Lindley Murray.

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Online LibraryLindley MurrayThe English reader , or, Pieces in prose and poetry : selected from the best writers ; designed to assist young persons to read with propriety and effect ; to improve their language and sentiments ; and to inculcate some of the most important principles of piety and virtue ; with a few preliminary o → online text (page 13 of 25)
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that W::ich produced the noirurs of which \ou speak. Whjr



1£0 Tlie Entrlish Reader, Farfl,



a



Avould you soiallaciously confound them together in some
of your writings, that it requires much more judgment, and
a more diligent attention, than ordinary readers have, to se-
parare them again, and to make the proper distinctions? —
This, indeed, is the great art of (he most celebrated free-
thinkers. They recommend themselves to warm and inge-
nious minds, by lively stiokes of wit, and by arguments re-
ally strong against superstition, enthusiasm, and priestsraft.
But, at the same time, they insidiously throw the colors of
these upon the fair face of true religion ; and dress her out
in their garb, with a malignant intent ion to render her odious
or di-spicald«", to tiiose who iiave not penetration enough to
dis-ern the impious fraud. Some of them may have thus de-
ceit ed the?i.s.Mve-, as Wtli as ot'ners. Yet it is certain, no
bov k ever wa-. wriiien by the rao-t acute of these gentlemen,
is sorepuuiiant to prie-.-ciaft, tospiritual tyranny, toall ab-
surd siioe'sU'ivWis, to all th.at can tend to disturb or injure
society, as that <co^pel they 5.0 much aiTect to despise.

Batfie, Mankiiui are so made, tlnit, when tnny have been
over-heated, n-ey cannot be brought to a proper tempei- a-
ga!n,tdl tie} have been over-couled. My scepticisjn might
be ni'Ct^ssarv,.to ao.ite the feverand phrenzy of fal^e religion.

Lockf. A wise pre>>.criptiun, indeed, to bringon a para-
ivtical state of the mind, (on such a scepticism as yours is a \
palsv. which deprives the miiid of ali vigour, and deadens j
i^s c.'itiiral and vital powers,) 1:1 order to take off a fever,
\vhich temperance, and the milk of the evangelical doc-
trines, would probably cure ?

Bui)'f. I acknowledge that those medicines have a great
power. — But ffw doctors apply them untainted with the -
mixture of some harsher drugs, or some unsafe and ridicu-
lous nostrums of their own.

Locke, What y(ui nov\ say is tootrue. — God has given us
a mo.->t excellent physic lor the soul, in ail its ^lis^^as^s ; but
bad and intere-ted physicians, or ignorant and conceited'
qua ks, adminis'er itso ill to the rest of mankind, that
much of the benefit of it is unhappily lost, lord lyttelton^



i'haj)* 8. Fublic Speeches, l^^l

CHAP. VIII.

PUBLIC SPEECHES.
SECTION I.

Cicero against Verres.

The time is come, Fathers, when that which has long been
wisheil for, towanU allriyifv^ the envy your order has been
subject to, and removing the imputations against trials, is
eftectually put in your power. An opinion has long ptevail-
ed, not only here at home, but likewise in foreign countries,
both dangnrous to you, and pernicious to the state, — that,
in prosecutions, men of wealth are always safe, however
clearly convicte<l. — There is now to be brought upon his tri-
al before you, to the confusion, I hope, of the propai:;ators of
this slanderous impatation, one whose life and actions con-
demn him in the opinion of all impartial persons ; but who,
according to his own reckoning and declared dependence
upon his riclies, is already acquitted ; 1 mean Caius Ver-
res. — I ileniand justice of you. Fathers, upon the lobber of
the public treasury, the oppressor of Asia Minor and Pain-
phylia, the invader of t'ae » igiits and privileges of IloinariS,
the scourge and curse of Sicily. — If tn;u sentenceis passed
upon him which his crimes deserve, your authority, Father*,
will be vcneiat/le and sacred in the eyes of the puolic : but
if his great riches should bias you in his favour, I shall stiil
gain one point, — to make it apparent to the world, that what
was wanting in tins ca»e, was not a crisuifial nor a prusecu-
tor^ but ju^tice and adequate punishment.

Tojiass over tha siiameful irregularities'" of his youth, —
what does his quaeiorship, the first public employment he
held, what does it exhibit, but one continued scene ol vil-
laiiies r— Cnerjs Carbo, plundered of the public money by
his own treasurer, a consul stripped and betrayed, an arniy
• deserted and reduced to want, a province robbed, the civil
and religious rigiits of a people violate^i. — The employment
he held in x\sia Minor and Pamphylia, what did it produce
tjut the ruin of those countries? in wiiich houses, cities, and
temples, were robbed by him. — What was his condect in his
prfetorsidp here at home? — Let the plundered temples, and
public works iipgle ted, that he might embezele the moner
mtendea for cai vj'v^s. them on, bear witness. H jw did hw
discharge the office of a judge? — Let those who suffered by
his injustice answer.— But his praetorship in Sicily crowi s
all his works of wicke<iness, and finishes a lastinij monn-



im Jlie Ens:lUh Header. Part L



o



inent to i)is infamj'. — The mlscliiefs <!oneby him in tl.atun-
hajjpv country, during the three years of his iniquitous ad-
ministration, are such, that many years, under the wisest
and best or praetors, will not be sufficient to restore things
to the condition iu which he fourid them : — for it is notori-
ous, ihat.durin-^- ti.e time of his tyranny, the Sicilians nei-
tht r ei'joyed tl.e protection of their own original laws ; cf
thv^ ; e;i^ulations made for their benefit by the Roman senate,
Ujion their commg under the protection of the common-
wecilh; n;>rufthe natural and unalienable rights ol nien.
His iiod has (ieiided all causes in trii ily for these three
year.'*. And his flecir>ions have broken all ia\v,all prece-
dent, all rig!)f. Tiie ^Ui^s ise has, bv arbitrary tdXvS and
unhe.ird-of iotpnsitions, extorted from the ii)di!s.lrious \>'nn',
are not to be com[)i'ttd. TIte most faithful allies ot tiie
C(.mnionwtalth ha\e been treated as enemies. Roman ci-,
tizeii-^ ii,.v,, iike h!a\e^, been put to deaih vyith tortures.-^
'i'j e iiir;:j iilruiious ci iii.inuiSj for money, haveheen excmpt-
eti .'{•< m ihe (^scr^e<l punibhments ; and niCii of tiie niOs.t
i;n!-x«. c[iti isabie (has actors, (ojidemned and banished un-
heard. Ti e harb«;ur.-, though suincientiy [ortified, and ttie ^
gates of SMui;;^ iovvn>, liave bten opened to pirates and rav-
agers. The 5(.id;(jr} and saiiorj^, belonging to a province
under ihe proti^" ion of the comruonucalth, have been star-
ved to uealli ; whole fleets, to tiie great detriment of the ;
province, t>i;iii rev) to perish, i lie ancient nj«»numents of
either Sicilian oi Roman greatness, the statues of heroes and
princes, have been carried off; and the teinples stripped of
the images. Having, by his inquitous senteiices, filled
the prisot'S wiih the most iiidustrious and deserving oi the
people, he then proceeded to order- numbers ol Roman citi- ;
zcRs to be stVangkd in the^aois : so that the exclamalion, j
'* i am a citizen of Rome P' which has often, in the most J
tiibtant region>^, and among the most barbarous people, been-
a I lOlertion, was of tio service to tl.eiu ; but, ontiie contra-;
ry, brought a speedier and a more severe punishment upon ;
them. ^ .'i

I ask now, Verres, what thou'hast to advance agjainst thi|t|
charge? Wilt thou pretend to deny it? Wilt thou pre.^J
lend that any thing false, that even any thing aggravated, is J
al!edj.;ed against thee r Had any prince, or any stale, com-,j
mitted the same outrage against the privilege of Roman ci-
tizens, should we not think he had sufficient ground fur de-
luanding satisfaction ? What punishment ought, then, to ,
be infii'^ted upon a tyrannical and wicked praetor, wliodar-
ijl^ at no greater distance than bicily, within sight of the I-



tap. &. Public Speeches, 123

Ulia^ coast, to put to the infamous death ofcru. inxion tliat
unfortunate and innocent citizen, Publius Gavius Cosanus,
only for liis liJivins asserted his privileges of citizenship,
and declared his intention of appealing to the justice (?r his
country, against tlie cruel oppressor, who had unj'jstlj c<)n-
fineil him in a prison at Syracuse, wh jnce he h i;l yisi made
his escape? The unhappy man, arrested as he nas going
to emb irk for h"s native country, is broug it before the wick-
ed praetor. With eyes darting fury, and a countcnaiic '
distorted with cru-Hty, he orders tlie helpless victiio of ir.s
rage to be, stripped, an I rods to be brougat ; accusin'^ !n;n,
lut without the least shadow of evidenc •, cr oven of .^u^pi-
cion, of having come to .Sicily asaspy. It w;is in vp/;;! tUui
the unhappy man cried out, *' I am a Roman ciiiz.Mi ; [ Wave
serve! under I^ucius Pretius, who is nov at Fanorm;'*, a.';d
\Vi!! atrest my iriocence." The bio jd-thirsly praetor, deaf
to all he could ur^ein his own def nee, orlered th > infa-
mous punishment to be inf;icled. Tnus. fathers, was an in-
nocent Roman citizen pu'^licly rna-igl^'J with scourging ; —
whilst the oidy words he utter.^j!, amifU* his cruel suSerings
were," I ani a R ):n;;j citizen /" Wih t'iese iio hf?p:^d Jo
dofend himself from violence and infamy. Bur of so hft'o
service was this privilege to him, that, \v die he was t'>us as-
serting his citizenship, the order was given for iiis ex-jcu-
tion, — for his execution upon the cross!

liberty I O sound once <ielightfu! to every Roman ear/
O sacred privilege of Rom:iR citizenship ! o ice saCitnl I —
now trampled upon ! But what then / Isu came to this r
Shall an inferior magistrate, a governor, who liolds his Vvhole
power of the Roman people, in a Rutnan province, within
sight of Italy, bind, scourge, tortui-e wlih tireand led hot
platesof iron, and at last put to the iiifamois deas^i of the
cross, a R nn.wi citizen r Snail neither t!ie cries of ianocexace
expirin;>; in agony, nor t:ie tears of pityiag .^pectdtors, nor
the m ij'^n.ty ofthe R.>man com'n)n wealth, nor the Tear of
the justice (d'liis country restrain the licentious and wan-
ton cruelty of a morister vvho, in confidence of his riches,
strikes at the root of liberty, and sets mankind at defiance?

1 conclude with expr^-siing my hopes, that y-iur >\isdoiu
and justice fathers, will not, by sulTering ti)e atrocious and
unexample(i insolence of Caius Verres to escape due pun-
ishment, leave room to apprelien 1 ihi^ danger of a total sub-
version of autiiority, and the introduction oi general anarch v
and confusi«i>, cicko's ojrat19,nps-j



1^4 ^he English Header. Fart I-

SECTION II.

t

Speech of Adherbal to the Reman Senate, imploring their
prutection against Juguktha.

FATHtlRS!

It is known <o jon, that king Micipsa, my father, on his-
death bed, left in charge to Jijgurth, Ins adopted son, con*
junctiy with my unforliiniite brother Hiempsai and myself,
the ciiiklren nf his own body, the administiation ol the king-?
dom of N;imidia, directing us to consider the senate and
people of Rome as proprietors of it. He charged^ us to use
cur best endeavours to be serviceable to tho Ronsan com-
inonwealth ; ass'rinj^ us, tiiat your protection would prove
a defence against all enemies ; aod would be instead ot ar-
mies, fortjiications, and treasures.

While my brotlier and 1 were thinlung of nothing but
how to regulate ourselves according to the directions of our
decea^ed father — Jugurtha — the most infamous of mankind/
breaking through all ties of gratitude and of common hu»
man:tv,an(i trampling on the authority of the Roman com-
monwealth, procured the murder of my unfortunate bro-
ther ; and has driven me trom my throne and native couo-
4r>, though he knows I inherit, trom my grandfather Mas-
siiiissa, and my father Micipsa, the friendship and alliance
*>!' i e Rom.ans.

For a prince to be reduced, by villany, to my dreadful
circum.-tances, is calaniitv enough ; but my misfortunes are
b.^i^htened by the consideration — that I find myself obleged
tosoUcit your assistance, fathers, for the services done you
py^my ancestors, nut for any 1 have been able to render you
in my own person. Jugurtha has put it out of my power to
deserve any thiog at yiuriiands; and has forced me to be
burtlensome, bi'lore I could be useful to vou. And yet, if I
hvd no plea, but rny undeserved n.iserv— a once puwerlul
j)iience, tlie descendant < f a race of illu->trious monarchs,
liow, without any fault of my own, destitute ot every sup-
port, and reduced to the necessity of begging foreign assis-
tance, against the enemy wiio has seized my throne and my
kingdonuif my unequalled distres.">es were all I had to plead
— It would become the greatness of the Roman common-
wealth, to p!(tect tiie injured, and to check the triumph
ol daring wickedness over helpless innocence. But, to pro-
voke your resentment to the utmost, Jugurtha has drivea
me from the \ery dominions, which the senate and people
of Rome gave to my ancestors ; and, from which, my grand •
father, under your umbrage, expelled Syphax and the Car-
haginiang. Thus, fathers, your kindness to our tamily is



.c



Chvp, a* Fuhlic Speeches^ US

defeated ; and Jugurtha, injuring me, throws contempt up»
on jou.

O wretched prince ! Oh cruel reverse of fortune ! Oh fa*
ther Micipsa .' is this the consequence of thy generosity ;—
that he whom thy goodness raised to an equality with thy
own children, should be the murderer of thy chileren r-^
Must, then, the royal house of Numidia always be a scence
of havoc and blood ? While Carthage remained, we sufr
fered, as was to be expected, all sorts of hardships from
their hostitle attacks ; our enemy near ; our only powerful
ally, the Roman commonwealth, at a distance. When that
scourge of Africa was no more, we congratulated ourselves
on the prespect of established peace. But, instead of peace,
behoM the kingdom of Numidia drenched with royal blood !
and tile only surviving son of its late king, flying from an a-
dopted murderer, and seeking that safety in foreign parts,
which he cannot command in his own kingdom.

Whither— Oh 1 whither shall ( fly r If 1 return to the
royal palace of my ancestors, my father's throne is seized
by the murderer of my brother. What can I there expect,
but that Jugurtha should hasten to embrue, in my blood,
those hands wnich are now recking with my brother's ? If
I were to ttv for refuge, or for assistance to any other court,
from what prince can I hope for protection, if the Roman
commonwealth give me up ? From my own family or friends
I have no expectations. My royal father is no mot e. He is
beyond the reach of violence, and out of hearing of the com-
plaints of his unhappy son. \yere my brother alive, our
mutual sympathy would be some alleviation. But he is
hurried out of life, ia his early youth, by the very iiand
which should have been the last to injure any of tae royal
family of Numidia. The bloody Jugurtha has batciered all
whom he suspected to be in niy interest. JSoiiie have beea
destroyed by the lingering; torme^nt of the cross. Others
have been given a prey to wild beasts; aud heir anguish,
made the sport of men more cruel than wild blasts. If tuere
be any yet alive, t^iej are shut up i:i dungeons, there to drag
out a life more intolerable than deatii itself.

Look down, illustrious senators of Rotno .' from that
height of power to which you are raised, on the u.i-:»xaia-
pled distresses of a prince, who is, by the cruelty of a wick-
ed intruder, become an outcast from all mankind. L-t nut
the crafty insinuations of him who returns murder for ailop-
tion. prejudice your judgment. Dj not listen to the wre^.ch
Viho has butchered the son and relations of a kin^, who gav©
biif! power to sitoa the same throae witti his owq sous.— I



]'2^ The English Eead^i:- rart 1.

have been informeM, t'nat he labours bj his emissaries to
prevent voir tlet',>tminin:^ any thin^ a<i:uinst him in las ab-
sence/ preteiulljio^ tiiat [ ma2;nify my (lis ress, and miy;ht
orhim, have staid in peace in my own kinsidom. But, if
ever the time comes, when the due vengeance from above
<;hall overtake him, he will then dissemble as I do. Then
he, who now, hardened in wickedness, triumplis over those
whom his violence has laid low, will, in his turn, feel dis-
tress, and snftVr for his impious ingratitude to my father, and
his biood-thiisty crut-lty to my brother.

Oh murdered, butchered brother! Oh dearest to my hearfc
— now gone for ever from my sight ! but why should I la-
TTK-Mt his death ? He is, indeed, deprived of the blessed li2;ht
of heaven, of life, and kingdom, at once, by the very person
who ought to have been the first to hazard his own life,
in defence of any one of Micipsa's family. But, as things
are, my brother is not so much deprived of these comforts,
as delivered from terror, from flight, from exile, and the
pndless train of miseries witich render life to me a burden.
He lies full low, jjored with wounds, and festering in his
own blood. But he lies in peace. He feels none of the mis-
eries which rend my soul with agony and distraction, while
I am set up a spectacle to ail mankind, of the uncertainty
of human aff.iirs. So far fiojn havino it in my power to
punish his munlerer, I am not master of the means of sucu-
ring my own life. 80 far from being in a condition to de-
fend my kingdom from the violence of the usurper, lam O"
Ulijred to apply forforei^i?! protection for my own person.

Fathers! Senators r^f Rotne ! the arbiters of nations! to
y(<u I fly for refuse froi^i the murderous fury of Jugurtha. —
By your ailection for v our children ; by your love foryoui*
country ; by your own virtues ; by the majesty of the Ro-
man commonwealth ; by all that is sacred, and all that is-
dear to vo'j — deliver a wrethed orioce from unriesejved^
T=(P!Ov>)ked Injury ; and save the kingdom of Numidia*
'. hich is your own property, from being the prey (|jjv! ;lence,
L<ar|ja!ion, and cruelty. sali.l^st.

SECTION HI.

Tug Apostle Paul's noble defence befor Fkstus aiul A-

GRIPI'A.

Agkippa said unto Paul, thou :ivt permitted to speak for
thyself. Then Paul stretched forth his hand, and answereiV
for iiimsclil



Chap. 8. Public Speeches. mj.

I think myself happy, kins Agrippa, because I shall an-
swer for myself this day before thee, concerning all the
things whereof I am accust d by the Jews; especially, as I
know thee to be expert In all customs and questions which
are among the Jews. Wherefore 1 beseech thee to hear me
patientlv.

My manner of life from my youth, which was ai the first
among mv own nation at Jerusalen), known to ail the Jews;
who knew me from the be2;inning, (if they would testify,)
that after the sttaitest sect of our religion, I Ijvetl a Phari-
see. And now I stand and am judged for iho. hope of the
promise made by God to our fathers ; to which promise, our
twelve tribes, continually serving God day and night, hope
to come ; and, for this hope's sake, king Agrippa, 1 am ac-
cused by the Jews.

Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you,
that God should raise the tiead r I verily thought with mv-
self, that I ought to do many thino;s contrary to the name of
Jesus of Nazareth : and this I did in Jerusalem. Manv of
the saints I have shut up in prison, bavins; received author-
ity from the chief priests : and when they were pur to death,
I ga\e my voice against them. And I often punished them
in every synas'igue and compelled them to biasplieme; and
being exceedis^gly mad against them, I persecuted them e-
ven unto strange ctties. But as I went to Demascus, with,
authority and commission from the chief priests, at mid-
day, O king! I saw in the way a light from heaven, above
the brightness of the sun, shiniiig: round about me, and lh«-m
who journeyed with me= And when we were all fallen to the
earth, I heard a voice speaking to me and saying, in the
Hebrew tongue,. Saul, Saui, why persecutest thou me r —
It is hard for tiiee to kick against the prick«^. .\nd I said,
whoart tiiou. Lord ? And he replied, lam Jesus u horn thou
persecutest. 3ui rise, and stand upon thy feet ; for I have
appearer! to theo for thi-i purpose, to m ike (hee a minister,
and a witness both of these things, which thou hast seen,
and of tho-e things in which I will appear to thee ; deliv-
ering V'AQ^ from the people, and from the Gentiles, to whom
I ;k»w send thee, to open tiieir eyes, and to turn them from

darkness- to light, and from the povver of Satan to God ;

thai they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance
amongst them v.ho are sanctified by faith that is in me.

Whereupon, O king Agrippa ! I was not disobedient to
the heavenly vision; but showed first to them of Damascus,
and at Jerusalem, and through all the coasts of Judea, and
then to the Gentiles, that they should repent, and turn ta



1J48 ^Vie Ens^lish Reader, 'Fart i,



'O



God, and do works for repentance* For these causes, the
Je vscought me in the temple ; and weni about to kill me.
Having, however, obtained help from God, 1 continue to
this day, witnessing both to small and great, saying nooth^
er things than tiiose which the prophets and Moses declared
fehouldcome; that Christ should suft'er ; that he would be
ihi' first who should rise from the dead ; and that he would
show light to the people, and to the Gentiles.

And as he thus spoke for himself, Festus said, with a loud
voice, " Paul, thou art beside thyself; much learnighath
made thee mad." But he replied, I am not mad, most noble
Fr.^tus ; but speak the words of truth and soberness. For
the king knoweth these things, before whom I also speak
freely. ^ 1 am persuaded that none of these things are hid-
d^en from him : for this thing was not done in a corner. King
Agrippa, believestthou the prophets? I know that thou be-
lievest. Then Agrippa said to Paul, " Almost thou per-
"Saudest me to be a Christian." And Paul replied, *• I would
to God, that not only thou, but also all that hear me this
day, were both almost, and altogether such as I am, expect
these bonds**'^ acts xxvi.

SECTION IT.

Lord Mansfield's speech in the House of Peers, 1770, on
the bill for preventing the delays of Justice, by claiming
the Frivilege of Farliament^

My Lords,

When I consider the importance of this bill toyour lord-
ships, I am not surprised it has taken up so much of your
consideration. It is a bill, indeed, of no cumnion niagnitude,*
it is no less than to take aw? y from two thirds of the legis-
lative body ot this great kingdom, certain privileges and
immunities of which tliey have been long possessed. Per-
haps there is no situation the human mind can be placed m,
that is so difficult and so trying, as when it is made a judge
in its own cause. There is something implanted in the

* How happy was this great Apostle, even in t!ie most perilous
Circumstances ! Though under bonds and oppression his mind
was free, and raised above every fear of man. With what dig-
nity and composure does he defend himseii, and the noble cause
he had espoused ; whilst he displays the most compassionate and
generous feelings, for those who were strangers to the sublime r^ .
lig^ion by wlaich he was animated J



C^ap. t. Public Speeches. \9»

breast of man so attached to self, so tenacious of privileges
once obtained, that in such a situation, either to discuss u ith
im partial it J, or decide with justice, has ever been held the
summit of all human virtue. The bill now in question puts
your lordships in this very predicament ; and I have no
cfoubt tlie uisdom of your decision will coiivince the world,
that where self-interest and justice are in opposi>^e scales,
the latter will ever preponderate with your lorpships.

Privileges have been granted to legislators in all ages^
and in all conntries, — The practice is founded in wisdom ;
and, indeed, it is peculiarly essential to the constitution of
this country, that the members of both houses should be free
in their persons, in cases of civil suits: for there may come
a lime when the safety and vvelfare of tliis whole empire,
may depend iip.»n their attendance in parliament. I am far
from advising any measure that would in future endanger
the state : but the bill before your lordships has, I am con-
fident, no such tendency; for it expressly secures the per-
sons of members of either house in all civil suits. This be-
ing the case, I confess, when I see many noble lords, for
whose judgment I have a great respect, standing up to op-
pose a bill which is calculated merely to facilitate the re-
covery of just and legal debts, lam astonished and amazed.
'J'hey, I doubt not, oppose the bill upon public principles : I
would not wish to insinuate, that private irUerest had the
least weight in their determination.


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Online LibraryLindley MurrayThe English reader , or, Pieces in prose and poetry : selected from the best writers ; designed to assist young persons to read with propriety and effect ; to improve their language and sentiments ; and to inculcate some of the most important principles of piety and virtue ; with a few preliminary o → online text (page 13 of 25)