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1913



PROCEEDINGS

^ ADDRESSES
Commemorative of the

TWO HUNDREDTH

ANNIVERSARY

OF THE INCORPORATION OF

THE TOWN OF
LEXINGTON



^1"^^



I9I3



PROCEEDINGS

^ ADDRESSES
Commemorative of the

TWO HUNDREDTH

ANNIVERSARY

OF THE INCORPORATION OF

THE TOWN OF

LEXINGTON




Published by Vote of The Town
June 25, 1914



GENERAL COMMITTEE






Alonzo E. Locke, Chairman
Edwin A. Bayley
Edward P. Bliss
Frank C. Childs
George H. Childs
Harry F. Fay
George D. Harrington
J. Chester Hutchinson
Dr. John H. Kane
Charles G. Kauffmann

Edward W.



Herbert G. Locke
James P. Munroe
Timothy H. O'Connor
Frank D. Peirce
Alfred Pierce
Dr. Fred S. Piper
Elwyn G. Preston
Frank H. Reed
Lester E. Smith
Edwin C. Stevens
Taylor



SUB-COMMITTEES OF ANNIVERSARY



Historical Exercises

Dr. Fred S. Piper,

Chairman
Rev. A. B. Crichton
Harry F. Fay
Dr. John H. Kane
Rev. Samuel Knowles
Rev. George E. Martin
Rev. Michael J. Owens
Rev. H. L. Pickett
Elwyn G. Preston
Rev. John M. Wilson

Early Morning
Exercises

Herbert G. Locke,

Chairman
Francis Burke
George D. Harrington
Clayton G. Locke
Edward Maguire
Frank H. Reed
Edward W. Taylor
Edwin B. Worthen

Parade

Edwin C. Stevens,

Chairman
Lucius A. Austin
George E. Briggs
Charles J. Dailey
Arthur F. Hutchinson
Clarence E. Johnson
Charles G. Kauffmann
Herbert G. Locke
Howard S. O. Nichols
Alfred Pierce
Christopher S. Ryan
Robert L. Ryder
George F. Smith
Lester E. Smith
Lewis C. Sturtevant
George S. Teague



Printing and
Invitations

Alonzo E.. Locke,

Chairman
Edwin A. Bayley
George H. Childs
Elwyn G. Preston
Jay O. Richards



Banquet

James F. Russell,

Chairman
George H. Childs
J. Chester Hutchinson



Entertainment
Visiting Militia

George F. Reed,

Chairman
Alfred Pierce

Music

Edward W. Taylor,

Chairman
Clarence E. Briggs
Charles H. Bugbee
Herbert G. Locke
Edward P. Merriam
Henry T. Prario
Arthur F. Tucker

Illumination

Frank D. Peirce
J. Willard Hayden, Jr.
Charles H. Miles
Albert B. Tenney
William S. Scamman



Decorating

George H. Childs,

Chairman
William H. Burke
Henry R. Comley
William Hunt
Fred G. Jones
Eugene G. Kraetzer
Edward H. Mara
Timothy H. O'Connor
Clifford W. Pierce
William L. Smith
Alfred E. Robinson
George W. Spaulding
Fred J. Spencer
William A. Staples
James J. Walsh

Athletic Sports

William E. Mulliken,

Chairman
Fred C. Ball
Albert L Carson
Phillip Clark
Frank P. Cutter
John G. Fitzgerald
J. Chester Hutchinson
Rev. Samuel Knowles
Clayton G. Locke
Edward H. Mara
Robert Merriam
David F. Murphy
Henry T. Prario
Richard G. Preston
Rev. Henry J. Ryan
Richard Sherburne
Fred J. Spencer
John J. Ventura






FOREWORD

Lexington was incorporated on the twentieth of
March, 17 12, Old Style (31st March 171 3 New Style),
previous to which date it had been, from its first settle-
ment, a part of Cambridge. The better to enjoy the
anniversary exercises out of doors when the landscape
and the weather are most beautiful in our town, the
celebration was assigned to June instead of the actual
date of incorporation.

The weather during the three days, June eighth,
ninth and tenth, was all that could be desired and
the highways, byways and private grounds presented
a most attractive appearance.

Public and private buildings, particularly along the
main avenues of travel, were attractively and lavishly
decorated with colored buntings, flags and emblems.
The illumination of the Common by colored electric
lights and the effect of these lights upon the foliage
and the Minute-Man gave to this sanctified spot the
appearance of a beautiful fairy-land by night. Two thou-
sand colored incandescent lamps bordered the Green,
formed festoons upon the flag staff and illuminated
the spire of the First Parish Church. The word "Wel-
come," made of incandescent lights in large letters
approximately two feet in height, was suspended over
Massachusetts Avenue at the junction of Woburn
Street, the same again at Parker Street and at
the junction of Waltham and Middle Streets. The
illumination was admired and enjoyed by the residents
of Lexington generally and by thousands of the most

[ 3 ]



orderly people from beyond our borders until all avail-
able space about the Common and adjacent streets
was crowded to the limit by automobiles and teams.

Quite a part of this beautiful display was due to the
extraordinary resources of the committee in charge.

One of the most unique and ideal features of the
entire celebration and ever-to-be-remembered by all
who heard and witnessed it was the early morning
singing on Tuesday by a double male quartette and,
more particularly, the singing by the school children
on the Common.

The principal spectacular event was the military
parade and dress parade on Tuesday, reviewed by the
Governor and distinguished guests. Three hundred
and thirty-eight men in Colonial uniforms, represent-
ing nine different organizations of New England,
participated. It was appropriate to the town's honor-
able history and very graciously did these men per-
form their parts, the Lexington Minute-Men acting
as hosts. Much praise is due the Lexington Minute-
Men and their officers for this successful feature of
the celebration.

The literary exercises in the town hall on Sunday
afternoon were dignified, timely and highly creditable,
and are preserved herewith in print for our welfare
and the interest of future generations.

The pastors of all the churches in town were re-
quested to have commemorative services in their re-
spective churches on Sunday morning, June the eighth,
and from this beginning to the close of the celebra-
tion on Tuesday night, June the tenth, the many
and varied features were appropriate, enjoyable and
eminently satisfactory.

F. S. P.



[ 4 ]



ORDER OF EXERCISES

Sunday, June 8th, 4 p. m., Historical Exer-
cises in the Town Hall



1. Singing by lOO children of Lexington Public

Schools.

2. Introductory Address — Mr. Alonzo E. Locke,

President of the Lexington Historical Society.

3. Historical Address — Mr. James Phinney Mun-

ROE.

4. Singing by School Children.

5. Oration — Reverend Edward Cummings.

6. Singing by School Children.

7. Poem — Mr. Percy MacKaye.

8. Singing — ** America" by audience.

The singing by the school children will be under the direction of
Miss Mary E. Berry, Supervisor of Music.



Monday, June 9th — Old Home Day

6 A. M. Salute from Granny Hill. Ringing of Bells.
This salute will be signal for starting the Town
Crier — Mr. Herbert G. Locke, accompanied by
young ladies in Colonial costumes, over Paul Re-
vere route, who will announce program of celebra-
tion.

[ 5 ]



9 A. M. On Parker Street Athletic Field and contin-
uing throughout the morning and afternoon, Ath-
letic Contests and Sports, with Base Ball game in
the afternoon.

EVENTS.

One mile run, Half mile run, 440 yards run, 220
yards run, 100 yard dash, 40 yard dash. Shot put,
Pole vault. Running broad jump. Running high jump,
Relay Race. (4 contestants each team.)

Divided into senior, intermediate and junior classes.
Medals for 1st, 2nd and 3rd place. Entries closed
May 31st.

Miscellaneous sports open to all. Entries received
June 9th.

8 P. M. Band Concert on Common by Waltham
Watch Company Band.

Tuesday, June 10th — Governor's Day

6 A. M. Salute from Granny Hill. Ringing of Bells.

This salute will be signal for starting Town Crier,
accompanied by Double Male Quartette, over
Paul Revere route. Quartette will sing at or near
Mass. Avenue and Pleasant Street; Village Hall;
Munroe Tavern; High School; Town Hall; Han-
cock School; Mass. Avenue and Parker Street;
Mass. Avenue opposite Mr. A. J. Moody's; Han-
cock-Clarke House.

7 A. M. Children of Public Schools will meet on

Battle Green and join with Quartette in singing
patriotic songs.

10.30 A. M. Military Parade.

Edwin C. Stevens, Chief Marshal
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Aids:
Capt. C. A. Ranlett, Chief of Staff
Capt. Julian I. Chamberlain John H. Willard
Howard S. O. Nichols Herbert W. Reed

James F. McCarthy Robert L. Ryder

William A. Muller Edward L. Child

Horatio A. Phinney Charles C. Doe

Starting from East Lexington Railroad Station,
will proceed over Massachusetts Avenue to Hastings
Park.

Governor Eugene N. Foss and Staff, Lieut.-Gov.
David I. Walsh and invited guests, escorted by

Lexington Minute-Men, with Waltham Watch
Company Band.

Second Company Governor's Foot Guard, of New
Haven, Conn., with Band.

Worcester Continentals of Worcester, Mass., with
Drum Corps.

Varnum Continentals of East Greenwich, R. L,
with Drum Corps.

Detail from Ancient and Honorable Artillery
Company, Amoskeag Veterans, Manchester, N. H.,
British Military and Naval Veterans' Association,
National Lancers, Boston Fusilier Veterans.

Lexington School Color Guard, Lexington Drum
Corps.

George G. Meade Post 119, G. A. R.
Col. John W. Hudson Camp 105, Sons of Veterans.
Lexington Fire Department with Apparatus.
11.30 A.M. Review of Parade by Governor and
Invited Guests from stand in front of Old Monu-
ment on Battle Green.

I P. M. Public Reception to Governor and other
guests, in Cary Hall.

[ 7 ]



I.30 P. M. Banquet in Town Hall.

Edwin A. Bayley, Esq., will preside.
Addresses by Lieutenant-Governor David I.
Walsh, Honorable Edward G. Frothingham, of
the Governor's Council, Congressman Frederick
S. Deitrick, Honorable Samuel J. Elder, Senator
Charles F. McCarthy, Mayor J. Edward Barry,
of Cambridge, Reverend Charles Francis Carter,
Professor David Saville Muzzey, Reverend Charles
J. Staples and Dr. Edward W. Emerson.

Gallery open to the public.

1.30 P. M. Banquet to participating military organ-
izations in a tent on Hancock School Lawn, Cap-
tain George F. Reed, Adjutant of the Lexington
Minute-Men, presiding. (Three hundred thirty-
eight men in Colonial uniforms were present.)

4 P. M. Dress Parade on Battle Green of Companies
in Colonial Uniforms. Address on Battle Green
by Lieut.-Gov. David L Walsh.

8 P. M. Band Concert on Common by Waltham
Watch Company Band.



Address of James P. Munroe at the Celebra-
tion of the 200th Anniversary of the
Incorporation of Lexington,
June 8, 1913

Historians, now careful dissectors of the body poli-
tic, were once mere brilliant painters of its outward
show. Historical writers of the last century dealt only
with wars and kings, with triumphs and catastrophes,
heedless of the great body of the people through whom
civilization really grows. Such a king reigned and died,
such wars he waged, such alliances he made, — that
was the substance of a chronicle as brilliant as it was
superficial. Births of everyday reformers, deaths of
commonplace martyrs, wars of classes and of trade,
holy alliances of virtue and suffering, devil's alliances
of greed and hatred, — these, the real events of his-
tory, had no place in this gazette of royalty. The
progress of nations was, for those old-time chroniclers,
a kind of lordly game in which none but the honor
cards had value. That this surface-life of the court
and battle-field was founded upon a steadily advanc-
ing under-life of the people, that these kingly hap-
penings were but the effects of profounder social and
industrial causes, are facts of quite recent recognition.

It is true that in its nearly three hundred years of
history, what is now the United States of America has
had two great wars, — • wars that in their results were
among the most momentous in all history; but those
conflicts were merely the outcropping, so to speak,
of vaster and deeper forces, to which war was but in-

[ 9 ]



cidental. For the significant history of America has
been one not of kings, but of families; not of courts,
but of communities; not of bloody conquests of ene-
mies, but of a splendid mastery of nature and of self.

It was mainly for the sake of their wives and chil-
dren that the Pilgrims adventured to the inhospi-
table shores of Massachusetts; it was the desire to
establish a community life ordered as they believed
it should be that brought the Puritans to Salem and to
Boston; it was not single rovers, it was settlers with
their families who pushed their brave way to Ohio,
to the Mississippi, and across prairie and mountain
to the far North- West.

Social stability, industry, faith, love of freedom, —
these were the corner-stones of every lasting struc-
ture which our forefathers upreared. The greedy
Spaniard, murderously seeking treasure, the thrifty
Frenchman, exploiting the fur-trade, the roystering
Gentlemen Adventurers, imagining the sand-heaps
of Virginia to be fields of gold, either had no families
or had cut themselves adrift to court fortune in the
unknown West. But on the "Mayflower," household
goods and the distaff filled the spaces which, in the
ships of earlier voyagers, had been given to weapons
and munitions of war. The Plymouth Company came
for peace, for quietude, for escape from a tyrannical
government. With them their womenkind were first,
for upon their wives and daughters the weight of per-
secution fell most heavily. And most of those who
followed the Pilgrims, whether to New England, to
Virginia, or to New Amsterdam, had in view that per-
manent settlement which means the bringing up of
a family and the establishing of a stable, sober and
industrious community. These conditions of true
colonization were especially conspicuous, however,
in Massachusetts Bay, the settlers wherein, mindful
of the supreme importance of right training in youth,

f lo 1



opened a Latin School five years after they landed,
founded Harvard College only three years later, and
enacted a general school-law (the first in the world)
in 1647.

Of that preeminently staid and enlightened com-
munity of which Harvard College was the early-es -
tablished centre, Lexington was, so to speak, the third
child, the earlier offspring, set apart from the original
Cambridge of 1644, having been Billerica far to the
north, and Newton to the west and south.

With the exception of that one "Glorious morning,"
when seventy plain farmers stood and died like heroes,
the outward history of Lexington has been quiet, un-
eventful, even humdrum. To attempt to make of it
a dramatic narrative would be absurd. To cite it, how-
ever, as a superlative example of forces which made
America great in the past and which should make her
greater in the future, is perhaps worth while.

Six generations have passed since March 31, 1713
(N.S.), when the "Inhabitants or farmers dwelling
on a certain Tract of Out Lands within the Township
of Cambridge in the County of Middlesex liuing remote
from the Body of the Town towards Concord. . . .
being now increased . . . obtained Consent of the
Town & made Application ... to be made a Separate
& distinct Town, upon such Terms as they & the
Town of Cambridge have agreed upon"; and since
the General Court of Massachusetts "ORDERED
that the aforesaid Tract of Land known by the Name
of the Northern Precinct in Cambridge be henceforth
made a separate & distinct Town by the Name of
LEXINGTON ... & that the Inhabitants of the
said Town of Lexington be entitled to Have, Use,
Exercise & Enjoy all such Immunities Powers & Privi-
leges as other Towns of this Province have & do by
Law Use Exercise and Enjoy."

In each of these six generations the world has made
[ II ]



always longer strides towards that perfect civilization
to which mankind aspires. Therefore the two cen-
turies of Lexington's corporate life have been the
most fruitful in all human history. Since genuine
democracy did not begin until 1688, practically the
whole development of mankind out of feudalism is
measured by the comparatively short space since
Lexington was born.

In the first of those six generations was established
the newspaper, perhaps the most far-reaching of the
forces of enlightenment; in the second the people of
America issued successful from the first great con-
flict between privilege and justice; in the third, the face
of Europe and the whole current of her affairs were
changed by the French Revolution and Napoleon's
astonishing career; the fourth generation witnessed
first the Reform Bill and then the epoch-making up-
heavals of 1848; in the fifth the people of the United
States were forever welded by a civil conflict there-
tofore unheard of in its magnitude; while in the sixth
there has been such industrial and social transforma-
tion as has filled the world of 191 3 with problems un-
known and inconceivable in 1881.

In these six wonderful periods of democratic ad-
vance, this Town played a conspicuous part only in
the second, but what she did in that second genera-
tion not only profoundly affected the four generations
succeeding, but will influence world history to the very
end of time. In the every-day life of Lexington, more-
over, have been conspicuously exhibited those deter-
mining forces which created New England, the Mid-
dle West, and the great North- West, — the forces of
family integrity, community responsibility, and sober
striving towards ever higher standards and ideals.

In 1713, when the Order of the General Court was
passed, there were within the territory of Lexington less
than five hundred persons. Partly because the Town

[ 12 ]



had been settled by the overflowing of surrounding
communities, partly because the area now centering
in the Common had been held for many years in the
so-called Pelham grant, a larger proportion of those
inhabitants lived on the outskirts than in the neigh-
borhood of the single meeting-house. Therefore, dur-
ing more than a half-century after its first settlement,
the people of Cambridge Farms were compelled to
travel from five to ten miles to the meeting-house at
Cambridge, and for fully another fifty years after
Cambridge had permitted the erection of a meeting-
house at the Farms, most of the worshipers were
still obliged to journey from one to three miles every
Sabbath to attend the services. Yet, because of the
strict Puritanism of the day, which frowned upon or
actually punished absence from the Sunday meeting,
the townspeople, — thus forced to spend at least one
day in seven in each other's company — had developed
a solidarity and community feeling otherwise difficult,
if not impossible, to bring about.

For, however scattered the population, everything
in those Puritan days must focus in the village meet-
ing-house. Attendance upon Divine service was made
urgent both by public opinion and by fear of fu-
ture punishment. Moreover, the town-meetings — ■
held, down to 1846, within the sacred building — gave
almost as much time to such parish questions as the
choice of a minister, his compensation, and his ortho-
doxy, as to the secular problems of roads and school-
houses. Within the meeting-house every child whose
parents hoped for its salvation must be baptized,
every older citizen who cared for public opinion must
have a regular sitting, every sinner might at any mo-
ment be summoned for public confession and judg-
ment. While many could not, and many did not,
become legal members of the church body, only those
admitted to church fellowship enjoyed full measure of

[ 13 ]



community rights; and ambition for social standing
could get its accepted seal only from the church or-
ganization, which, by its seating in the meeting-house,
fixed for five- or ten-year periods the exact degree of
dignity of every family.

Furthermore, many personal disputes in the com-
munity were settled by the minister, under whose
charge also, direct or indirect, was the schooling of the
children, and in whose study those who sought a higher
education prepared, as a rule, for Harvard or Yale
College. Those institutions themselves existed at that
time almost solely for the training of the ministry;
and in many other ways there was continually em-
phasized to all the people of a New England commun-
ity the supremacy not only in spiritual, but also in
temporal matters, of the Puritan Church.

That church, however, was not autocratic; it was
Congregational, ruled in temporal affairs by the par-
ish (and every early New England town was also a
parish or several parishes), and in spiritual matters
by those admitted to church fellowship. Each New
England town was, therefore, a religious democracy,
which, inspired by Biblical example, put conspicuous
emphasis upon family life, parental control and com-
munity responsibility. Every influence in a Massa-
chusetts town during the eighteenth, and far into the
nineteenth, century tended to magnify the responsi-
bility of the male head of a family to rear his children
in godliness and industry, to bring them early into
communion with the orthodox faith, and to inspire
them with a feeling of personal obligation towards the
place in which they lived.

Second only to the meeting-house as an educator
in family and community responsibility, was the
town-meeting, which, because it dealt with church
affairs, and in most instances was held in the meeting-
house, partook not a little of the sacredness of the

[ 14 ]



actual Sabbath service. The New England town-
meeting was, and is, the most democratic parliament
in the world. The moderator has, within certain rigid
limits, autocratic powers; but so long as those bounds
are not crossed, the humblest voter is equal, in free-
dom of debate and liberty of challenge, as well as in
the actual count of votes, to the richest or most highly-
educated. As soon as a youth is twenty-one he may
begin to practise every right, responsibility and duty
of citizenship; and long before that day, the average
village-bred boy is getting an admirable education in
social responsibility by listening to the often tedious,
often irrelevant, but always thoroughly democratic,
town-meeting debates.

The very legislative Order which created Lexing-
ton commanded the constable to call a town-meeting;
and within six days the ''Inhabitants duly qualified
for Votes" had not only elected numerous town offi-
cers, but their selectmen had agreed that they would
"build a Pound, . . . erect a Payer of Stocks, and Pro-
vide the Town with Waights and measurs." Two
weeks later, the citizens, duly assembled, granted
"416 Pounds mony to the Comitte for Building of
the meeting-house."

That second meeting-house (the first having been
built in 1692) stood, as did its successor (erected in
1794 and burned in 1846) on the easterly end of the
Common. The Common itself had been purchased only
two years before the Town's incorporation from
"Nibour" Muzzy; so that almost contemporaneously
with the erection of Lexington were established the
forum for inciting and the theatre for enacting the
first battle of the Revolutionary War.

In June of the year following incorporation, the
Selectmen "agred that John Muzzy should have thare
aprobation to Kep a publique House of Entertaine-
ment: and his father did Ingage before the selectmen

[ 15 ]



to a Comadate his son John with stabble roome haye
and Pastuering: so fare as he stood In nead: for the
Suport of Strangers."

Eleven years earlier, John Muzzy 's father, Benja-
min, had established the first tavern in Cambridge
Farms, on the edge of what he later sold for a Com-
mon and close to the meeting-house. If that old Muz-
zy, or Buckman, Tavern, which the citizens have so
generously and wisely acquired, could speak, what a
story it could tell: of the strangers coming from New
Hampshire and . Vermont for entertainment — as it
was called — on their last night before reaching Bos-
ton; of the detailed town gossip exchanged there over
flip and cider betwixt Sabbath services ; of the sermons
carried across in drowsy summer days from the open
windows of the meeting-house, sermons that, as Colo-
nial affairs became more critical, grew more and more
to resemble the calls to battle of the old Hebrew
prophets; of the long debates in town-meeting over
the schools, the roads, the acts of the Great and Gen-
eral Court and the unwarranted usurpations of his
Majesty's government; and, finally, of that cool night
in April when the alarm of Revere having called the
Minute-Men together at two in the morning, the
"greater part of them" being dismissed temporarily,
"went to Buckman's Tavern," and then, at half-
past four, precipitately rushed out again to fall in
line, — seventy farmers opposing eight hundred British
troops. The old house itself actually took part in the
affray, for from its back door, and again from its front


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Online LibraryLexington (Mass.)Proceedings & addresses commemorative of the two hundredth anniversary of the incorporation of the town of Lexington → online text (page 1 of 3)