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Lisa Schassberger Roe.

Status review of Cirsium subniveum on the Beaverhead National Forest, U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Region 1, Montana online

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MONTANA
STATE




This "cover" page added by the Internet Archive for formatting purposes



583.99
M Hires
1991



STATUS REVIEW OF Cirsium subniveum

ON THE BEAVERHEAD NATIONAL FOREST

U.S.D.A. FOREST SERVICE - REGION 1

MONTANA



Prepared by:

Lisa Schassberger Roe, Botanist

Montana Natural Heritage Program

State Library Building

1515 E. 6th Avenue

Helena, MT 59620



STATE DOCUMENTS COLLECTIOIl



CCT 1- 1992

MONTANA STATE LIBRARY,

1515 E. 6th AVE.
HELENA, MONTANA 59520



November 1991









This is an abridged report



For the full report please contact:



The Montana Natural Heritage Program

1515 E Sixth Ave

Helena, Montana 59620

406-444-3009



19 91 Montana Natural Heritage Program



This document should be cited as follows:

Roe, L.S. 1991. Status review of Cirsium subniveum on the

Beaverhead National Forest, U.S.D.A. Forest Service - Region
1, Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Helena, MT.
3 7 pp.



TABLE OF CONTENTS



Page



I . SUMMARY 1

II . SPECIES INFORMATION 2

A. CLASSIFICATION 3

B. PRESENT LEGAL OR OTHER FORMAL STATUS 3

C . DESCRIPTION 3

D. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 4

E . HABITAT 7

F. POPULATION DEMOGRAPHY AND BIOLOGY 9

G . POPULATION ECOLOGY 10

H. LAND OWNERSHIP 11

III. ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS 11

A. THREATS TO CURRENTLY KNOWN POPULATIONS 11

B. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND RESPONSE 12

C. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MAINTAINING VIABLE POPULATIONS. 12

D. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER ASSESSMENT 12

IV. LITERATURE CITED 13

V. ELEMENT OCCURRENCE PRINT-OUTS AND MAPS 15

VI . PHOTOGRAPH 3 6



I . SUMMARY



Cirsium subniveum is a native, perennial thistle
(Sunflower Family). The species 1 known range extends
from central Idaho to Jackson Hole, Wyoming, into
Montana (Beaverhead and Madison counties) , Utah (Box
Elder, Cache, Rich and Sanpete counties) , and northeast
Oregon (Hitchcock et al. 1955, Welsh et al. 1987) .

During field surveys conducted in 1991, seven new
occurrences of C. subniveum were located, and
additional subpopulations were added to three
previously known locations. In addition, two more
locations were entered from Montana Rare Plant Project
(herbarium) data. This brings the total number of
occurrences of C. subniveum in Montana to twelve; five
in Madison County, and seven in Beaverhead County.
Populations occur on lands managed by the Bureau of
Land Management, Dillon Resource Area; U.S. Forest
Service, Beaverhead National Forest; and on private
lands.

One factor controlling the distribution of Cirsium
subniveum in Montana is its association with unstable
rock and gravel slides. However, the species does not
appear to be tied to a particular geologic parent
material. In Montana, C. subniveum populations occur
in Pseudotsuga menziesii/Festuca idahoensis and
Pseudotsuaa menziesii/Juniperus communis habitat types
as described by Pfister et al. (1977) .

A number of the populations are in historic mining
districts that have seen some renewed attention by
geological interests in recent years. Land managers
should take these sites into consideration whenever
evaluating activities that might effect these
populations.

Only a portion of the potential habitat of C. subniveum
could be surveyed in the time allowed. Further survey
work in the Tendoy and Snowcrest ranges, and
particularly in the Gravelly Range, may reveal that C.
subniveum is more common in this portion of the state.
Due to small population sizes and low densities, C.
subniveum should remain on the U.S. Forest Service,
Region 1 sensitive species list.



II. SPECIES INFORMATION
A. CLASSIFICATION

1. SCIENTIFIC NAME: Cirsium subniveum Rydb.

2. COMMON NAME: Jackson's Hole thistle.

3. FAMILY: Asteraceae (=Compositae, Sunflower
Family) .

4. GENUS: According to Hitchcock et al. (1955),
there are perhaps as many as 200 species of
Cirsium native to the northern hemisphere, with
about 50 native species occurring in North
America. The genus Cirsium is most closely allied
with the strictly Old World genus Carduus . Dorn
(1984) lists 13 species of thistle for Montana,
several of which are introduced.

5. SPECIES: Recently, there was some confusion in
Montana of Cirsium subniveum with C. neomexicanum
var. utahense. In 1988 a collection from French
Creek ( K. Scow and E. Darfler (s.n.) . 1988, MONTU)
was identified as C. neomexicanum var. utahense by
G. Ownbey. This author made a second collection
from the same site ( Schassberger (405) . 1990, NY),
which better fit the description of C. subniveum ,
and was identified as such by Dr. Arthur Cronquist
(pers. coram. 1991) , New York Botanical Garden.
The Scow and Darfler collection was subsequently
sent to Brigham Young University, and annotated C.
subniveum by Dr. S. L. Welsh. The closeness of
these two easily confused taxa was noted by
Cronquist who stated "this species differs from
the probably closely related C. utahense chiefly
in its smaller and apparently much fewer-flowered
heads, and more northern and more montane
distribution. Further study may show the two to
be conspecif ic" (Hitchcock et al. 1955) .

Moore and Frankton (1963) suggested that C.
pulcherrimum and C. subniveum were perhaps
conspecif ic, but were uncertain because of the
advanced maturity and insect damage of the type
specimen of C. subniveum . Gardner (1974) however,
refutes this idea with morphological data from a
study of the isotypes at Rocky Mountain herbarium,
and karyological and chemical data from field
collections.



I



Nonetheless, the difficulty with the type specimen
remains as mentioned by Cronquist, and reiterated
by Moore and Frankton (1963) : "The type of C.
subniveum is more densely hairy than most of the
specimens to which the name is here applied, and
it is possible that our plants need another name"
(Hitchcock et al. 1955) . Thus, there may be two
taxa involved which both currently are called C.
subniveum .

B. PRESENT LEGAL OR OTHER FORMAL STATUS

1. FEDERAL STATUS

a. U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE: No status.

b. U.S. FOREST SERVICE: Cirsium subniveum is on
the U.S. Forest Service, Region 1 list of
sensitive species (U.S. Department of
Agriculture 1991) . Objectives and policy of
the U.S. Forest Service provide for the
management and protection of sensitive
species under sections 2670.22 and 2670.32 in
the 1984 Forest Service Manual. Under these
guidelines, the Forest Service is to (a)
"maintain viable populations of all native
species of plants" (2670.22), and (b) "avoid
or minimize impacts to species whose
viability has been identified as a concern"

(2670.32.3) .

2. STATE: Prior to the 1991 field season, Cirsium
subniveum was listed by the Montana Natural
Heritage Program as "very rare and local within
its range" (global rank G3G4) by the Montana
Natural Heritage Program (Achuff 1991) . This
species was also listed for the state as
"critically imperiled in Montana because of
rarity" (SI = 1-5 occurrences) . The current
number of known populations within the state is
twelve. There will be no change in this species'
global rank, but the state rank will be revised to
S2 (6-20 occurrences) "imperiled in Montana
because of rarity" to reflect the results of the
1991 field surveys.

C. DESCRIPTION

1. GENERAL NONTECHNICAL DESCRIPTION: This taprooted
perennial member of the thistle genus (Sunflower
Family) may grow to a height of 28 inches. The
freely-branching, slender stems are covered with



>



long white hairs, while the leaves are sparse
woolly-hairy. Leaf margins are coarsely lobed and
like most thistles, spine tipped. Solitary
flowering heads occur at the tips of branches,
with each head containing 25-50 white to light
pink, tubular flowers. Each head is also
surrounded by a ring of green bracts (the
involucre) tipped by yellow spines. The outer
bracts are sharply spine-tipped, while the inner
bracts are more lax. Cobwebby hairs connect
alternate bracts, and cross over the bract in
between to give a lace-like appearance to the
involucre (adapted from Schassberger 1991) .

2. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION: "Perennial from a taproot,
3-7 dm tall, freely branching, the stem crisp-
villous to arachnoid-f loccose or rather thinly
tomentose, often eventually glabrate; leaves
rather thinly f loccose-tomentose beneath, greener
and more glabrate above; heads terminating the
branches; involucre mostly 17-25 mm high, more or
less arachnoid-tomentose, its rather broad bracts
contracted into erect or more spreading yellow
spines 3-8 mm long, the innermost slender, but
innocuous and somewhat twisted; flowers rather
pale pink or purplish" (Hitchcock et al. 1955) .

3. LOCAL FIELD CHARACTERS: Cirsium subniveum differs
from C. neomexicanum var. utahense in its smaller
and apparently less numerous-flowered heads.
Also, the bases of the leaves are decurrent in C.
subniveum . and it has a more northern and montane
distribution (Hitchcock et al. 1955, Welsh et al .
1987) . Cirsium subniveum is distinguished from
other species in the genus found in Montana by a
number of characters: the presence of long
involucral bracts; leaves that are much reduced
upward; decurrent wings of lower leaves that are
usually longer than those of the uppermost leaves;
and involucral bracts that are pubescent with
cobwebby hairs that tend to connect alternate
bracts, and cross over the bract between (Dorn
1984) .

Due to a faulty camera, only a photograph of a
head that contains aging flowers and developing
achenes is found in Section VI, p. 36.

D. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

1. RANGE: Cirsium subniveum is known from central

Idaho to Jackson Hole Wyoming, Montana (Beaverhead



and Madison counties) , Utah (Box Elder, Cache,
Rich and Sanpete counties) , and northeast Oregon
(Hitchcock et al. 1955, Welsh et al. 1987) .

2. CURRENT SITES: In Montana, C. subniveum
populations occur in the Tobacco Root Mountains
(Stonewall Creek (009), Mill Creek (Oil), (012))
and in the Ruby Range (Laurin Canyon (001) of
western Madison County. It is also known from
southern Madison County, along the southeast edge
of the Gravelly Range (West Fork Madison (004) and
Hidden Lake (008)). In adjacent Beaverhead
County, this species occurs along the southern
flanks of the Gravelly Range (Elk Lake (002,
(006), (007)). Finally, two sites are located on
the southern flanks of the Pioneer Mountains near
Argenta (French Creek (003) , Kelly Reservoir
(010)), and one in the Tendoy Mountains (Big Sheep
Creek (005)), also in Beaverhead County.

The locations of the twelve currently known sites
for C. subniveum in Montana are shown in Figure 1,
p. 6. The legal descriptions, latitudes and
longitudes, elevations, USGS topographic map
names, and locations of the occurrences in Montana
are found in the Element Occurrence records, pp.
16-27. Exact locations are shown on U.S.G.S.
topographic maps pp. 28-35.

3. HISTORICAL SITES: None known.

4. UNVERIFIED/UNDOCUMENTED REPORTS: None.

5. AREAS SURVEYED BUT SPECIES NOT LOCATED: The
following areas were surveyed for C. subniveum
because the habitat appeared to be suitable on the
topographic maps, but the species was not located
within them. The actual areas surveyed may be
smaller than the portions of the sections
indicated.

T3S R2W Section 6, central

T3S R2W Section 7, SW^SW^

T3S R3W Section 13, SEh

T3S R4W Section 20, NE^SW^, NW^NE^j

T3S R4W Section 31, SE^SE^

T4S R3W Section 20, SE^SE^

T4S R3W Section 30, NE^NE^

T11S R1E Section 10, NE^SW^

T11S R1E Section 22, SW^NE^

T12S R1E Section 9, NW^NW^

T14S R9W Section 26, SW^SW^,




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Online LibraryLisa Schassberger RoeStatus review of Cirsium subniveum on the Beaverhead National Forest, U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Region 1, Montana → online text (page 1 of 2)