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tivity by age and sex operated in the migration to Colombia's

139



140

capital. Typical of the situation in the cities of the
developing world, migrants, especially females, are more
likely to gain a livelihood through employment in a service
occupation .

Such a cursory summary as the one above is only intended
as a final review of the major conclusions which verify exist-
ing generalizations on the topic. To present here a more
detailed summary of the findings would be repetitious, since
this is already done at the end of each chapter. It should
be worthwhile, however, to stress at this time those specific
conclusions that point to areas where further research is
needed. These are findings that deviate somewhat from the
expected patterns or which have not received much attention
in other studies.

Perhaps the most important area for future research indi-
cated by this analysis concerns the contribution of migration
to the growth of cities through the fertility of migrants.
In assessing the role of migration in influencing the growth
of urban areas, most studies have been content with estimates
of net migration. The use of the national-growth-rate method
in Chapter III and the comparison of the age distributions of
the migrant and non-migrant populations of Bogota indicate
that migrant women must have contributed a major portion, and
perhaps more than one half, of the natural increase of the
city. Studies of fertility differentials between migrant and
non-migrant women may shed some light on this topic. Also,
the possibility that many children born in the city to migrant



141

women may have been conceived before the mother moved points
to, among other things, the need to understand the role that
gestation plays in influencing the decision to move.

The unexpectedly low sex ratio of migrants in the age
group under five and even under ten years of age indicates
the necessity of investigating whether or not there is a sex
differential among migrant children. If so, it may indicate
that migration may be selective of families or persons with
predominantly female offspring, a hypothesis that has received
virtually no attention in the literature.

Another finding that is not wholly consistent with exist-
ing generalizations concerns the manner in which migration
takes place. In Chapter IV it was pointed out that although
the evidence is far from conclusive, there are indications
that a significant number of migrants moved directly from
their place of birth to the city. This is a contradiction to
the often-stated principle that migration to large urban areas
involves a series of successive moves.

The data necessary to pursue further these proposed
avenues of investigation are not currently available for Colom-
bia. In fact, it is doubtful that they are available for most
Latin American countries. Although a solution might be to
take surveys in order to tackle these questions, the full
potential of census data in migration research has not yet
been fully realized. Major improvements in the migration
data from periodic enumerations can be accomplished by



142

presenting more tabulations exclusively on the characteris-
tics of the population residing in but born outside major
cities .

The 1964 census of Colombia goes a long way in that
respect. But even after supplementing the printed census
results with unpublished tabulations, that census report also
falls short of providing the most significant materials about
migration. Specifically, what is needed are cross -tabulations
of the characteristics of the migrants (marital status, liter-
acy, educational level, economic status) by age, sex, duration
of residence, place of birth, and place of previous residence.
In this connection it should be recalled that the lack of
such cross -tabulations , particularly by age and sex, precluded
the analysis of literacy and marital status differentials in
Chapter V.

There is hope that, following a trend which is already
evident in the 1964 enumeration of Colombia, many of the
reports of the censuses of 1970 in Latin America will include
more adequate tabulations of data about the migrants to large
metropolitan centers. This may be especially true of coun-
tries such as Mexico, Brazil, and Venezuela, whose capital
cities, as in Colombia, are separate civil-administrative
divisions that merit independent tabulations. If such improve
ments are in the offing, then perhaps this study can provide
a framework as well as hypotheses which can be submitted to
a test in subsequent research which utilizes the more recent
and improved sources of data.



APPENDIX



144



Table 11

Data Used in the Preparation of Figure 1:

The Migrant Population of Bogota, D.E.,
by Departamento of Birth and by Sex, 1964







Migrant population








Ma


iles


Females


Departamento












of birth


Total


Number


Percent


Number


Percent


All departamentos


871,724


386,515


44.3


485,209


55.7


Antioquia


27,154


14,799


54.5


12,355


45.5


Atlantico


9,547


4,754


49.8


4,793


50.2


Bolivar


6,071


3,027


49.9


3,044


50.1


Boyaca


215,876


96,372


44.6


119,504


55.4


Caldas


49,961


25,378


50.8


24,583


49.2


Cauca


4,878


2,430


49.8


2,448


50.2


Cordoba


1,698


817


48.1


881


51.9


Cundinamarca


297,142


123,921


41.7


173,221


58.3


Chocd


1,704


824


48.4


880


51.6


Huila


19,216


7,6 39


39.8


11,577


60.2


Guajira


859


398


46.3


461


5 3.7


Magdalena


5,645


2,932


51.9


2,713


48.1


Meta


8,585


3,615


42.1


4,970


5 7.9


Narino


8,668


4,699


54.2


3,969


45.8


Norte de Santander


13,520


6,387


47.2


7,133


52.8


Santander


62,854


25,977


41.3


36,877


58.7


Tolima


85,649


35,414


41.3


50,235


58.7


Valle del Cauca


28,057


14,026


50.0


14,031


50.0


Intendencias y












Comisarfas


3,359


1,459


43.4


1,900


56.6


Foreign-born


21,281


11,647


54.7


9,634


45.3


Source: Compiled and comput


ed from data in


Departamento


Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica, XIII


Censo


Nacional d


3 Poblacion y II de Edificios y Viviendas,


Resumen de


Bogota,


D.E. (Bogota: DANE, 1969J ,


p. 34.



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147



Table 13

Data Used in the Preparation of Figure 3:
Last Previous Place of Residence of the Migrant
Population of Bogota, D.E. , by Residence and Sex, 1964



Last previous
depart amen to
of residence



Total



Urban Rural

Males Females Males Females



All departamentos 850,443 266,833 334,105 104,677 137,427



Antioquia


26,547


12,292


10,601


1,920


1,734


Atlantico


12,398


5,593


5,603


586


616


Bolivar


6,247


2,845


2,696


357


349


Boyaca


202,570


55,881


72,467


32,711


41,511


Caldas


50,766


21,501


20,798


4,356


4,111


Cauca


4,639


2,009


1,852


401


377


Cordoba


1,541


669


634


99


140


Cundinamarca


290,950


77,560


112,371


41,876


59,143


Choco


1,450


588


585


111


166


Huila


18,347


6,050


8,900


1,357


2,040


Guajira


901


367


381


93


60


Magdalena


5,523


2,495


2,218


394


416


Meta


14,516


5,308


5,762


1,715


1,731


Narino


7,457


3,244


2,984


620


609


Norte de Santander


13,940


5,993


6,187


803


957


Santander


59,667


18,754


25,836


5,882


9,195


Tolima


83,718


27,519


36,752


8,196


11,251


Valle del Cauca


37,324


16,451


15,641


2,700


2,532


Intendencias y












Comisarias


4,541


1,715


1,837


500


489


Not known


7,401


"* **









Source



Compiled and computed from data in Departamento
Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica, XIII Censo
Nacional dePoblacion y II de Edificios y Viyiendas ,
Resumen de Bogota, D.E ; (unpublished tabulations J ,
pp. 2 0-2 3.



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