lieutenant U.S.N.
Nebular Hypothesis.
Porter, D. IX, Admiral U.S.N.
Submarine Mines.
Torpedo-boat.
Torpedoes.
Torpedo Station.

BROWNE, J. M., Medical Director U.S.N.
Naval Hospital, Mare Island.

CARPENTER, JOHN T., M.D., President of the

Pennsylvania State Medical Society.
Hospital Gangrene.
Scurvy.

CHAD WICK, F. E., Lieutenant-Commander

U.S.N.

Coast Guard of Great Britain.
Naval Training Systems^ Foreign.
Beserve, Boyal Naval.

COCHRANE, H. C., Captain U.S.M.C.
Court-martial.
Court-martial, Summary.
Inquiry, Court of.
Judge-advocate.
Judge-advocate-general.
Marine Corps.
Oaths

Pardoning Power.
Provost-marshal.
Witness.

COLHOUN, E. B., Commodore U.S.N.
Navy-yard, Mare Island.

COLLUM, B. S., Captain U.S.M.C.
Marine Corps, Foreign.

COLVOCORESSES, G. P., Lieutenant U.S.N.
Chart.
Sketching.

DICKINS, F. W., Lieutenant-Commander U.S.N.
Naval Academies.

Dow, JESSE E.

Navy Department.

Navy, Volunteer, of the United States.

DULIN, JAMES C.

Examination of Officers for Promotion and
Betirement in the Navy, Board of.



vi



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS AND ARTICLES.



EMMONS, G. F., Rear-Admiral U.S.N.
Navy of the United States, 1775-1812.

ETTING, THEODORE M.
Marine Insurance.
Maritime Law.

FARRAGUT, LOYALL.

Farragut, David Glasgow, Admiral U.S.N.

FRANKLIN, S. R., Captain U.S.N.

Hydrographer to the Bureau of Navigation.
Hydrographic Office.

GALT, W. W., Assistant Paymaster U.S.N.
Naval Station, Key West.

GLASS, HENRY, Commander U.S.N.
School-ships, Nautical.

GREEN, F. M., Lieutenant-Commander U.S.N.
Hydrography.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Navigation.
Sextant.

HANFORD, F., Lieutenant U.S.N.
Naval Lyceum.
Navy-yard, Brooklyn, N. T.

HILL, WALTER N.
Explosives.

HOFF, WILLIAM BAINBRIDGE, Lieutenant-
Commander U.S.N.
Bainbridge, William, Commodore U.S.N.

HORD, W. T., Medical Director U.S.N.
Naval Hospital, Chelsea.

HUTCHINS, C. T., Lieutenant U.S.N.
Anchor.

JOHNSON, A. B., Chief Clerk Light-House

Board.
Light-house Establishment.

KIDDER, J. H., Surgeon U.S.N.
Dry Rot.
Yellow Fever.

KUNHARDT, C. P.

Yachts and Yachting.

LUCE, S. B., Captain U.S.N.
Administration, Naval.
Admiralty.
Anchoring.
Commission.
Corvette.

Emergencies at Sea.
Government, Naval.
Mooring.
Naval Songs.
Naval Tactics.
Naval Training System.
Organization.

LULL, E. P., Commander U.S.N.
Coast and Geodetic Survey.



LYLE, D. A., Lieutenant U.S.A.
Wreck-artillery.

LYON, H. W., Lieutenant U.S.N.
Guns, Casting of.
Projectiles.

MANSFIELD, C. D., Paymaster U.S.N.
Pay Corps, U.S.N.

MASON, T. B. M., Lieutenant U.S.N.
Diving.

Landing-parties.
Naval Brigade.
Naval Institute.
Organization.

MASSIE, A. H.

Navy-yard, Boston.

McBLAIR, C. H.

Navy of the Southern Confederacy.

MERRYMAN, J. H., Captain U.S.R.M.
Revenue Marine Service.

METCALFE, HENRY, Captain U.S.A.
Machine-guns.
Magazine-guns.

NELSON, THOMAS, Lieutenant-Commander

U.S.N.
Storms.

NOEL, J. E., Lieutenant-Commander U.S.N.
Lead.
Log.
Navigator.

OLIVER, PAUL A.
Gunpowder.

PEARSE, JOHN B., Manager South Boston Iron

Company.
Iron and Steel.

POOK, S. H., Naval Constructor U.S.N.
Ship, Launching of.

PREBLE, G. H., Rear-Admiral U.S.N,
Admiral.
Captain.
Naval Titles.
Registers, U.S.N.
Salutes.

SANDS, F. P. B.

Preston, Samuel N., and Porter, Benjamin
H., Lieutenants U.S.N.

SIDDONS, J. H.

Biographical Sketches.
Great Britain, Navy of.

SHIPPEN, E., Medical Director U.S.N.
Asylum, Naval, of the United States.
Bart, Jean.
Decres, Denis.
Doria, Andrea.
Duguay, Tronin Rene".
Duquesne, Abraham, Marquis.
Exmouth, Viscount.



LIST OF CONTKIBUTOES AND ARTICLES.



vii



SHIPPEN, E. Continued.
Forbin, Claude.
Kane, Elisha Kent.
La Perouse.
La Vallette.

L Isle, Adam Phillipe de.
Medical Corps of U. S. Navy.
Medical Officers of U. S. Navy, Duties of.
Quarantine.

Euyter, Michel Adrianzoon Van.
Sargasso Sea.
Ship Fever.
Sick-bay.
Sufferin.
Tourville.
Tromp, Von.
Villeneuve.

SIMPSON, E., Commodore TJ.S.N.
Armor.
Ironclads.

SOLEY, J. EUSSELL, Professor U.S.N.
International Law.

STEVENS, T. H. ? Eear- Admiral IT.S.N.
Navy of the United States, 1812-80.
Eowan, S. C., Vice-Admiral U.S.N.

STOCKTON, H. T., Lieutenant TJ.S.N.
Armor, Compound.
Clubs, British Service.

STRONG, E. T., Lieutenant U.S.N.
Capstan.
Dock.



STRONG, E. T. Continued.
Masting.
Masts.

Preparing for Sea.
Eope.
Eope-walk.
Eudder.
Sails.

Small-stuff.
Tackles.

Telegraph-cables.
Getting under Way.

TODD, D. P.

Almanac, The Nautical.
Ephemeris, The Astronomical.

TRUXTUN, W. T., Captain U.S.N.
Executive-officer.

UPSHUR, J. H., Commodore U.S.N.
Inspection, Board of.

VERY, EDWARD W., Lieutenant U.S.N.
Signals.

WHITFIELD, "W. E., Ensign U.S.N.
Naval Station, Port Eoyal.

WILSON, JOSEPH, Medical Director U.S.N.
Hygiene, Naval.

WOOD, WM. MAXWELL, Lieutenant U.S.N.
Life-boats and Boat-detaching Apparatus.



THE following is a summary of the contents of the book :

I. A complete Dictionary of Nautical Terms and Phrases.
II. Biographical Notices of Distinguished Naval Officers of our own and foreign services.

III. Special Articles prepared expressly for this work by officers and others of recognized

ability in their respective fields of, discussion, and comprehending the freshest and
most authentic information attainable respecting the several subjects treated.

IV. A Gazetteer of the Principal Naval Stations and Seaports of the World.

V. A Supplement containing concise Kecords of Living Officers of the Navy, including
Captains, Commanders, Lieutenant-Commanders and Lieutenants, and Staff-Officers
of relative rank. The records of Flag-Officers are included in the body of the work.



viii



A NAVAL ENCYCLOPAEDIA.



A.




A. Abbreviation for after in the U. S. Gen
eral Service Code of Signals. Contraction for
at, on, or in, as, a-stern, a-shore, a-poise.

A 1. The highest class of excellence in mer
chant vessels. See CLASSIFICATION OF MER
CHANT VESSELS.

Aalborg. A city and seaport of Denmark, in
Jutland, on the south shore of the Lymfiord,
near its mouth, in the Cattegat. Lat. 57 2
46" N. ; Ion. 9 55 38" E. Pop. 11,721.

Aarhuus. A seaport of Denmark, in Jutland,
on the Cattegat, at the mouth of the Molle-Aue,
37 miles S.E. of Viborg. Lat. 56 9 27" N. ;
Ion. 10 12 46" E. Pop. 15,000.

A. B. An abbreviation signifying Able Sea
man. See ABLE.

Abab. A Turkish sailor who plies in coasting
craft.

Aback. The situation of a sail when the wind
acts on its forward surface. The sails are laid
aback, or thrown aback, by hauling in the weather-
braces or by putting the helm down, or both.
They are caught aback, or taken aback, by a shift
of wind, or by inattention at the helm. Flat
aback means that the wind acts nearly at a right
angle to the forward surface of the sail. Taken
aback is also used figuratively for being taken by
surprise. All aback forward is the notice from
the forecastle that the head-sails have been taken
aback. Brace aback is the order given to swing
the yards and lay the sails aback.

Abaft. Behind. Abaft the beam, astern of a
line forming a right angle with the keel.

Abaka. "The fibre of which Manilla rope is
made.

Abandon. To relinquish to underwriters all
claim to property which may be recovered from
shipwreck, capture, or any other peril stated in
the policy. To desert a vessel on account of the
danger in remaining on board.

Abatement. A demand for a reduction of
freight when unforeseen causes have delayed or
hindered the performance of a stipulated charter-
party.

Abeam. Opposite the centre of the ship s
side ; on a line which forms a right angle with
the keel.

Aberration. The apparent displacement of
the stars, caused by the motion of the earth
combined with the motion of light. The devia



tion of the rays of light from the principal focus
of a lens.

Abet. To excite, encourage, or assist.

Able. Competent ; strong. Able Seaman, a
rating on the ship s books. He must be compe
tent to perform all the duties required of a sailor.

Able-whackets. A sea game, in which the
loser is beaten over the hands with a handker
chief, tightly twisted.

Aboard. On board ; inside, or upon a ship.
Residing afloat. To keep the land aboard is to
hug the shore. To fall aboard of is for one
vessel to foul another. To lay an enemy aboard
is to run into or alongside of him. To haul the
tacks aboard is to set the courses.

About. To go about is to change the course of
a ship by tacking. Ready about, or boutship, is
the order to prepare for tacking.

Abox. The position of the head-yards when
they are braced aback, the after-sails remaining
full. Brace-abox, the order to lay the head-yards
abox. This is done in boxhauling and occa
sionally in heaving-to, but is more generally
done to box the ship s head off from the wind
after she has been caught aback, or after she has
missed stays.

Abraham-men. An English cant term for
vagabonds who, under pretence of being desti
tute mariners, beg about the dock. A malin
gerer wanting to go on the sick-list is said to
"sham Abraham."

Abrase. To dub or smooth planks.

Abreast. Side by side ; opposite to ; parallel
with. Line abreast, a formation in which the
ships are abeam of each other.

Abri. (Fr.) Cove; shelter; under the lee;
a safe anchorage on a weather shore.

Abrid. A pintle-plate.

Abroach. On tap ; in use.

Abroad. On a foreign station ; in a foreign
country. An old word for spread; as, all sail
abroad,

Abrupt. Steep ; broken ; craggy ; as, of cliffs
and headlands.

Absence. State of being absent. Leave of
absence, permission of the proper authority to be
absent from post or duty for a specified time.
Absence without leave, with manifest intention
not to return, is desertion. When there is a
probability that the party intends to return, he

13



ABSORPTION



14



ACADEMIES



is to be considered a straggler for ten days, at
the expiration of which he is to be regarded as a
deserter.

Absorption. A term formerly used for the
sinking of islands and tracts of land Subsi
dence.

Abstract. An abridgment of the contents
of a book or document.

A-burton. The situation of casks when
stowed athwartships.

Abut. When two planks are joined endwise
they are said to butt or abut against each other.
Abutting-joint is a joint where the pieces come
together at a right angle.

Abutment. The breech-block of a fire-arm.

Abyme. The site of constant whirlpools, as
the Maelstrom was supposed to be. An abyss.

Abyss. A depth without bottom.

Academies, Naval. The United States Naval
Academy at Annapolis was founded and formally
opened on October 10, 1845. On August 7, 1845,
Mr. George Bancroft, Secretary of the Navy
under President James K. Polk, issued instruc
tions to Commander Buchanan for the opening
of the school. The War Department had pre
viously transferred to the naval authorities the
site and buildings of Fort Severn, one of the
defenses of Annapolis harbor, at the mouth of
the Severn Kiver, in the State of Maryland.
The first step was to collect the midshipmen,
who, from time to time, were on shore, and give
them occupation in the study of subjects essential
to the education of a naval officer. In October,
1849, a board of officers was convened to reor
ganize the institution, and to make it conform,
as nearly as possible, to the system pursued at
the Military Academy at West Point. The
course of instruction and the regulations were
revised, and the title of the institution was
changed from Naval School to U. S. Naval
Academy. In November, 1851, the course of
study was fixed at four years. A practice-vessel
was attached to the Academy for summer cruis
ing, and a Board of Visitors was provided for,
to attend the annual examinations, and to report
upon the condition of the school. After the
breaking out of the civil war, in May, 1861, the
Academy, with all its apparatus and personnel,
was transferred to Newport, R. I., where it re
mained until September, 1865, when it was re
turned to Annapolis. The programme of studies
was then rearranged to conform more closely to
modern ideas, and remains practically unaltered
at this date. The course of instruction embraces
the following studies, viz. : seamanship, which
includes naval construction, naval tactics, prac
tical exercises, signals, swimming, gymnastics,
etc. ; ordnance and gunnery, which includes
infantry tactics, field-artillery and boat-howitzer
exercise, great guns, mortar practice, and fencing;
mathematics, which comprises algebra, geometry,
trigonometry, analytical geometry, descriptive
geometry, and calculus ; steam engineering, com
prising practical exercises, theory of steam-engine,
and fabrication and designing of machinery ;
astronomy, navigation, and surveying; physics
and chemistry ; mechanics and applied mathe
matics, which includes, besides mechanics, the
differential and integral calculus, and theoretical
naval architecture; English studies, history and
law ; modern languages, French and Spanish ;
drawing, comprising right-line, free-hand and



perspective, topographical, and chart making.
On June 1, 1880, the personnel of the Academy
was as follows : commanding officer and staff,
including medical and pay officers and chap
lain, 12; instructors, 46 commissioned officers
and 15 civilians, 61 ; civil officers, including
secretary, librarian, clerks, etc., 14 ; marine
officers, 3 ; warrant-officers, 2 ; and 7 mates at
tached to the gunnery -ship and practice-vessels ;
total staff of the Academy, 99 ; number of cadet
midshipmen, 253 ; of cadet engineers, 99 ; total
of. students, 352; aggregate, 451. The list of
successive superintendents is as follows : 1st,
Commander Franklin Buchanan, 1845-47 ; 2d,
Commander George P. Upshur, 1847-50; 3d,
Captain C. K. Strihling, 1850-53 ; 4th, Captain
L. M. Goldsborough, 1853-57 ; 5th, Commodore
George S. Blake, 1857-65 ; 6th, Vice-Admiral
D. D. Porter, 1865-69 ; 7th, Rear-Admiral John
L. Worden, 1869-74 ; 8th, Rear-Admiral C. R.
P. Rodgers, 1874-78 ; 9th, Commodore Foxhall
A. Parker, 1878-79. In June, 1879, Commodore
Parker died, and was succeeded by Rear-Admiral
George B. Balch as the tenth superintendent. In
1865 two classes of cadet engineers, not to exceed
50 in the aggregate, were admitted into the Acad
emy. The duration of their course was, until June
1, 1873, two years. By act of Congress, approved
February 24, 1874, their course was lengthened
to four years, and the number of classes increased
to four. The examinations of candidates for cadet
engineers are competitive. Candidates must be
between 16 and 20 years of age, and of sound
body. The number of appointments that can be
made is limited by law to 25 each year. The
academic examination previous to appointment
is on the following subjects, namely : arithmetic,
algebra, through equations of the first degree,
plane geometry, natural philosophy, reading,
writing, spelling, grammar, composition, geog
raphy, free-hand drawing, and the elementary
principles governing the action of the steam-
engine. Candidates who possess the best knowl
edge of machinery, other qualifications being
equal, have precedence for admission. The pay
of cadet engineers while at the Academy is $500
per annum. After the academic course, two
years sea-service is required before being eligible
to be commissioned as assistant engineers, and
then only as vacancies occur. The studies of
cadet engineers at the Academy consist of math
ematics, analytical mechanics, theory and prac
tice of steam engineering, physics and chemistry,
French and Spanish, drawing, designing of ma
chinery, naval architecture, and practice in the
workshops. On March 3, 1873, Congress passed a
law changing the duration of the course for cadet
midshipmen from four to six years, to apply to
the class admitted in 1873 and to all subsequent
classes. Four years of the six are passed in
completing the academic course, the remaining
two years are passed at sea on board a regular
cruising-vessel, after which they return to the
Academy and are required to pass the following
final graduating examination: physical, ord
nance, naval tactics, navigation, French and
Spanish, seamanship, and steam. The marks of
this examination, combined with those of the
academic course, determine the graduating num
ber; and passing successfully, the cadet midship
man becomes a midshipman, and he is then
eligible to be commissioned an ensign when va-



Online LibraryLewis Randolph HamerslyA naval encyclopædia: comprising a dictionary of nautical words and phrases; biographical notices, and records of naval officers; special articles of naval art and science → online text (page 1 of 219)