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Lionel J. (Lionel James) Trotter.

The history of the British Empire in India from the appointment of Lord Hardinge to the political extinction of the East India Company, 1844 to 1862. Forming a sequel to Thornton's History of India online

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Online LibraryLionel J. (Lionel James) TrotterThe history of the British Empire in India from the appointment of Lord Hardinge to the political extinction of the East India Company, 1844 to 1862. Forming a sequel to Thornton's History of India → online text (page 1 of 28)
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HISTORY OP THE

BRITISH EMPIEE IN INDIA.

IN TWO VOLS.— VOL. I.



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* I



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y



THE ^/f{jl}i/:>€yP<



HISTOUT



BRITISH EMPIRE IN INDIA



THE APPOINTMENT OF LORD HAEDINGE TO THE POLITICAL
EXTINCTION OF THE EAST-INDIA COMPANY.



1844 TO 1862.
FOEMING A SEQUEL TO

THORNTON'S HISTORY OF INDIA..



By LIONEL JAMES TROTTER,

hatf of ihp Sn^ Bengal Fusilier*, •



IN TWO VOLS.— VOL. I.



LONDON:
Wm. H. ALLEN & CO., 13, WATERLOO PLACE,

PALL MALL, S.W.

1866.



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V /



:>ro't ■ I- ■ C C ciepc



1



COX AND WTMAN,

ORIENTAL, CLASSICAL, AND OKNERAL PRINTERSy

GREAT (^UEEN STREET, W.C.



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PREFACE.



TN the following pages I have striven to put
together a true, concise, I would fain hope
a readable narrative of events in British India
during the last years of the old Company*s rule.
The first volume brings the history down fi*om
the appointment of Lord Hardinge to the retire-
ment of the Marquis of Dalhousie. The second,
now not far from completion, will carry the
reader onwards through the eventful reign of
Lord Canning to the final enthronement of a
parliamentary Coimcil, in the place of that great
Company in whose name, under the shadow of
whose authority, our Indian Empire had grown
ajid grown with gourdlike swiftness, from a little
island on the west coast to a dominion wellnigh
co-extensive with the whole broad peninsula.
The period of history thus embraced, remarkable
in itself for many great events, sweeping changes,



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VI PREFACE.

for splendid conquests moral and material, for
one tremendous uprising of Eastern pride, igno-
rance, Ambition, fanaticism, against Western zeal,
learning, haughtiness, strength of will, readiness
to trample on all opposing claims of feeling or
tradition, has yet to be handled in all its fulness
of suggestive details by some fiiture Milman
gifted with all the special knowledge of the late
Mr. James Mill.

Meanwhile, as that period forms a fitting com-
plement to Mr. Edward Thomton*s history of
British India, I have ventured, with the leave
of Mr. Thomton*s publishers, to furnish the
general reader with a connected narrative of
events, which a very small amount of literary
cunning should suffice to render interesting in
his eyes. Should the venture prove a failure,
the author, not his subject nor the reader*s taste,
will probably be most to blame. It may even
be that in trying to avoid prolixity, he has erred
from over-compression; that in seeking within
certain limits to render his work complete, he
has crowded his page with more incidents than
the reader's memory can well digest. It would
certainly have cost him far less eflfort to spread
his matter, after the difFiise fashion of the day.



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PBEFACE. Vll

over four volumes instead of two. A due regard
however for the reader*s patience seemed to
forbid his following the easier method, in de-
fiance of his own artistic theories.

In aiming to write a popular, I have still been
true, I trust, to the paramoimt duty of com-
posing a trustworthy book, as the fiiture of
British India depends so largely on our right
imderstanding of her past, especially her recent
past, it behoves all who write about her to clear
their own minds of ill-groimded prejudices,
political, social, or religious, to study events and
questions in the largest spirit of enlightened
tolerance, ccJmparatively heedless of any popular
outcry coming whether from Calcutta or Exeter
Hall, from the party of Toimg Bengal or that of
the old Indian Civil Service. Judicial calmness,
so needful in any historian, is more than ever
needed in the handling of Indian themes. Our
government of India should rest on no narrower
base than the one great rule of Christian conduct,
" Do unto others as you would they should do
imto you.'* A history of India written in the
interests of any particular class or creed or
service, would be simply a mischievous imtruth.
If in the following pages I have anywhere failed



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Vlll PEEFACE.

in acting up to the spirit of my own rules, the
failure must be set down to other causes than
a want of will to judge fairly.

For another want, that of references to docu-
ments consulted, fault will perhaps be found with
the present work. All I can say is, that such
references would have taken up precious room,
for no countervailing good to the English reader.
The sources whence I have gathered my ma-
terials are open to all students alike, with this
only difference, that some of the facts described
or named by others came under the further
witness of my own eyes and ears. A list
however of the main authorities for my first
volume will be found on the next page.

L. J. T.

September 13, 1865.



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LIST or AUTHORITIES.



Allen's Indian Mail, from 1844 to 1856. 18 volumes. London :
W, H. AUm ^ Co,

CXPTAITX CUNNINOHAIC'S HiSTOBT OF THE SiKHS, to the close of the

Sutlej campaign. London : Murray.

Mawson'b Becords of the Indian Command of Snt G. J. Napibb.
Calcutta : Lepage & Co,

Abnold's Mabqxtib of Dalhousie'b Administbation of Bbitibh India.
2 Tolomes. London : Sawnden, Otley, A Co.

Sib C. Jackson's Vindication of Lobd Dalhousie's Indlln Admi-
NiBTBATiONi London : SrnUti de Elder.

Campbell's Adventubbs among the Khonds, etc. London: Murray.

Kate's Histobt of the Administbation of the East India Com-
pany. London : BentUy,

Impbovements in the Administration of India dubino the last
Thibty Yeabs. London : W. H. Allen <fe Co,

Thackwell's Nabbatiyb of the Second Sikh Wab. London : BeiUley.

JOUBNAL OF A SUBALTSBN DUBINO THE PUNJAB CAMPAIGN. Edinburgh

and London : W. Blackwood.

Majob Edwabdes's Yeab ON THE VuNJAB Fbontisb. 2 Tolumes.
London : BenUey.

Laubie's Second Bubmese Wab. 2 volumes. London : Smith A Elder.

Kate's Histobt of the Sepot Wab in India. London : Allen A Co.

Calcutta Beview. Saundbbs's Magazine fob all India. Official
Recobds. Pabuambntabt Papebs, etc.



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■i



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.



PIGB
1
5

6

8

9

13



Rdirospeot

Sir Henry Hardinge, 1844

Matinies in Bengal Army

Sinde

The Panjab

British India

Bombay .. .. .. ..14

Borneo ..16

China 17

SirH. Pottinger 17

Legislation 19

Public Works in North-west . . 19

PriTate Enterprise 20

Dr. Wolff in Bokhara .. .. 21

Other Events of the Year . . 22

Sir W. Nott's Death, 1846 . . 23

Lord Metcalfe 23

Campaign in Trukkie Hills . . 24

Napier in Sinde 26

End of Sonih Mahratta War . . 29

Colonel Wallace 30

LocalAffiurs 31

Bombay 82

Colonel Bobertson ..83

Madras 84

Calcutta 35

Bnrdwan 36

Legislation ..86

Native Education 87

The Lawrence Asylum 37

Bengal 38

Overland Mail 39



Sugar Duties

The Sattarah Question . .

The Ameers of Sinde

The Panjab

Death of Jow&her Singh . .

The coming War . .

The First Sikh War

Battle of Moodkee

Results of the Fight

March to Ferozshuhur . .

Battle of Ferozshuhur

Night on the Field

End of the Fight ..

British Losses

Moral Effect of the Yiotoxy

TheAffiurofBuddowal ..

Battle of Aliwal ..

Changed Views of Golab Singh

Before Sobraon . .

Battle of Sobraon, 1846 ..

March upon Lahore

Treaty with Dhuleep Singh

Disbanding of Sikh Troops

Rewards to the Victors . .

Outbreak at Lahore

Snrrender of Ejwgra

Fall of Barracks in Loodiana

Sinde

Outbreak in Malwa
Rising among the Khonds
The Patna Plot . .
Government Manifesto



FAOB

89

40
40
41
43
44
46
48
50
51
52
54
55
57
58
60
62
65
65
66
71
72
78
73
74
75
76
77
77
77
79
80



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xu



HISTORY OF THE



PAOB

DiBturbanoee in Ondh . . 80

Hyderabad 81

Bhopal 81

Moolraj at Lahore 82

Eidng in Cashmere . . 88
Treaty of Bhairowal .. ..84

Borneo 85

Nepal 87

Death of Dwarkan^th Thakoor .. 88

Hindu Bigotry 90

Spread of Liberal Ideaa . . . . 91

Biota in l^nnevelly . . 91
Intellectoal Movement among the

Natives 98

The Railway Movement . . . . 98

Other Events of the Year . . 94
Death of the Rajah of Travan-

core 95

The first Months of the New Year

1847 96



VAGB

Reforms in the Native States . . 97

Plots at Lahore 97

Fighting in Sinde . . . . 98

Sir 0. Napier's Retirement . . 99

His Character 99

DhooDgnr Singh 101

Riot in Jalnndar . . . . 102

TheKhondWar 102

The Rajah of Ungool .. ..108
Campbell's Suooesses in Bode . . 104
Death of the late Rajah of Sattira 105
Events in the Native States .. 105
Surrender of Shere Mo h ammad,
the " Lion of Meerpore " . . 106

Piracy in Borneo 107

New Spur to Hindoo Learning . . 108
The new Cathedral of Calcutta .. 108
Industrial Enterprise .. ..108
Changes in the Government . . 109
Retirement of Lord Harding^ . . 109



CHAPTER IL



PAGS

Arrival of Lord Dalhousie, 1848. . Ill
Change of Governors in Madras
and Bombay .. .. .. Ill

Commercial Crash .. .. 112

Thuggee in the Punjab .. .. 113

Ragojee Bangria 114

Local Incidents elsewhere .. 114

First Acts of the new Government 115
Suspension of Sir T. Turton .. 116

Roorkie College 117

The Punjab 117

Treachery of Moolraj . . 118

Question of Moolraj's Guilt .. 120
March of Edwardes and Cortlandt 122
Battle of Eineyrie .. ..128

Battle of Suddosam .. ..125

Plots at Lahore 125

Rising of Maharaj Singh . . . . 126



March of General Whish on Mool-

tan 128

First Siege of Mooltan .. ..129
Raising of the Siege . . . . 181
Spread of the Sikh Revolt .. 133

Causes of its Success . . . . 184
Rising in Jaltlndar . . . . 136

Preparations for War . . . . 137
Events near Mooltan .. ..138
Battle of Soorajkhond .. ..140
Advance of the main Army to-
wards Ranmuggur .. .. 143
Action beyond Ramnuggpir . . 145
Lord Gough in Camp . . . . 148
Sir J. Thackwell's Flank March

across the Cbenab .. ..149

Battle of Sadoolapore ..151

Shere Singh's Retreat ..152



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BBITISH EMPIRE IN INDIA.



XUI



Lord Gongh's magniloqaent De-
spatch 158

Tnie Cause of his long Inaotion. . 155
Death and Character of Colonel

Sutherland 156

Seizure of Pertab Chnnd . . .. 158
Progress of Brigadier Wheeler .. 159
Erents in Jaltindar . . 159

The Siege of Mooltan renewed . . 160
Grand Attack on Suburbs . . 161

Attack upon the City . . 168

Fearftil Explosion ..164

Storming of the City . . . . 165
Inyestment of Citadel ..167

Moolraj surrenders at discretion,

1849 169

Rich Plunder in the Fort .. 171

Reburial of Anderson and Agnew 172
Whish starts for Ramnuggur . . 172
Lord Gough's March upon Rns-

sool 174

Battle of ChUianwalla .. ..176

After the Battle 188

The British Loss 186

Shere Singh attempts to treat . . 187
Public Criticisms on Lord Gough 188
His Tactics vindicated ..189

Shere Singh's Flank March .. 191



PAGB

Movements of Shere Singh and

General Whish 192

Gough starts in Pursuit of the

Enemy 198

Battle of Goojrat 194

Loss on each Side 200

Gilbert's Chaqe of the routed

Enemy 201

Shere Singh treats for Surrender 208
Sixteen Thousand Sikhs lay down

their Arms to Sir W. Gilbert . . 204
Pursuit of the A%hans to Peshawar 205
Lord Dalhousie's Proclamation an-
nexing the Punjab . . . . 206
Scene in the Lahore Durbar . . 208
Transfer of the Koh4-noor to the

Queen of England ..209

Gough's FareweU to the Army of

the Punjab 210

Rewards for himself and his

Soldiers 211

Punishment of the Sikh Leaders 218
Trial and Sentence of Moolraj . . 214
Dalhousie's able Minute on the

Annexation 215

Sketch of the new Conquests . . 217
Peaceful Attitude of the Punjabies

at large 218



CHAPTER IIL



First Tears of the Punjab under
British Rule (1849-50) . . . . 219

Escape of the Queen-Mother from
Chunar 222

Sir Charles Napier Commander-in-
Chief 228

Appa Sahib's Rebellion . . . . 223

The Nizam's Debt to the Indian
Goyernment 224

MopkUi Outbreak in Malabar . . 225



VAQM

Disaster at Trichinopoly . . . . 226
Sickness and Disasters in various

Parts of India 227

New Acts passed by the Indian

Legislature 228

Failure of the "Black Act" .. 280
Mr. Bethune's School for Middle-
class Hindoo Girls . . 231
Successes against the Sarawak
Pirates 282



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XIV



HISTORY OF THE



PAOB

AnnexatioQ of Sattara . . 284

Col. Campbell amongst the Rhonda 286
Events in the Ynsufcai Coontry

aad in Sikkim 241

Outbreak among the Aireedies of

Kohat,1850 244

Mntiniea in the 82nd and 66th

native In&ntry 247

Oatbreak in the Agra jail . . 251

Dreadful Explosion off Benares . . 258
Disturbance in Oudh . • . . 254
Doings of the Govemor-G eneral . . 255
Betirement of Sir Charles Napier 257
Trial of JotiePersh&d .. ..250
Sickness among the Troops in the
Punjab and North' west Provinces 268
Disturbances on the Punjab Fron-
tier and in Assam, 1851
Moplah Outbreak at Kollatoor
Disordered State of Oudh and the

Deooan

India at the Great Exhibition
Sir Colin Campbell's Campaign
against the Momands and Yu<

sufzaies

Religious Riots in Bombay
Colonel Outram's Raid against

''KhutpafinBaroda..
Dethronement of Meer Ali Morad,

1852

Causes of the Second Burmese War 278
First Blow struck by the Burmese 280
Contumacy of the Burman Govern-
ment 282

Capture of Martaban . . . . 284
Combined Attack on Rangoon . . 285
Progress of the Land-forces . . 288
The Naval Attack ..290



263
265

267
269



271

274

276
277



PAGE

Final Capture of the Dagoon Pa-
goda 291

Progress of the War . . 294
Capture of Bassein .. 296
Burman Attack on Martaban re-
pulsed 299

First Capture of Pegu .. .. 800
State of Ai^rs at Rangoon . . 802
Captain Tarleton's Raid up the

River to Prome 803

Governor-General's Visit to Ran-
goon 806

Death of the Duke of Wellington 807
Occupation of Prome . . 308

Events in October 810

Second Capture of Pegu . . . . 811
Relief of the Pegu Garrison . . 313
General Godwin's Pursuit of the

Burmese 816

Pegu annexed by Proclamation to

British India 319

Burmese Attacks on Prome . . 320
Clearing of the Aeng Pass . . 320

March of General Steel's Column
from Martaban to Shua-Gheen,

1853 821

March to Tongboo . , . . 323

Dashing AfiHir near the Bassein

River 325

Captain Loch's Failure near Dona-

bew 826

Sir John Cheape's Campaign against

Myahtoon 328

The King of Bnrmab refases to

sign a Treaty ceding Pegu . , 335
Peace proclaimed by the Governor-
General 338

Eud of the Second Burmese War 339



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BRITISH BMPIBB IN INDIA.



XV



CHAPTER IV.



PAOB i

Progress of the Punjab under John
Lawrence, the Chief Commis-
sioner 341

Great Gathering at Amritsir to
put down In&nticide . . . . 843

Deaths of Sir W. Gilbert, Sir C.
Napier, Colonel Mackeson, and
Mr. James Thomason . . . . 844

Mortality in various Parts of India

during 1853 846

Progress of Indian Railways and

the Electric Telegraph . . .. 847
Private Enterprise .. ..848

Affiurs on the Punjab Frontier. . 849
State of Things in Hyderabad,

Oudh, Bhawalpore, Gwalior . . 849
Beforms in the Postal Department 851
Ajinexation of Nagpore .. .. 851
Progress of the new India Bill

through Parliament . . 852

Opening of the Ganges Canal, 1854 858

Betirement of its Engineer, Colo-
nel Cautley 861

Absorption of Jhansi . . . . 861

Question of Succession to the
Lordship of Kerowlie . . . . 862

Rejection of Doondoo Pant, the
"Kana's" Claim to the Pension
ofBajiBao 863



PAQI

Remaining Events of 1854 .. 364
First Sittings of the new Legisla-
tive Council for India . . . . 864

Events in 1855 865

Lord Dalhousie's Imperial Outlay

on Public Works .. ..866

Efforts of Government to put down
the Practice of Torture on the
part of Native Underlings . . 867
Outbreak of Santhals in Lower

Bengal 868

Suppression of the Outbreak .. 872
Disturbances in other Parts of

India 874

Annexation of Oudh, in obedience
to Orders from the Home Go-
vernment^ 1856 876

Views of Sir W. Sleeman regard-
ing Oudh 378

Advice of Lord Dalhousie . . 379

Grief of the dethroned King .. 380
State of Public Feeling on the

Matter 381

Retirement of the Marquis of Dal-
housie. — His Character and
Services considered . . . . 882
Remarriage of Hindoo Widows . . 885
Dalhou8ie*s Choice of Subalterns 886
His Indian Policy approved of in
India 387



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XVI



APPENDIX.



EXTRACTS
FROM LORD DALHOUSIE'S FAREWELL MINUTE.



Internal Condition of India
General Revenue of India
Trade of India



PAOB

891
. 892
. 892



Surplns and Deficiency of Gene-
ral Reyenue



King of Delhie 892

Mahan^ah Doleep Sing and Prin-
cess of Coorg 898

Prison Discipline 898

Education 894

Great Measures of Material Im-
provement 895



PAQB

395



Railways

Post-office 898



Electric Telegraph . . . . 899

Agriculture . . . . . . 408

Ganges Canal 408

The European Soldier . . . . 405

Seniority no longer allowed to
determine Appointments to
Command 406

Military Prisons 407



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HISTORY



BRITISH EMPIRE IN INDIA.



CHAPTEK I.

The story told in the following pages opens chap. i.
with the forced retirement of Lord BUenborough, a.d. i844-
in 1844, from the post which, but two years back,
he had taken over from Lord Auckland. Those
years, however, had been marked by achievements Retrospect,
many and great enough to redeem that short
career from future obhvion. The new Governor-
General landed in India at a time of deep gloom,
of fearful anxiety, of huge disaster, of overwhelm-
ing disgrace. The whole Affghan country up in
arms against the foreign upholders of Shah
Soojah; thousands of Englishmen and Sepoys
lying stiff amidst the snows of Affghan passes in
expiation of their commanders* foolishness, of
their rulers' unrighteous blimdering ; the rest of
the British-Indian garrisons shut up for their

b



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Z HISTORY OF THE

CHAP. I. lives in Ghuznee, Oandahasr, Jellalabad, by swarms
A.D. 1844. of foemen thirsting for the blood of infidels and
invaders ; all India teeming with dark rumours,
restless with half-formed hopes, heaving with a
vague delight at each new tale of disaster to the
British arms ; — such was the plight of things
when Lord EUenborough first set foot in the
Government House of Calcutta.

A few months pass away, the sky is already
fast clearing, and, almost in his own despite. Lord
EUenborough becomes a kind of hero. After
much pressing and many qualms, he has allowed
his able generals, Nott and Pollock, to "retire
from Afighanistan by the way of Oabul;'* a
movement which the hero of Candahar and the
victor of Tezeen.carry out with a thoroughness that
nearly atones for the shame and the slaughters of
that last wofiil January. At Cabul, Istaliff, Ghuz-
nee, the avenging armies have left their effacing
marks on the land where rot the corpses of their
murdered coimtrymen. The gates of Somnath,
borne off from the ruins of Ghuznee, are reserved
to adorn the song of triumph composed by Lord
Ellenborough's magniloquent pen, before they are
sent on to their future resting-place in the fort
of Agra. A great disaster has been greatly re-
trieved, a dire disgrace triimiphantly avenged :
Dost Mohammed, after a narrow escape from
figuring, like the prisoners of old Rome, in a
public show, is once more, free to reign over
the people who have twice spumed his worthless



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BRITISH EMPIRE IN INDIA. 3

rival ; and India, amused, if not reassured, by the chap. i.
big words of her Governor-General, sinks back a.d. i844.
into her old acquiescence in the rule that a
moment before seemed all but certain to topple
over.

As if to fiimish fresh laurels for an ambitious
viceroy, as well as a fiirther proof of Great
Britain's unweakened power, the dispute that
followed with the Ameers of Sinde was speedily
shifted from the mild yet firm agency of Colonel
Outram, to the strong, rash hands of Sir Charles
Napier. Injustice and armed force wrought to-
gether to shed new lustre on the viceregal name,
through the briUiant conquest of an almost desert,
ruled by a brave but disunited body of princes.
The battles of Meeanee and Hyderabad, won by
a truly great captain against serious odds,
strengthened the reviving trust of the people of
India, if not in British honesty, at least in the
might of British arms.

Before the end of that same year, 1843, Sir
Hugh Gough, fresh from his Chinese victories,
had fought and won the long-doubtftd fight of
Maharajpore, on the very same day that his left
wing, under General Grey, routed another body
of Mahrattas at Punniar. Happier than Sinde,
the kingdom of Gwalior was still left under the
sway of its child-monarch, acting for the time
through a regency bound to follow the advice of
the British Resident. It was only, indeed, from
pure friendliness to the young, the helpless heir of

62



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4 HISTOEY OP THE

CHAP. I. the house of Sindiah, that a British army had been
A.D. 1844. sent across the Chumbal, in defiance of the known
resolve of the Mahratta leaders to hold such a
movement tantamount to open war.

Thus, in two short years, Lord EUenborough
has inwoven his name with the triumphant ending
of three campaigns. For the first, the whole
praise is really due to. the bold generals, who



Online LibraryLionel J. (Lionel James) TrotterThe history of the British Empire in India from the appointment of Lord Hardinge to the political extinction of the East India Company, 1844 to 1862. Forming a sequel to Thornton's History of India → online text (page 1 of 28)