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12. The greatest width of the hips is about one-fifth of
the height of the figure.

Note Specially. In the woman we find somewhat dift'erent
proportions and measurements. Her hips are broader than
that of the man while her shoulders are narrower. Her hips
are either about equal to or greater in width than her
shoulders. In man, of course, this is quite the reverse. In
woman the breast bone is more prominent than in man, and
this accounts for a greater fullness in this region.

While the above code of proportions show what the ideal
or perfect figure was formerly considered, and while they
will be of much service to us in securing the correct pro-
portions of the people whom we draw from time to time, we
must not attempt to introduce these exact proportions into
these figures. Almost every human form will vary from
these measurements in some particular. The legs and arms
may be longer or shorter; the upper portion 'of the body
might likewise be of a greater or lesser length, while the
shoulders might also be broader or narrower.

We must draw the forms of the people we see just as they
are and as they appear to us — not as we think they should

A recent issue of the Columbus (Ohio) Citizen contains the
photographs of the officers and proprietor of the Columbus
Business College. J. E. Joiner assumed control of this school
in August last year and is making a success of the work. He
has lately secured new quarters which give ample room for the
different departments. W. H. Howard is the efficient principal
of the shorthand department, Mr. Joiner having charge of the
bookkeeping work.


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It IS now nearly three years since the Journal announced
that plans were making that a certificate would be granted
to all who completed satisfactorily any or all of the courses
run in the various departments of the magazine. Since that
time, several hundred have been issued, and the plan has
met with the unqualified endorsement of the leaders of the

It seems to us that the idea is reasonable in every way.
There is ample provision for the representation of the school
which the pupil has attended while pursuing the course,
as the name of the school ^is engrossed on the certificate, and
the document is signed by the teacher who has been in charge
of the work, and who thereby vouches for the character
of the same.

We have prepared an expensive certificate. It is litho-
graphed on azure-tinted vellum, the work done by a leading
artist, the finishing touches being put on by L. Madarasz,
the world-renowned penman. The price charged (50 cents)
does not more than cover the cost of engrossing, the balance
being the JouRN.a.L's complimentary contribution and expres-
sion of good will to the recipient.

As the various courses begun in September have now
practically concluded, we trust that a large number will avail
themselves of this opportunity to se»ure this evidence of work
well and faithfully performed.

In all cases specimens must be sent to this office for
inspection, and where the work has been done in school the
same to be accompanied by the indorsement of the instructor
in charge.

We hope our friends will make May a banner Certificate

M. L. Miner, of Miner's Business Academy, Brooklyn,
N. Y., recently sent us some work from the members of his
class in business English which shows that the instruction is
along very practical lines. The work consisted of essays on the
subject, "Characteristics of a Good Stenographer," and was
suggested by a question in a recent Regents' Examination.
We quote one paragraph ;

"The stenographer who feels a personal interest in her
employer's transactions, and does not limit this interest to
business hours, will invariably be the most satisfactory em-
ployee, and will receive the highest salary."

H, D. Goshert reports that the Columbia Commercial Col-
lege, of St. Louis, Mo., is doing a thriving business this
spring. We are pleased to know that Mr. Goshert is organ-
izing a large club for the Journal.

The Barnes' Business College, of St. Louis, is also on the
top wave of prosperity. R. W. James, the popular instructor
of writing, reports that his classes are doing well, and that
the Journal is as popular as ever.

General education acts as a setting for all your subse-
quent reading and observations in life. It is like a rich
background to a picture, absolutely necessary to bring out
the full effect.




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Ornamental Writing by J. D. Todd, Newark, N. J

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ly P. H. Landers, Packard Commercial School, New York

It is with pleasure that I comply with your request for a
rief article on the above topic, if by doing so I can be of
ny service to the cause. Of course, any system or
lethod is but a means to an end, and it should be judged
y its results. There is no royal road to success in teaching
riting, and anybody who follows the exact methods of another
ill be' sure to fail. Originality, natural zeal and convictions
hich are the outgrowth of experience are, in my judgment,
le chief requisites of a successful teacher. To-day the teach-
ig of writing is a science, and the successful teacher must not
nly possess practical ability, but he must know the where,
le how and the why. In short, he must be a specialist who
as studied, practiced and experimented. The teacher should
; a good writer, as there is much inspiration to be gained
■cm a good copy. Care should be taken not only in the
jrm of the letters, but in the manner of execution as well,
upils, as a rule, watch their teacher closely as he sets a
jpy, probably because they are anxious to know what the
jpy is going to be, but doubtless, also, because it is interest-
ig to watch a good writer work. The impression is either
ivorable or otherwise. The copy should be written with ac-
jracy, grace and dispatch, without retouching or erasing it.
xample is a powerful teacher. In teaching an ungraded class
f pupils, I endeavor to secure uniform results by requiring
lore practice from backward pupils. I believe that everyone
as more or less love for the art that is hidden in his nature,
nd cultivation alone is needed to make it manifest itself. The
^acher should be optimistic, and should encourage the pupil
hen he deserves it. Words of encouragement will sometimes
riange a drone to an industrious pupil. The beginner in
•riting meets with so much discouragement that I do not be-
eve in adding to that unnecessary faultfinding. I try to re-
lU the difficulties I experienced in learning to write, and
im to assist my class to overcome them in the same way
lat I overcame them.

In teaching position, among other things, I place before
ly class for study a large drawing of an arm, hand and pen-
older. I insist upon an upright, healthful position, and, by
laking occasional corrections, soon secure it. In teaching
lovement, I explain to my class why finger movement writing
; not good writing. In starting a pupil who has never used
he forearm movement, I usually grasp his hand and elbow
nd roll his arm about on the muscles of the forearm. This

1 find effective and a great time saver. After the preliminary
movement exercises with an end of pen-holder, I direct a
series of straight line and oval exercises. To secure a light,
elastic touch, among other things, I direct the pupil to place
a sheet of folded paper or blotter under the page upon which
he is writing. At this stage my copies are carefully graded
and apply movement thoroughly explained. With beginners
I consider movement of more importance than form.

Eternal vigilance is the price of good writing, and this
is true on the part of the teacher as well as the pupil. The
sooner that the pupil learns that writing is more mental than
physical, the more rapid will be his advancement. Experience
has shown me that it is time gained in the end to go slowly
at the start. A few exercises well mastered are better than
many carelessly written. I adhere to the conservative busi-
ness form. I have used music, beating time, and counting with
good results. Speed comes with practice and frequent timing
the class spurs them up.

I require a review of each day's lesson to be practiced at
home, and the best page to be handed in at the following
lesson. From this work I select the best five and put them
upon exhibition in the school room. I also require a page of
product work each week, which I place on file. If the writing
teacher also teaches bookkeeping or correspondence he is in
a position to see that the pupil puts to practical use the in-
struction given him in writing. When a pupil did careless
work in these subjects it has been my custom to write the
correct forms in red ink over his work and require same to
be rewritten till satisfactory.


James H. Thompson, of the Williamsport (Pa.) Commer-
cial College, died Sunday morning, April 2, at his home, corner
of Fourth and Mulberry streets, after a two weeks' illness of a
complication of diseases. Mr. Thompson was forty-five years
of age, and is survived by his widow, nee Miss Lucy Fullmer.
He had devoted his entire life to teaching, and it is said that
more people were schooled under his personal instruction than
under any other teacher in his part of the State. He began
teaching at the Williamsport Commercial College in 1889,
continuing there until 1897, when he became founder and
principal of the Commercial Department of the Williamsport
High School. In 1903 he again associated himself with the
Williamsport Commercial College, being connected with this
institution until the time of his death.


Shakespeare says that there are those "of such vinegar as-
pect that they'll not show their teeth in way of smile, though
Nestor swear the jest he laughable." This is as true to-day
as it was in his time. Ascetics are not all dead yet.

Life with all its weight of human responsibility tends to
make us over-serious and grave; we miss the sunshine and
the flowers, and seem to see only the clouds and to taste the
bitter gall. Notwithstanding the serious aspect of life, we
must preserve a tranquil and optimistic spirit. We should take
in the sunshine and the perfume of the flowers and enjoy the
caroling of the birds ourselves, and then communicate them
to our fellow travelers on life's rugged pathway.

It is impossible, under the tremendous strain of modern
civilization— at least in the Western world— to neglect diver-
sion. Let us avoid extremes ; let us pursue the via media, as
far as it is possible. Otherwise, we may become monoma-

Russell Sage and others may not advocate recreation, but
to the masses it is indispensable. To be sure, if a man never
thinks deeply or intensively for a considerable time ; if he is
shallow and superficial, or if he has an iron physique, this
matter is not of such importance. The man who accomplishes
the most in life is the one who successfully combines periods
of intense, concentrated and long continued laDor with periods
of rest and recreation.

J. P. Morgan is now cruising in his yacht in the sunny
Mediterranean, and otlier prominent men in the financial
world are sojourning in Florida, California and Europe. We
cannot truthfully say that they have not done a full year's
work. While at their desks they worked like Trojans, and
now comes their well-earned rest. Many think that occupying
a high and exalted position is synonymous with ease and idle-
ness. Not so. Witness President Roosevelt, who works from
seven in the morning until twelve at night. Ex-Secretary of
War Root, who, as head of the War Department, put in from
sixteen to twenty hours of the most exhausting labor daily.
Neither because a man begins work at nine or ten in the morn-
ing does it mean that he is a person of leisure. I know of
one man, prominent in Wall Street, who does ngt get to work
until eleven or twelve in the morning, yet he does more than
any of his small army of assistants. But he has his periods
of relaxation. The plant or animal organism that ceases to
perform its functions dies, and the man or woman who does
not work does not grow, but dwarfs. On the contrary, there
are those who are eternally at work, never resting, never tak-
ing a day off, and who accomplish little. I know of one such
man. He has studied himself to death ; has graduated from
all the schools in the country, and yet his productive power
is almost nil. Some people work like a person lost in the
woods ; they travel in a circle and never get anywhere.

One of the best public school principals of New York City
is a man who appears during the summer as a man of means
and leisure, though on a moderate salary. He seeks absolute
change, goes to the mountains in Maine or to the seashore.

indulges in hunting and fishing, and works as hard physically
during the Summer as he does mentally during the rest of the
year. He returns to his work in the Fall strong and alert,
his good nature fairly bubbling over, and a veritable tonic to
all who come in contact with him.

I refer, of course, to physical diversion. To men in seden-
tary employment it is indispensable. Not only is a man in
need of physical diversion to maintain his mental and physical
strength, but it tends to make him symmetrical and to prevent
his becoming a crank and lop-sided. It makes him sympathetic
and enables him to retain his youth; it sweetens his temper,
clears his brain and enables him to baffle the very "irony of

Recreation does not mean idleness. The amount of work
a human being can do is nothing short of marvelous. We
were not made to do nothing. The "strenuous" life, so much
talked of these days, applies not only to our vocation, but to
our avocation as well. Whatever we do let us do with all our
might, be it work or be it play.

There are some who say, "Yes, that's all very nice, but I
can't get the time to do it ; I live in the center of a densely
populated city; I have long hours and family cares that make
this picture of diversion only an idle dream." To be sure, it
tajces some grit and pluck to get recreation, as well as it does
concentration. One must realize its importance and plan to
get it within his daily schedule. Notwithstanding the diffi-
culties many may have, it is possible. Go to the park, walk to
the car, join the militia, enter the Y. M. C. A. or other similar
organizations. You can get it if you zvill. One of the best
form of recreation is walking. All can get this, surely.

The tendency to crowd into the big cities will decimate
the race if counter influences are not at work. As often as
possible, get close to Nature's heart, ramble through the fields,
wander by the seaside, get into the open, away from the jos-
tling, inhuman crowds, fill your lungs with oxygen, commune
with Nature and you will be more of a man or woman; you
will be a better citizen, and you will be made strong for life's

"The Writing Institute"' is the name of a prosperous institu-
tion located at fronton, Mo., and managed by Mrs. W. J. Smith,
Mrs.. Smith has had a long experience as teacher. For some
years she was connected with the Kirksville (Mo.) Mercantile
College. She writes a very strong and graceful hand.

The Springfield (Mo.) Normal School has recently pur-
chased the Springfield Business College and the Queen City
Business College, consolidating them. All the classes in pen-
manship are under the direction of S. M. Smith, and they
could not be in better hands. Mr. Smith has large classes in
pen drawing, lettering and artistic writing.

A very important and essential part of the training of a
good penman is the cultivation of a habit of neatness.

Exercise great care in all your work. Remember that
reckless, indefinite practice is worse than useless, as it leads to
carelessness. Neatness is the result of intelligent, painstaking,
systematic study and practice, and it requires time, and is not

you cannot hope to make the oval or "O" group oi letters well,
as I consider them to be the most difficult of our capitals.

Copy 173. See to it that you get the "O" oval shape.
Notice the different styles, also what strokes are shaded. End
letters same as copy. These capitals have to be made fast in
order to make them round and full. If you make the first

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acquired with a few spasmodic effort^. , Study, Practice, Criti-

Study 171. Make oval round and full. The heaviest part
of shade should come at about one-half the height of the oval.
Good movement.

Copy 172. Use a good, free movement. Don't slow up in
making the shaded stroke. A common fault. Make these
exercises large. Keep shaded strokes to run parallel as well
as light lines. Spend much time in study and practice on
these exercises. For unless you are able to make them well

stroke too slow it will be flat. See to it that you get it
curved as much as the up stroke.

Copy 174. Close spacing. Just so this matter will go on
one line. Uniform slant and spacing.

Copy 17s. The shade on this letter should come up near
the top. You will find it necessary to slow up just a little
at top in order to shade high. Make final oval round and full.

Copy 176. Don't slant first stroke too much. Notice oval
at bottom, also compound curve. Use a good, free movement.
Remember, no finger movement.


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Copy 177. The sentence to fill one line. Close spacing
between the letters again. Fine hair lines.

Copy 178. Make the capitals before raising the pen and
notice how they are joined. Don't write the small letters too

Copy 179. Join the three capitals. Malce the last oval
large in each letter. Entirely with the muscular movement.

Copy 180. Start with the "D" and take notice how we go
from the "D" to the "E." The "C" is made separate. Prac-
tice on the "D'" and "E" until you can make these letters well
before you add the "C." You can add most any other capital
just as well. Close spacing for all small letters for names.
You must get the swing and dash in your movement if you
wish to get these combinations well.

Copy i8r. Keep the shade as near the top as possible for
this letter. Start with an upward motion ; this will help you
to keep the shade high. Don't make turn at bottom of first
down stroke too wide.

Copy 182. See the little loop at center points down. No-
tice how much we swing back to the left in making the last
oval so as to give the letter the proper slant. Free movement.

Copy 183. It will take just a little wide spacing between

small letters in order to have this matter fill one line. Uni-
form height, slant and spacing.

Copy 184. Make the three capitals before you raise the
pen. It takes a free movement for these.

Copy 185. You can raise the pen after each capital for this
exercise. See to it that your shaded stroke strikes the final
stroke. Shade near the top.

Copy 186. These capitals are made without raising the
pen. Place three or more in a group. Don't be afraid to
strike out with a good movement.

Copies 187, 188 and 189. Capital stem letters. The heaviest
part of shade should come down close to the base line. Make
oval horizontal, large and round. Go fast enough in making
the light lines to secure smooth lines.

Copy 190. Close spacing and small, like copy.

Copies 191 and 192. The capitals are not joined, but have
them lap over, like copy.

Copy 193. Join these capitals and place four in a group.
This completes the capital letters, and I consider this lesson
the most difficult thus far presented. I trust that you will
not slight them in your practice. Master them. The next
lesson I intend to give you two sets of capitals.


The Journal will send the supplies by mail for
the prices named: Stamps taken.

Soeniieckcn Broad Pointed Pens for Text Lettering, set
of II, 25c.

Double Holder for Socnnecken Pens. — Holds two pens at
one time, loc.

French India Ink—l bottle, by mail, 30c. ; I dozen, by
express, $3.00.

Gillott's Double Elastic E. F. No. 604 Pen— A medium fine
pen. I gross. 75c.; 54 gross, 25c.; I dozen, loc.

Gillott's Principality No. I Pen — A very fine pen. i gross,
$r.oo; % gross, 25c.; i dozen, icc. .

Oblique Penholders — One, loc.




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Diploma Design, by the Kinsley Studio

The profession has long considered A. D. Skeels one of its
most expert members. Being of a somewhat retiring disposi-
tion, the work of his pupils is not known so well as that of his
own. It was with a great deal of pleasure, however, that we
were permitted to inspect the work of two dozen of his best
business writers, and to note that he has the unusual faculty
of being able to qualify his pupils to do almost as well as their
mstructor. The specimens sent us were accompanied by first
specimens. The "before and after" effects were noticeable.
In most cases the improvement is almost inconceivable. Mr.
Skeels' methods are original and unique. While he has been
a constant reader of the magazines, and especially the Journal,
and has sat at the feet, figuratively, of the leading teachers of
the art, he has only used the methods of others in so far as
to note in them a distinct improvement upon his own. True
methods and constant and well-directed practice are bound to
produce satisfactory results, and Mr. Skeels is the alchemist
who can produce this magic compound.

St. Mary's Academy, Monroe, Mich., enjoys a national
reputation for work done in business writing. Of the many
specimens that we have received from pupils in that school, we
have yet to .find one that is not far above the average. The
age of the pupil seems to enter very little into the matter, for
they all write alike. Those who are unfamiliar with the
product of foreign muscular movement writing hesitate to
believe that young girls can ever acquire a strong and vigorous
movement. Those who are of that opinion should get into
communication with St. Mary's Academy, and they will be
readily converted. Sister Mary Germaine recently sent to our
office a package of specimens consisting of movement drills,
notes, business letters and other varieties of product work
which are beyond criticism. We notice that the age of some
of the pupils is set down as eleven, twelve and thirteen years.
We have shown these specimens to a large number of the
visitors to our office and they have all praised the work in
unstinted terms.

J. S. Lilly, the successful itinerant teacher of writing, of
Lile, W. Va., sends us some of the work done by his pupils
which is very pleasing. It consists of shaded capital letters
and movement exercises that would do justice to anyone.
Some of the movement plates are equal to many of the exer-
cises that have been published in our lessons. Mr. Lilly has
been long engaged in the work.

For twenty-five years Howard Champlin. instructor in
writing in the Y. M. C. A., Cincinnati, Ohio, has
been doing yeoman service in the cause of good writing
and as proof that he is still on the up-grade, he has
sent us more specimens of work done by his boys, which afford
much satisfaction. Mr. Champlin has had a varied experience
as a teacher, and brings to his class the fruits of his best
thought. As well as being a successful teacher of writing, he
is prominent in many otiier lines.

't^enmoM QyVit dfcaiAja.^ '



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Online LibraryLife Extension InstitutePenman's Art Journal (Volume 29) → online text (page 41 of 56)