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LINCOLN-.Citizen of the World





F. A. Seiberlinp:, LL. D. President Akron, Ohio

Geo. A. Hubbell, Ph. D., ex-officio member of the

board Cumberland Gap, Tena

Wnrncr L. Carver Boston, Mass.

Joe Mitchell Chappie, LL. D., Boston, Mass.

Charles F. Eajjer, 1st Vice-President Knoxville, Tenn.

Hon. C. B. Slemp Big Stone Gap, Va.

Hon. Henry Solon Graves, LL. D., Washington, D. C.

M. F. Overton Cumberland Gap, Tenn.

Hon. James H. Post New York, N. Y.

Frank De K. Huyler New York, N. Y.


Randall J. Condon, LL. D., 2nd Vice-President Cincinnati, 0.

Samuel P. Avery Hartford, Conn.

Rev. Frederick Burt Avery, D. D. Cleveland, O

Eugene P. Fairchild, Financial Secretary Rutherford, N. J.

Hon. Arthur L. Garford, LL. D., Elyria, Ohio.

Judge U. L. Marvin, LL. D., Vice-President of the

University Cleveland, Ohio.

Hon. Theodore E. Burton, LL. D. New York, N. Y.

Hon. Marcus M. Marks, LL. D., New York, N. Y.

F. A. Seiberling, LL. D. Akron, Ohio


C. R. Fulton Cumberland Gap, Tenn.

Hon. J. H. S. Morison, Secretary Cumberland Gap, Tenn.

Hon. Wm. F. McCombs, LL. D. New York City

Hon. Wm. S. Shields Knoxville, Tenn.

W. N. Best, F. R. S. A., Sc. D., New York, N. Y.

Harry E. Bullock, Treasurer, Lexington, Ky.

Coleman I. DuPont, LL. D., New York, N. Y.

Hon. Clarence W. Watson Fairmont, W. Va.

Hon. Clarence B. Sturges New York, N. Y.

Geo. A. Hubbell, ex-officio Chairman J. H. S. Morison

C. R. Fulton Charles F. Eager Harry E. Bullock


F. A. Seiberling Arthur L. Garford Harry E. Bullock


F. A. Seiberling, Chairman, Akron, Ohio

Samuel P. Avery, Theodore E. Burton, Treasurer

Hartford, Conn. 42 Broadway, New York

Coleman DuPont, Harry E. Bullock,

New York City Lexington, Ky.

Arthur I. Garford, Elyria, O. James H. Post, New York City


To develop Lincoln Memorial University and fofler the educational needs of the mountain people of tbe central South
Published Monthly by Lincoln Memorial University. Subscription Price 50 Cents per Year

Associate Editors

Dean Boyd A. Wi»«
Dr. Lucia E. Danforth
Mr. Robert L. Kincaid

Entered at the Post Office at Harrogate, Tennessee, as Second Class Matter

V\)l. XX IT

Harrogate. Teinu'sscf. Februar.v-March. 1919

No. 2-3


"Right is Might "-Lincoln



The address at our celebration of Lincoln's birthday was de-
livered by former State Superintendent. S. H. Thompson. Ex-
cerpts from his speech follow.

"Hardly in the history of mankind has it been the peculiar
province of any one man to become known to all the world as the
benefactor of his race, and to be so regarded within less than a
century after his death. Abraham, Rameses. Moses. Socrates,
Caesar, Charlemagne. William the Conqueror, Shakespeare, Eliz-
abeth. Napoleon, and Rhodes, each had their day and were great
for some outstanding characteristic. Yet not one of these could
be called so great as to be denominated. Citizen of the World.
Abraham Lincoln was more quoted in Europe during the world
war than any one else. There is no phase of humanity to which
this great American did not respond with all the forces of his com-
prehensive being and in a manner to make him justly a citizen of
the world. Only the other day the King of England greeted the
President of the United States with the words: "I welcome you to
the land of your ancestors and those of Washington and Lincoln,"


Lincoln was first of all a man of vision. "Where there is no
vision the people perish." Greatness makes way for itself like a
presence. There is no way of accounting for greatness unless you
say it is of God Himself. In no wise can a man go beyond his
vision either for himself or for others. Standing in the slave
market at New Orleans Lincoln had a vision of human freedom
and made a vow which he kept even with his own sacrifice. His
vision was always that of the world and not that of any section or
individual. In the summer of 1864 when he feared defeat at the
following November election we find a memorandum in which he
says: "Between the election and the fourth of March I must help
my successor save the Union; for he can not do it after election
day." On the gun-boat off Hampton Roads he said to the Vice-
President of the Confederacy: "Let me write Union across the
paper and I care not what else you write." His thoughts and
visions were the thoughts and visions of the world whether it be in
America, in Europe, in Asia, or in Africa. There is no limitation
to his vision. Truly the scope of Lincoln's farsightedness was


universal; for to again refer to the words of Bonar-Law, the ut-
terances of this man more than half a century ago have their place
now in the greatest war the world has ever known.


St, Paul calls charity the greatest thing in the world. Lin-
coln was a constant believer in "charity toward all and malice
toward none," and this high principle he practiced all his life. If
a man owed him, Lincoln did not worry about it. If he gave le-
gal advice he was slow to collect, and often never presented a bill
at all. If he was done a personal injupy he sought not to take re-
venge. He was hardly human in that respect, permitting loo
many attempted insults to go unavenged.

If there ever lived a purely kindly man it was Abraham Lin-
coln, He was at great effort to effect a suitable and agreeable
exchange for a nephew of Alexander H. Stephens, Vice-President
of the Confederacy, We find him writing a letter to a New Eng-
land mother whose six sons were fighting for their country. He
stops to show General Howard where a great school ought to be
established for the education "of my people". It is said that'he
never gave an order to have a soldier executed. He had a pigeon-
hole in his desk labeled "leg cases" containing courts-martial or-
dering men to be shot for running away in time of battle or de-
sertion at other times and awaiting the President's signature
which never came. He said a man was certainly worth more to
his country living than dead even if his legs did go in the wrong
direction at times.

Lincoln was most charitable toward those who opposed him.
among whom was the Secretary of War, Edwin M, Stanton. Sev-
eral years before Lincoln became President, he was associated with
Stanton in a celebrated suit in Cincinnati, Stanton, cultured,
educated, and refined, resented the coming of the uncouth, un-
gainly. Western lawyer into the case: and so remarked in such a
way that Lincoln came to know about it. However, when Lincoln
came to be President he chose Stanton for his great executive
ability although Stanton actually laughed at the idea of Lincoln's
being President, stating confidentially that he just came into the
cabinet to save the country. The President i-ssued an order one
day to the Secretary of War which Mr, Stanton refused to exe-

\ 5 04323


cute, returning it by the bearer with the injunction to "tell the
President he is a fool." The message was delivered whereupon
Lincoln remarked in humorous way, "If Stanton says I am a fool
it must be so: he is generally right."

Salmon P. Chase, disappointed candidate for the presidency,
and Secretary of the Treasury in Lincoln's cabinet, was at first
unkindly disposed, but Lincoln's patience, diplomacy, skill and
broad knowledge of human nature brought all the cabinet around
in strong support.

Perhaps Lincoln's greatest example of charity towards his
fellow3 would have been shown in reconstruction days had he
lived. J^ot once do we find on record a single unkind word of his
concerning the South or those who fought on the side of the Con-
federacy. Always he was unswerving in the preservation of the
Union, but never was he bitter or revengeful towards the South-
ern people as such. He cherished the thought of a reunited coun-
try, :ind almost with a prophet's eye he could see one country,
one flag, one people.

This great world character cannot be properly presented un-
less we ascribe to him the comDrehensive t-erm of genius.


When Lmcoln went to New York early in 1860 to speak be-
fore the Young Men's Club he was introduced to a large audience
in Cooper Union by W'lliam Cullen Bryant, who on one occasion
defined genius as the accomplishing of large ends by small means,
or the doing of great work with few tools. Lincoln must have
been such a man when you consider his great poverty, the narrow
scope of his early environment, the limited schooling he had (less
than a year, all told, ) and the divers other difficulties that beset
him on every hand. Patience, forbearance, endurance, applica-
tion, sacrifice, never-ending labor, and above all, a sincere faith in
and devotion to duty as he understood it, made of him a master-
ful man who can best be described by the use of one word genius.

Professor Arthur Gleason tells us that what is to save the
world financially, morally, and intellectually must be a sort of
modern faith as an expression of a belief in life lived joyously, ac-
tively, happily, an expression of democracy in its highest concep-
tion. He says further that democracy with all its striving has
produced thus far only three men of genius: Mazzini, Lincoln and


Walt Whitman. Bat Gleason can not get away from faith and
quotes Whitman as saying:

"Give me, give him or her I love this

quenchless faith.
It is a dream?

Nay, bat the lack of it the dream,
And failing it life's lore and wealth a dream."

So it would seem that democracy from which we hope so
much, and about which there is never-ending talk comes from
faith, and that all this makes of the believer a genius. Lincoln
was a man of faith. Never in the darkest days did he doubt the
outcome. From boyhood up he saw his own defeat in many
things— never seems to have counted on anything else— but the
triumph of principles he never doubted. He refused a second
race for Congress because it would compromise a principle which
he valued highly— a faith with himself.

In his race for the Senate against Judge Douglas, he at na
time expected to be elected, but looked forward two years to the
time when the principles he advocated would triumph at the polls,
although he never associated himself as the crowned leader.

To the genius of Lincoln no man was better than another.
There was no aristocracy of freedom with him any more than
there was an aristocracy of genius. This faith that made of
this remarkable man a genius was the faith in life that makes
neither servant nor master of any, but that gives joy, Deace, hap-
piness, prosperity, ambition, desire to live, inclination to serve
and to be served with an equality that removes from the human
heart anything but the noblest. His was a genius that fed to the
fullest every spiritual aspiration to which the human mind can
hope to attain. And it was not an aristocracy of religion, eith-
er, but rather a democracy in which every man might think and
act for himself in such way as led him toward the greatest free-
dom. The principles of humility, culture, ambition, desire, devo-
tion, joy, pride, happiness, prosperity, were all included in his
democracy, which was the outgrowth of that faith that produces
those qualities.

When Lincoln came to the Presidency, the East considered
him a sort of misfit- an ungainly misfit froni the uncultured and
uncouth great West. Literature and Universities left him out, i


would seem, although Bryant published his Cooper Union speech
in full in his paper. The Erenimj Post; and gave strong editorial
mention. But the effete East refused to accept him as a man of
genius or learning. In the summer of 1865 a great memorial
service was held in honor of those who fought for their country.
At this memorial service James Russell Lowell, brilliant as a poet,
diplomat, editor, statesman, and a man of letters, who earlier had
not admired Lincoln, read the Commemoration Ode which he had
composed for the occasion. In it we find these words relative to

"Such was he, our Martyr- Chief

Whom late the nation he had led.
With ashes on her head.
Wept with the passion of an angry grief;
Forgive me if from present things I turn
To speak what in my heart will beat and burn.
And hang my wreath on his world- honored urn.
Nature, they say. doth dote.
And cannot make a man
Save on some worn out plan.
Repeating us by rote;
For him her Old World moulds aside she threw
And choosing sweet clay from the breast
Of the unexhausted West.
With stuff untainted shaped a hero new.
Wise, steadfast in the strength of God, and true.

How beautiful to see
Once more a shepherd of mankind indeed.
Who loved his charge, but never loved to lead;
One whose meek flock the people joyed to be.
Not lured by any cheat of birth,
But by his clear-grained human worth.
And brave old wisdom of sincerity I

So always firmly he:

He knew to bide his time,

And can his fame abide.
Still patient in his oimple faith sublime.

Till the wise yeary decide.
Great captains, with their guns and drums.

Disturb our judgment for the hour.

But at last silence comes;
These all are gone, and standing like a tower.
Our children shall behold his fame.
The kindly-earnest, brave, foreseeing man.
Sagacious, patient, dreading praise, not blame,
New birth of our new soil, the first American."



The observance of Washington's birthday at Lincohi Me-
morial, February 21, was marked by a fitting address by Dr. Charles
Haven Myers, pastor of the First Congregational Church of Chat-
tanooga, on the subject, "Opportunities for Leadership." As-
serting that the world was being ushered into a new era which
called for great leaders, he challenged the students to prepare for
leadership in politics, in education, in the industrial world and in
religion. Politics needs statesmen who will- purify it; edu-
cation needs careful and thorough readjastment; the industrial
world is on the brink of a great upheaval; and religion has re-
ceived a newer and deeper interpretation from the experiences of
the soldiers who have looked into the face of battle. He arraigned
some of the features of our present system of education, particu-
larly the low salary of teachers and the summer vacation of three
months. He closed with a tribute to Theodore Roosevelt, men-
tioning him with Washington and Lincoln, and he made an elo-
quent apiieal for the students to help build in this period of tran-
sition a new nation which shall be the great-^st of all the earth.

Professor Ford was the chairman of the meeting and in his in-
troductory remarks he described the three periods in the life of
our nation: Dependence, 1680; Independence, 1776: Interdepend-
ence, 1919. Professor Moore conducted the devotional exercises.
Professor McFee rendered a vocal solo, and Miss Ada Niceley read
an extract from Washington's Farewell Address.


The purpose of the present article is to tell what we should
have seen if we had come to Lincoln Memorial University before
it was Lincoln Memorial University, and Harrogate before it was

Our information is derived chiefly from Mrs. Mary Harbin
son, of Cumberland Cap, General P. G. Fulkerson of Tazewell.
Judge Morison of Cumberland Gap, Roosevelt's "Winning of the
West," and Ramsey's "Annals of the State of Tennessee."

If we had been here in the year 1719 we should have seen an
almost impenetrable forest, though about five miks away, beyond
Powell's river, we should have seen a treeless praiiie, later called
the Barrens, where great herds of Euffalo grazed. We should
have seen some Indians, who came by way of the present Dixie
Highway, because the Indians on the Ohio river were so hostile
that they found that way dangerous. Just below Cumberland
Gap, where the pike turns from the old road, is a large boulder


called Indian Pock, where the Indians held their pow-wows and
concealed themselves to fall upon passing settlers' in later times.

Just below Middlesboro. on th€ Mingo Mountains, the Mingo
Indians are said to have done the same.

In 1744 w^e should have seen some traces of courageous hunt-
ers who left marks on trees.

In 1748 Dr. Thomas Walker of Virginia, in company with a
number of hunters passed by here, named Powell's river for an
old general of his, and called the mountains the Cumberlands,
after the Duke of Cumberland, who was at that time prime min-
ister of England. Tracing the range toward the south-west, he
came upon a remarkable depression in the chain and called it Cum-
berland Gap. The river to the west he called the Cumberland.
The Indian name for the range was Wasioto. The river was called
the Shawaoee. On this trip, which lasted six months, one of his
companions was bitten by a bear, three of the dogs were wounded
by bears, one was killed by an elk, the horses were frequently bit-
ten by rattlesnakes: once a bull-buffalo threatened the whole par-
ty, rhey killed 13 buffalos, 8 elks, 53 bears, 20 deer, 150 turkeys
and some other game.

In 1773 Daniel Boone made the attempt to take his family in-
to Kentucky. Uefo e this no white woman had crossed the Cum-
berland mcurtains. Four -^r five families were with him and
at Powell's Valley they were joined by forty hunters w^ell armed.
The while icrmed a caravan of eighty persons. While passing
a narrow defile October 5 they were startled by a terrific yell of In-
dians. The son of Boone was killed.

At that time there was a dispute between N. C. and Virginia.
Kentucky was then Virginia and N. C. owned Tennessee. Vir-
ginia appointed Dr. Walker and N. C. appointed a Mr. Henderson
to settle the dispute. Mr. Henderson ran a line far north of the
present Kentucky and Tennessee line, and Dr. Walker ran a line,
still known in law books as Dr. Walker's line, which passed right
through what is now Avery Hall. For many years there was a
dispute over these two lines. The true line between Kentucky
and Tennessee was the line between two old grants issued by sov-
ereigns of England, one known as the Virginia grant and the
other as the Carolina grant. They commenced on the Atlantic
ocean, and ran on 36 degrees 30 minutes to a point due west "on


the Soutii Seas. " This Hne was a bone of contention between
the states of Virginia and North Carolina, and afterwards be-
tween Tennessee and Kentucky. It was finally settled by com-
missioners appointed by Virginia and Tennessee which met at the
house of James Robinson near what is now known as the town of

We can only allude to the State of Franklin which, so far as
we can learn, included the site of our University, as Claiborne
County was at that time a part of Hawkins County.

In regard to the genealogy of the Wallin family, which was
the first connected with the land where Lincoln Memorial Uni-
versity now stands, there are a few dates and names which have
not been verified, but from the recollections of General Fulker-
son and Mrs. Harbison the following account seems approximate-
ly the true one. Any facts in regard to the history of the family
would be very gratefully received. In the eighteenth century
or earlier a Huguenot, member of the Waldensian church, came
to America on account of the unfriendhness of his Catholic neigh-
bors. His name was Walden, but in this country became Wallen
His son, or perhaps grandson Elisha was known as the Pathfind-
er, and came through the Gap with Dr. Thomas Walker, prior to
the time of Daniel Boone. He came down for three successive
years, hunting and exploring, and it was for him that Wallen 's
Ridge and Wallen's Creek were named. Wallen's Ridge extends
from South west Virginia to Chattanooga. Unfortunately, the
lower end, near Chattanooga, is known as Wallen's Ridge. He
lived and died in this country, fought in the Revolutionary war
and made application for pension as a Revolutionary soldier.
He owned all the land from Cumberland Gap to Powell's River.
He perhaps built the first building on the present grounds of the
University, and on the site of the present Conservatory. (We are
not absolutely sure whether it was himself or his son Elisha who
built this.) He died in 1807. After his death the property fell in-
to the hands of his son John, who built a red brick house which
was afterwards known as the Patterson place, and where Mrs.
Houston Patterson now lives. Harrogate proper was conveyed to
Hugh Graham, of Tazewell, and later Mrs. Cornelia Patterson
of Philadelphia, and Ellen Patterson wife of Thomas Patterson of


Philadelphia, by will of Hugh Graham, got that part of the farm
and conveyed it to the Harrogate land company.

It is of interest to know that Patterson. Graham, Fulkerson,
Houston and Dickson were Irish Protestants. Emmet's soldiers,
who in 1838 were forced to leave Ireland, and settled in Tazewell,

VVallen had three sons. Elisha. Elija and John, John married
Jerusha Renfro, who was one of nine sisters, and born in 1787.
He built a red brick house where Mrs. Houston Patterson now
lives. He later sold this to Mr. James Patterson and this house
stood till after the Civ^il war. It was afterward burned and re-
placed by a frame house where Mrs. Houston Patterson now lives.

Mrs. Harbison says.

"After my grandmother sold this house with the southern
portion of the plantation, he built a frame house near the branch,
w^here Mr. Eads now lives. Part of the house is the same that
my grandfather built and part was built later."

'i hey had seven children, Isaac. James. John. Mary, who was
my mother, China, Lundy and Vardaman.


Captain Daniel Huff was born in Windsor County, Virginia.
His father was accidentally killed by the slipping of a draw knife,
and his widow with ner daughters and this son came to Yocum
settlement, where he met Mary Wallen, and they were married in
the red brick house where Mr. John Wallen still lived. Cap-
tain Huff bought the shares of the other children, and with his
wife's portion he had about eighteen hundred acres, twelve hun-
dred toward Shawnee, and six hundred where Lmcoln Memorial
University now stands. As stated before, there was a small log
cabin where Lincoln Memorial Conservatory now stands built by
Elisha Wallen; whether the original Elisha, called the pathfinder, or
a son of his we are not sure. Captain Huff was exceedingly
fond of nature and never tired of watching the beautiful moun-
tains and the sunrises from this situation. He added to the
house, by building another cabin of two rooms, at some distance,
and connecting the two parts by an upper story over the whole,
making a sort of drive- way between the tw^o parts, under the
upper story. Beneath was a large cellar, and in front was a two
story piazza. The house was built of hewn logs andplastered


with white plaster. Later it was weather-boarded on the outside
and ceiled within, and was substantial and warm. It contained a
large cistern, now filled up. The kitchen was entirely separate,
and stoDd where the Conservatory tower now stands. By it stood
a smoke-house and chicken-houoe. The crib and granary were a
little north of where Mrs. Kirby now lives, and the blacksmith's
shop was on the east side of the road south of the Conservatory,
which connects the two ends of the loop of the pike, ^^ap-
tain Huff had about a hundred slaves, and their houses were for
the most part on the side of the hiL leading down to the present
barn. They were one or two roomed cabins, The^e slaves were,
sr>me of them, very valuable. Captain Huff was offered $1500
for Ann the dining room girl, and the same for Martha the wea-
ver, but he refused to sell. In regard to one of the house ser-
vants. General F ulkerson tells the following story. " 'Mrs. Har-
binson, when a half grown gin, was at home with her father,
Captain Huff, in the house where the Conservatory now stands. I
was staying with my uncle, James Patterson. Captain Huff had
a negro girl named Mary, and Uncle a man named Beverly Gran-
derson. He fell in love with Mary, and would ask me to write
letters to her for him. I would write the letter, he would take

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