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and the Capitoline Museum, the ' Kore *
of the Villa Albani and the still earlier
bronze statuette of *Kore' in Vienna.



The latter work— ^/^/w d. Antiken'
Samml, IVien^ Taf, 26 — is an early ex-
ample of the style of drapery that appears
on theEleusmian reliefs and of which the
figure of Kore on the vase of Perugia is
perhaps the earliest (Roscher, Lexik»n,

2, p. 1370) : it appears again in the
Villa Albani sutue. But neither of
these works nor the 'Kore' of the
Duval Collection (Ruhland, op. dt.

3. 3) nor the * Kore' of Venice (ib. a.
3) show us any attribute or character-
istic expression that reveals the person-
ality of the goddess. The same is true
of the Cherchel figure — a striking
'Pheidian* work earlier than the Par-
thenon^and of the Berlin statues;
they agree merely in drapery with the
Demeter on the great Eleusinian relief;
but this style was a ' Pheidian ' fashion
and was freely used for different person-
alities, e. g. in the Samos- Athens relief,
Brunn-Bruckmann, 475*. The Man-
tinean relief shows us one of the muses
draped in the style of Kore. Certainly



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iv] IDEAL TYPES OF DEMETER-KORE 267

the two goddesses which Attic rehgious sculpture had created
before the end of the fifth century for the service of Eleusis,
and which was evidently of considerable repute, for we find
many free reproductions of it in different materials, and even
outside Attica*. The group consists of the mother seated
either on the mystic casket or on the stone border of the well
as she once sat in her sorrow or more rarely on a throne : the
daughter stands by her, in front or behind, on her right or left,
with torches. The transitional period has left us a notable
example of this, as we have seen, and the later ages loved to
reproduce it. We have found it on many of the mystery-
vases of the fifth and fourth century, and it appears on certain
fragments of the Panathenaic amphorae, on reliefs of the
fourth century which attest its prominence in the public
religion, and finally on the well-known reh'ef of Lakrateides
now that the fragments of this large and important monument
have been skilfully pieced together (PL II).

These derivatives vary in many details and in the relative
position of the figures ; all that we can conclude with some
security concerning the original is that it was a free group of
sculpture of the transitional period representing the mother
enthroned and holding a sceptre and the daughter standing
by her with torches. And this may have given birth to a new
and attractive theme, Kore standing before Demeter and
pouring her a libation, which we can discern in the fragments
of a cylix of the finest Attic style of the earlier part of the
fifth century \

The group which has just been examined together with its

the Capitoline statue (Overbeck, AtlaSy article in Aih, Miith, 1 892, p. 1 26 ; to the

14. 20) agrees in pose and gesture as material which he there collected may

well as drapery with the Demeter in be added the fragments of an Eleusinian

the relief (PI. XIV), but in the absence vase of the later red-figured style

of significant attribute and expression published Eph, Arch, 1901, IIiV. 2;

the similarity is not sufficient to prove and another fragment of a vase from

identity of personality; witness the Eleusis published by Philios in Ath,

identity of pose in the 'Demeter' of Mitth, XS95, p. 249.
the south metope of the Parthenon and ^ Afon. d, Imt, 6, Tav. 4 ; cf. the

the daughter of Pelias in the famous fragments of a vase published Ath,

Lateron relief. Mitth. i8Sr, Taf. 4, on which we can

* QL supra, pp. 226, 260 : Wde Kern's detect the same scene.



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268 GREEK RELIGION [chaf.

cognate works, an achievement of the Attic art of the fifth
century, made an important contribution to the development
of the ideal conception of the two goddesses ; for it emphasized
the distinction, which was rarely expressed in the monuments
of this period, between the more august and matronal form
and pose of the mother and the younger and virginal type
of Kore*.

The most striking example in free sculpture preserved to us
from the age of Pheidias, of this ideil of the elder goddess, is
the marble statue now in the Jacobsen collection at Copenhagen
(PI. XXVIII), which appears to be a Roman copy of an
original of the great period of Attic religious art : Demeter is
seated and draped majestically in Ionic diploidion and mantle
across her knees, holding poppies and corn-ears in her left hand,
with a crown above her forehead and a veil falling down behind
her head. The expression appears benign, but it is difficult
to say how far the copy has here preserved the character of the
original. We can at all events discern in the whole figure
the impress of the great style that appears in the sculpture of
the Parthenon and that could imprint a profoundly religious
aspect upon the works of this age. And the work has this
further interest for us that we can regard the great Cnidian
statue, the most perfect development of the Demeter-idcal, as
in some sense a descendant from it^

The Pheidian school then, we may be fairly certain, occupied
itself with this theme ; but as the original works have almost
perished, we cannot estimate exactly how far they were able
to work out a characteristic expression distinctive of the
countenance of the goddess ; or to determine whether it was
they who imparted to it that look of benign brightness that

* This appears slightly bat delicately {Cults, vol. i, p. 239), really repre-

indicated in the vase from Perugia sents Demeter. The similarity between

published in Roscher's Lexikon, 2, the two does not seem to me to prove

p. 1370, Fig. 17. identity of person; and even when we

^ Helbig in Fiihnr, no. 874, and are dealing with Greek art of the fourth

Bloch in Roscher's Ltxikon, 3> p. 1360 century it is not always possible to

consider the Jacobsen statue to prove distinguish between a Demeter and a

that the later Ludovisi head, which Hera when there is no external attribute

I have described in accordance with the to decide,
common opinion as a head of Hera



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iv] . IDEAL TYPES OF DEMETER-KORE 269

appears in certain terracotta images of this period found in
Attica and elsewhere, one of the most typical of which is
produced on Plate XXIX a'. We may surmise that this softer
style aiming at a gentler and less austere effect commended
itself rather to the handicraftsmen in clay modelling than to
the great masters of this age in monumental marble and
bronze ^.

After all, for us at least, the highest achievement of the
Hellenic imagination, so far as it was occupied in the fifth
century with the forms of the two goddesses, is preserved by
the coins rather than by the sculpture. It is specially the
coinage of Kyzikos and in a still higher degree of perfection
the medallions and tetradrachms of Syracuse that present
us with the finest types. The Cyziccne electron stater
published by Head ^ shows us a striking countenance of the
mother-goddess wearing a coif on her head and apparently
crowned with corn: the strong and broad treatment of the
forms, the lines of the eyebrow, the outlines of chin and cheek,
reveal the style of the great age, combined with a suggestion
of gentleness in the pose of the head (Coin PL no. 9).

The study of the Syracusan coins that show us Demeter-
Persephone is one of the most fascinating in the range of
Greek numismatics ; and while a full estimate of their artistic
and historic value is beyond our present scope, they concern
us intimately here as the religious memorials of a community
devoted to the worship of these goddesses, and containing
coin-engravers who surpassed their brethren of the craft
throughout all Hellas in cunning delicacy of hand and per-
fection of achievement within the narrow limits of the art.
These Sjn^cusan types of this age, which are roughly con-
temporaneous, may be distinguished according as they present
the type of the goddess of the early corn or the goddess
of the harvest ; but this distinction is not one between Demeter,
the mother-deity of matronly forms and of expression deepened
by experience, and the young virgin of the spring. The

• Bought by Ler.ormant at Elcusis *» Cf. supra, p. 221.

and published in Henzey, Terres cuius « I Hit, Num, p. 451.

du Louvre J PI. iS.



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270 GREEK RELIGION [chap.

former ideal does not seem to have attracted the Syracusan
engravers either of this or the later period ; they chose only
the type of the youthful goddess, Kore or Demcter-Chloe,
and the changes of the seasons which she controlled are only
expressed by the different texture of the crown which she
wears. Thus Persephone of the harvest wears a garland of
corn-spikes and ears on a striking tetrad rachm, probably
earlier than 409 B.c.% which shows us a noble head of large
style in the treatment of the features and with exuberant
rendering of the hair (Coin PI. no. 15) : the artist is unknown,
but we may trace the effects of this impressive work surviving
in Syracusan coin-dies of a later period ^ Another and
independent example of the face of the harvest-goddess is the
coin-type of Eumenes, of higher artistic merit but struck about
the same time (Coin PI. no. 16) : the crown she wears here is
woven of the autumn growths of field and wood and is identical
with that on the coin of Phrygillos mentioned above ; the hair
is more severely treated than in the type just described and
assists the impression of strength and firm character which
the features convey. There is intellectual power stamped on
the forehead and brow, but no benignity — rather a proud
reserve — in the face. And in this respect the head of
Eumenes has affinities with the work of his greater con-
temporary Euainetos.

The chef'iVceuvrc of the latter artist is the engraving of the
famous medallions that bear the signature Evaii;<Vov with the
head of Persephone on the obverse and the four-horsed car
with the flying Victory and the panoply on the reverse,
commemorative in all probability of the triumph over the
Athenians ^ The type, of which an example from the British
Museum is figured on Coin PI. no. 17, has been till recently
regarded as the master-achievement of Syracusan art and
unrivalled perhaps by any other product of glyptic technique.



* Gardner, Types ^ PI. 6. 19. has been discussed with great acumen
^ e.g. the Syracusan coins of Pjrrbns and appreciation by Dr. Arthur Evans

and Agathocles (Coin PI. no. 24). in his treatise on ' the Syracusan Mcdal-

* The chronology, historical signi* lions and their Engrafers.*
ficance, and artistic value of these coins



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iv] IDEAL TYPES OF DEMETER-KORE 271

Its fame went far and wide, and it was borrowed for their coin-
device by many Greek states and even by Carthage. The
formal beauty of the countenance, the artistic fineness in the
detail combined with a certain largeness of manner natural to
the great age, justify the highest estimate of the work. As
regards that which more immediately is the present concern,
the aspect of the divinity which the artist wished to present,
the same ideal of the earth-goddess possesses the artist as
before : Korc is shown us in her fresh virginal beauty, without
emotion in the face but with that touch of aloofness and
reserve which is commonly sotn in the divine types of the
fifth century : and the crown she wears is the symbol not of
harvest but of the promise of the spring, for it is woven of the
waving blades of the young corn. The hair is bound up as in
the work of Eumenes, in keeping with the maidenly severity
of the whole ; but certain locks are allowed to play freely as
if the wind of spring were about her head.

In fact the medallion of Euainetos might stand for the
perfect embodiment of the Greek maiden-goddess of the spring,
were it not that the fortunate discovery made some years ago
of a hoard on Mount Etna has revealed to us a sister-type
even more remarkable for its beauty and execution. This is
a medallion in the private possession of Dr. Evans, the Keeper
of the Ashmolean Museum, figured on Coin PI. no. 1 8, unique
among the products of the engraver's art for its delicacy of
execution and a certain daring of imagination. Its qualities
have been so eloquently described, and its place in the
numismatic history of Syracuse so critically determined by
its possessor, that there is little that can be added here. He
has convincingly shown that in spite of its salient resemblance
to the type of Euainetos, it is the creation of an unknown and
in some respects greater artist, to whom Euainetos was in
a great measure indebted. There is the same ideal here as in
the former work, but expressed with greater lightness and fine-
ness of touch and with more of the freedom and fullness of
life : the treatment of the hair is astonishing for the impression
it conveys of the fanning of * the meadow-gale in spring,' and
the locks encircling the corn-stalks show us the artist rejoicing



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272 CREEK RELIGION [ch.\p.

in his power and the play of his fancy. Yet the character of
the countenance is mainly the same as in the work of
Euainetos : in spite of its surpassing loveliness it remains free
\ ^ from sensuousness, severe and pure. And there is something

added to the characteristic pride in the expression ; a touch of
melancholy has been rightly detected in the drooping comers
of the lips, as if the artist might have wished to hint at the
other side of her destiny.

We find then that the art of the fifth century and especially
the numismatic art created at last for Korc a type of virginal
beauty, scarcely touched with emotion, severely perfect in
form, and in a sense pagan — if such a word is ever in place —
because it embodied for the imagination the physical glory
of the earth more palpably than any of the forces of our moral
and spiritual life.

By the end of this period and by the beginning of the
fourth century a distinct type for the mother-goddess is
gradually emerging. She is given usually the veil and the
maturer forms proper to maternity, and the countenance is
marked with emotion and the impress of experience. The full
embodiment of the highest conception of her was reserved, as
we shall see, for the sculpture of the younger Attic school, but
corn-engraving, still a worthy rival of the greater arts, con-
tributed its part. The small Lesbian * hektae ' of the beginning
of the fourth century have preserved an interesting representa-
tion of the veiled Demeter (Coin PI. no. 19) : the ample brow,
large surface of cheek, and strong chin are inherited from the
older style, but the deep-cut eyesockcts and a certain maturity
in the contours impart a special character to the face ; there is
a shadow upon it and yet a certain brightness proper to the
corn-mother in the upturned gaze •. To nearly the same age
belongs a striking coin-type of Lampsacos, showing a head
which, in spite of the absence of the veil, we can recognize as
Demeter rather than Persephone on account of the fullness of
the features, the shadow thrown on the face by the deep

• Brit, A/us, Cat. Mysia, 19. i ; cf. head of Demeter with a markedly
the Amphictyoniccoia(CoinPl.no. 13) benign and bright expression.
B.C. 346, on which we see a veiled



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iv] IDEAL TYPES OF DEMETER-KORE 273

cutting, and the expression of thought and experience
(Coin PI. no. 20).

But the coins have not yet shown to us that countenance of
Demeter with which Clemens of Alexandria was familiar, the
visage known to us aitb 1^5 orjuK^opay, by the touch of sorrow
upon it. The earliest example of this trait which is very
rarely found in the existing numismatic monuments is a small
Cyzicene coin •, which shows the veiled head and the upturned
visage with eye and mouth wrought so as to hint unmistakably
at the suffering of the bereaved mother (Coin PI. no. 21).

On the other hand, the daughter is usually characterized on
the fourth-century coins by the fresh youth fulness of her
features, sometimes by a certain exuberance of beauty, occa-
sionally by a rich luxuriance of hair and a look of bright
joyousness. A special and historically interesting series of
coins of this period are those which follow the tradition
of Euainetos. The influence of his creation is seen on the
dies of the Locri Opuntii, of Pheneos and Messene (Coin
PL nos. 22, 23, 10) ; but the forms are simplified, the minute
gem-like delicacy of the original has disappeared, and the
severity of expression is somewhat softened.

Another characteristic type of Persephone-head in the fourth
century also bears affinity to an earlier Syracusan type, that
namely of which an example has been given on Coin PI. no. 15.
What IS specially distinctive here is the rich framework of hair
that encases the whole countenance and flows down in waves
upon the neck, giving a marked picturesque effect which is
enhanced by the crown of corn. The coins of Agathocles and
Pyrrhus struck at Syracuse show us the endurance ^f this art-
form in its native place (Coin PL no. 24 Pyrrhus). But the most
beautiful example of it is found on the fourth-century coins of
Metapontum (Coin PL no. 25); this characteristic rendering of the
hair is here in perfect accord with the exuberant charm of the
fece, in which the succulent freshness of youth is lit up with
an inner brightness that attests the divinity. Nowhere among

* Published and well described by Prof. Gardner, Types, PI. 10. 14,
p. 174.

FARSELL. Ill T



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274 CREEK RELIGION [chap.

the monuments of the fourth century do we find any h^her
ideal of the spring-goddess than this.

But it would be wrong to give the impression that the
numismatic artists of this period were always careful to dis-
tinguish — in such a manner as the above works indicate —
between mother and daughter. The old idea of their unity
of substance still seemed to linger as an art-tradition : the
very type we have just been examining appears on a fourth-
century coin of Hermione *, and must have been used here to
designate Demeter Chthonia who was there the only form
that the corn-goddess assumed. And even at Metapontum,
where coin-engraving was long a great art, a youthful head
crowned with com, which in its own right and on account of
its resemblance to the masterpiece of Euainetos could claim
the name of Kore, is actually inscribed * Damater ' ^

Turning now to the monuments of plastic art, we find the
record of the earlier part of the fourth century as silent as that
of the fifth concerning a Demeter or a Kore wrought by any of
the great masters in marble and bronze. We may surmise
that the image of the benign and tender mother was in the
mind of Kephissodotos when he carved his beautiful group of
Eirene holding the infant ; certainly it is thus that we should
imagine the Attic Demeter of this generation, and indeed the
form of Eirene is closely akin to the Eleusinian ideal of
Demeter which has been already noticed ^ But it is not till
the period of Praxiteles that the record speaks clearly.

There is reason for supposing that the consummation of the
ideal of these goddesses owes most to him and his school. At
least three groups of the Eleusinian deities are ascribed to
him by ancient writers, unless we allow the phantom of an
elder Praxiteles to arise and claim the triad of Demeter, Kore,
and lacchos in the temple at Athens^ where Pausanias saw the
mysterious writing on the wall in * Attic characters'^^. In
any case there is no reason for doubting the authenticity of the
group of the mother and the daughter and Triptolemos in

* Brit. Mus. Cat., Peioponnese^ PI. 7. iS (in the Muscnm of Turin).
30. I. « Vide sopra, pp. 264, 265.

^ 0\tx\it<:V^Kunstn,ytk.,MuHZ'Taf,



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iv] IDEAL TYPES OF DEMETER-KORE 275

the Servilian Gardens at Rome^ or of his bronze representa-
tion of the rape of Proserpine, which must have contained at
least two figures. To the same sentence in which Pliny
mentions the latter work, he adds the mysterious words ' item
Catagusam ' ^. Now Kardyowra Is one of those popular descrip-
tive titles by which the Greek public often loved to designate
a favourite monument ; but its meaning in this place has been
much disputed. If the work was a single statue, then we
could be content with the interpretation which has been pro-
posed and often accepted — * a spinning-girl * ; but the context
might seem to suggest some connexion with Persephone, and
it is conceivable that Pliny's short-hand note contains a
reference to two connected groups dealing with different parts
of the Kore-legend ^, one the violent abduction, the other the
peaceful return of the goddess to the lower world, whither the
mother, appeased and reconciled, leads her back with her own
hand. Such a theme as the reconciliation of Demeter with
the chthonian power might commend itself to the genius of
Praxiteles, and would harmonize with the spirit of the Eleu-
sinian faith: and the idea is revealed on the Hope vase
mentioned above and on other monuments. But Pliny s text
has been compiled with too great carelessness and disregard
for relevance to allow us to feel secure concerning any inter-
pretation of this phrase.

At least we are certain that the great sculptor worked in
the service of this cult, which would be likely to attract him
with the appeal of its plaintive story and with the charm of

* Plin. ^^, If. 36. 33. a person up from the Inferno ; and the
^ iV. ^. 34. 69 * (fedt ex aere Praxi- passages quoted in support of Urlich*s

teles) Proserpinae raptnm, item Cata- view are fatal to it; for in s tance, the

gnsam.* return of Aphrodite to Eryx was cele-

• Urlich*s Observ. dt arte Praxii, brated by a festiral called Karn'firtta —
p. 13 started the opinion, which has Athenae, p. 395-»because Aphrodite
been accepted by some recent scholars, came back across the sea, and to put into
that AnroTov^a could designate land is irardTcir-^but the KoraTwYii of
Demeter ' bringing Persephone back Kore in Syracuse was celebrated in the
from exile ' : certainly her sojourn in autunm, when the goddess * descends *
the shades might be called an exile, and into the lower world, and in regard to
the Terb is used of the exile's return. Kore in particular the word could have
But it would be most incongruous that no other sense.

such a word should be used for bringing

T 2



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276 GREEK RELIGION [chap.

the world of nature that it reflected. The question, then,
arises whether we can trace his handiwork or influence in any
existing monument. We look in vain for any clear token of
it among the crowd of Gracco-Roman figures that people our
museums. But fortunately a few monuments have come down
to us of actual fourth-century sculpture, and these deserve
careful attention. One of these is a life-size terracotta head
found by Dr. Evans* in the sanctuary of Persephone near
Tarentum, and published by him. ^We see a strong and noble
countenance, of full almost matronal forms, with some luxuri-
ance of hair, but much reserve, even coldness, in the expression
(PI. XXIX b): we recognize the style of Magna Graecia in cer-
tain traits, but not a touch of Praxitelean hand or feeling. Nor
is it easy to discover much trace of these in the fragments of
a marble group found at Delos, now in the Central Museum at
Athens, representing Plouton carrying off Kore from the midst
of her nymphs. The surface of the fragments is too defaced
to allow a sure judgment of the technique ; but it is probably
Attic work of the close of this century. There are no clearly
Praxitelean features that we can recognize in the heads of
the divinities, which are fortunately preserved ^

On the other hand, a head of Demeter from Lema, of
colossal size, in the museum at Argos, is reported to be an
original work of the fourth century after the manner of
Praxiteles *. But it is our own National Museum that contains
images of the two goddesses that most clearly reflect the
influence of the last great Attic sculptor. The one is a marble
statuette of Kore found by Newton during his excavations at
Budnm in the sanctuary of the Cnidian Demeter. The working
of the surface is soft and warm, and the lines of the face and
the rippling treatment of the hair recall the style of Praxiteles,
though the forehead is a higher triangle than is seen in the

* Hell.Joum, 1886, p. 30, PL 63. Elensis throw any light on the Raptos



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