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The Complete Works of


Volume X.

illustrate (ftabUttt ?3tiium


Volume II


Count Lev N. Tolstoy

Translated from the Original Russian and edited by

Leo Wiener

Assistant Professor of Slavic Languages at
Harvard University

Dana Estes & Company


v, /o

Copyright, 1904
Bv Dana Estes & Company

Entered at Stationer s 1 Hall

Colonial Press : Electrotyped and Printed by
C. H. Simonds& Co., Boston, Mass., U. S. A.



Part the Third 3

Part the Fourth 181

Part the Fifth 307

of lt c» uu0 °




The Harvester's Breakfast (jo. 25) . . Frontispiece
From, Painting by V. 0. Oolynski.

Meeting of Levin and Kitty ..... 65
From, Painting by A. Kivshinko.

" ' I HAVE MAI>E IT OUT '" . . . . , . 249

From Painting by Louis Meynett.

rolitoy. Vol. X.


Parts III., IV., and V.


« Vengeance is mine, I will repay."


Sergyey Ivanovich Koznyshev wanted to rest from
his mental labour, and instead of going abroad, as he
usually did, he arrived toward the end of May in his
brother's village. According to his convictions, country
life was the best. He now came to his brother's to en-
joy this life. Konstantin Levin was very glad, the more
so since he did not expect his brother Nikolay during
that summer. And yet, in spite of his love and respect
for Sergyey Ivanovich, Konstantin Levin was ill at ease
with his brother in the country. He felt ill at ease, even
annoyed, to see his brother's relation to the country.

For Konstantin Levin the country was a place of
abode, that is, of joys, suffering, labour; for SergyeV
Ivanovich the country was, on the one hand, a relaxa-
tion from labour, and, on the other, a useful antidote to
corruption, and he took it with pleasure and with the
consciousness of its usefulness. For Konstantin Levin
the country had this good in it, that it was a field for
unquestionablv useful labour ; for Sergvey Ivanovich the



country was particularly good because there it was pos-
sible and necessary to do nothing. Besides, Sergy^y
Ivanovich's relation to the people annoyed Konstantin.
Sergyey Ivanovich said that he loved and knew the
masses, frequently conversed with the peasants, which
he could do well, without feigning and pretending, and
from every such chat deduced general data in favour of
the masses, and in proof of his knowing the people. Such
a relation to the masses did not please Konstantin Levin.
For Konstantin the masses were only the chief partici-
pants in the general labour, and, in spite of all the respect
and, as it were, blood love for the peasant, imbibed by
him, as he himself said, no doubt with the milk of his
peasant nurse, he, as a participant with them in the com-
mon labour, now and then went into ecstasy over the
strength, meekness, and justice of these men, and often
again, when in the common affair other qualities were
needed, flew into a fury at the masses for their reckless-
ness, sloth, drunkenness, and lying. If Konstantin Levin
had been asked whether he loved the people, he would
have been at a loss how to answer the question. He
loved and disliked the masses, just as any other people.
Of course, being a good man, he liked more people than
he disliked, and so it was with the masses. But he was
unable to love or dislike the masses as something by
itself, because he not only lived with the masses, and not
only were all his interests connected with them, but he
even regarded himself as a part of the masses, saw in
himself and in the masses no especial virtues or defects,
and could not put himself up against the masses. Be-
sides, although he had for a long time lived in the closest
relations with the peasants, as a master and rural judge,
and, above all, as an adviser (the peasants trusted him
and came from a distance of forty versts to get his ad-
vice), he had no definite opinion about the masses, and in
response to the question whether he knew them, he would


have been as much at a loss to answer as to the question
whether he loved them. For him to say that he knew
the masses would be the same as saying that he knew
individual men. He had been all the time observing and
meeting all sorts of people, among them individual peas-
ants, whom he considered good, interesting people, and
all the time noticed in them new features, changed his
old judgments about them, and formed new ones.

SergytSy Ivanovich, on the contrary, just as he liked
and praised country life in contradistinction to the
one he did not like, even so he loved the masses in
contradistinction to that class of people which he did
not like, and even so he knew them as something differ-
ent from people in general. In his methodical mind
there were clear conceptions of the definite forms of the
popular life, deduced partly from the popular life itself,
but mainly from the contrast. He never changed his
opinion about the masses and his sympathetic relation to

In any difference of opinion that arose in the judgment
of the brothers about the masses, Sergy^y Ivanovich
always vanquished his brother, even because Sergy^y
Ivanovich had definite conceptions about them, their
character, qualities, and tastes ; while Konstantin Levin
had no definite and unchangeable view, so that in their
discussions Konstantin was continually caught contra-
dicting himself.

To Sergy^y Ivanovich, his younger brother was a fine
fellow, with a well placed heart (as he expressed it in
French), but with a mind which, though sufficiently alert,
was none the less subject to the impressions of the minute
and therefore full of contradictions. With the condescen-
sion of an elder brother he now and then explained to him
the meaning of things, but could find no pleasure in dis-
puting with him, because he beat him too easily.

Konstantin Levin looked at his brother as at a man


of enormous intellect and culture, noble in the highest
sense of the word, and endowed with the ability to be
active for the common good. But in the depth of his
soul, the older he grew and the more intimately he became
acquainted with his brother, the oftener and oftener did it
occur to him that this ability to be active for the common
good, of which he felt himself absolutely deprived, might
after all be not a virtue, but a lack of something, — not a
lack of good, honest, noble desires and tastes, but a lack
of the vital power, that which is called heart, that striving
which causes a man from all the endless paths of life that
present themselves to him to choose one and wish for
that one. The more he knew his brother, the more he
observed that Sergyey Ivanovich, like many others who
were working for the common good, had not been led
by his heart to this love of the common good, but had by
reasoning arrived at the fact that it was good to attend to
this matter, and so busied himself with it. Levin was
confirmed in this supposition of his by the observation
that his brother took the questions of the common good
and of the immortality of the soul no more to heart than
a game of chess or the ingenious structure of a new

Besides, Konstantin Levin felt ill at ease with his
brother in the country, because in the country-, especially
in the summer, he was constantly occupied with farm
matters, and the long summer day did not suffice for him
to accomplish all that was necessary, while Sergyey
Ivanovich rested himself. But, though he rested now,
that is, did not work on his book, he was so used to
mental activity that he was fond of uttering the thoughts
that occurred to him in a beautiful, compact form, and
wanted to be heard ; but the most general and natural
hearer was his brother. Therefore, despite the friendly
simplicity of their relations, Konstantin felt embarrassed
to leave him alone. Sergyey Ivanovich was fond of


lying down in the grass to bask in the sun and talk

" You will not believe," he said to his brother, " what
enjoyment I derive from this Ukrainian indolence. There
is not an idea in the head, as though it were swept clean."

But it was tiresome for Konstantin Levin to sit and
listen, especially since he knew that without him the
manure would be hauled on the unplatted field and
would be heaped up God knew how, if he did not watch
it ; and the coulters would not be screwed on to the
ploughs, but would be taken down, and then they would
say that coulter ploughs were a foolish device that could
not compare with the old-fashioned wooden ploughs, and
so forth.

" You have had enough walking in the sun," Sergyey
Ivanovich would say to him.

" I have just to run to the office for a minute," Levin
would answer, running into the field.


In the first days of June, nurse and stewardess Ag^fya
Mikhaylovna, who was taking a jar of newly pickled
mushrooms to the cellar, happened to slip and fall,
whereat she wrenched her wrist. There arrived the
young, talkative county physician, who was just fresh
from the university. He examined the hand and said that
it was not wrenched ; he enjoyed a talk with the famous
Sergyey Ivanovich KoznysheV and, to show his enlight-
ened view of things, told him all the county gossip and
complained of the bad state of the County Council.
Sergyey Ivanovich listened attentively and asked him
questions, and, incited by the new hearer, himself began
to talk. He enunciated a few pertinent and weighty
remarks, which were respectfully appreciated by the
young doctor, and came into the animated frame of
mind which was so familiar to his brother, and into
which he generally came after a brilliant and animated
conversation. After the doctor's departure, he wanted to
go to the river with a fishing-rod. Sergyey Ivanovich
was fond of fishing and seemed to be proud of liking such
a foolish occupation.

Konstantm Levin, who had to go to the tillage and the
meadows, offered himself to take his brother down in a

It was that time of the year, in the height of summer,
when the crops of the year are defined ; when the cares
for the next year's sowing have begun, and the mowing is



at hand ; when the rye is all headed and, grayish green,
waves in the wind with light, unfilled ears ; when the
green oats, with the tufts of yellow grass scattered among
them, unevenly mature over the late fields ; when the
early buckwheat is already in the seed, concealing the
ground ; when the fallows which the cattle have tramped
into a rocky mass, with the paths left through them,
which the plough does not take, are half-ploughed up ;
when the drying manure heaps in the fields smell at day-
break and at evening twilight together with the honeyed
grass, and in the lowlands, awaiting the scythe, stands a
solid sea of well-kept meadows, with the black heaps of
the weeded sorrel.

It was that time when in the field labour there comes a
short period of rest before the beginning of the annually
repeated harvest which annually calls forth all the strength
of the masses. The crops were in excellent condition, and
the summer days were clear and warm, and the nights
short and fresh with dew.

The brothers had to travel through the forest to get to
the meadows. Sergy^y Ivanovich all the time admired
the beauty of the rank-leaved forest, indicating to his
brother now an old linden, dusky from the shady side,
agleam with its yellow stipules, and ready to flower, and now
the emerald tree shoots of the present year. Konstantin
Levin did not like to talk or hear about the beauty of
Nature. Words for him detracted from the beauty of what
he saw. He assented to what his brother was saying, but
involuntarily began to think of something else. As they
emerged from the forest, all his attention was absorbed in
the contemplation of a fallow field on a mound, which
here was yellowed with grass, here rutted in squares, here
heaped in knolls, and here even ploughed up. Long files
of carts travelled over the field. Levin counted them and
was satisfied to find that everything necessary was being
hauled out, and, at the sight of the meadows, his thoughts


were transferred to the question of the mowing. Driving
up to the meadow, Levin stopped his horse.

The morning dew was still nestling on the dense under-
growth of the grass, and Sergy^y Ivanovich, to avoid wet-
ting his feet, asked his brother to take him in the cabriolet
to the willow bush near which perches bit well. Though
Konstantin Levin hated to crush his grass, he drove on
the meadow. The high grass softly wound about the
wheels and about the legs of the horse, leaving its seeds
on the spokes and hubs.

His brother sat down beneath the bush and began to
straighten out the line, while Levin took the horse a short
distance away. He tied it up and walked into the illim-
itable, grayish-green, becalmed sea of the meadow. In the
wet places the silky, ripening grass reached almost to the

Levin crossed the meadow and came out on the road,
where he met an old man with a swollen eye, who was
carrying a swarm-basket with bees.

" Well, did you catch any, Fomich ? " he asked.

" Indeed not, Konstantin Dmitrievich ! I am glad to
have kept my own. The mash fermented for the second
time — Luckily the boys came up in time. They are
ploughing at home. They unhitched the horse and rode

" What do you think, Fomich, — shall I mow, or
wait ? "

" Well, we generally wait to St. Peter's Day ; but you
always mow earlier. Well, God willing, the grass is fine.
There will be some pasturage for the cattle."

" And what do you think about the weather ? "

" That is God's affair. Maybe the weather will be all

Levin walked back to his brother.

The fish did not bite. But Sergy^y Ivdnovich did not
feel dull and seemed to be in the happiest of moods.


Levin saw that, having been stirred up by the doctor, he
wanted to talk ; but Levin wanted to get home as soon as
possible, in order to make the proper arrangement about
taking the mowers out on the next day, and to decide his
doubt about the mowing, which troubled him very much.

" Well, let us go ! " he said.

" What is the use in hurrying ? Let us sit here awhile.
How drenched you are ! The fish do not bite, but it is
nice here. Every sport is nice because you have to deal
with Nature. How charming this steely water is ! " he
said. " These meadow banks always remind me of a rid-
dle," he continued, " do you know it ? The grass says to
the water : 'And we will sway to and fro, sway to and
fro.' "

" I do not know this riddle," Levin replied, gloomily.


"Do you know, I have been thinking of you," said
Sergyey Ivanovich. " It is shameful what they are doing
in your county, as the doctor has been telling me ; he is
not at all a stupid fellow. I have been telling you, and I
tell you now : it is not good that you do not attend the
meetings and that you, in general, keep away from the
County Council. If decent people will keep away from
it, — everything will naturally go God knows how. We
pay out money which goes for salaries, and yet we have
neither schools, nor medical assistants, nor midwives, nor
apothecary shops, nor anything else."

" I have tried," Levin said, softly and reluctantly, " I
cannot, so what is to be done ? "

" What is it you cannot ? I positively fail to under-
stand it. Indifference, inability, I do not admit ; could it
really be indolence ? "

" Neither the one, nor the other, nor the third. I have
tried, and I see that I cannot do anything," said Levin.

He did not pay much attention to what his brother was
saying. He was looking beyond the river at a tilled field,
where he could make out a black spot ; he could not tell
whether it was a horse, or his clerk on horseback.

" Why can you not do anything ? You have made an
attempt, and it did not turn out as you wanted it, and so
you surrender. How can you do without ambition ? "

" Ambition," said Levin, touched to the quick by his
brother's words, " I do not understand. If I had been told




at the university that others understood integral calculus
and I did not, there would have been a case for ambition.
But here a man has first to be convinced that it is neces-
sary to have a special ability for these things, and, above
all, that all these things are very important."

" What, this is not important ? " said Sergyey Ivano-
vich, touched to the quick because his brother regarded as
unimportant that which interested him, and, more espe-
cially, because he hardly seemed to be listening to him.

" It does not seem important to me ; it does not rouse
me, so what will you do about it ? " replied Levin, having
made out that what he saw was the clerk, and that the
clerk had, no doubt, dismissed the peasants from the
ploughing. They were turning over their ploughs. " Is it
possible they are through ploughing ? " he thought.

" Listen, really," his elder brother said, with a frown on
his handsome, intelligent face, " there are limits to every-
thing. It is all very nice to be an odd and frank man, and
not to be fond of falsehood, — I understand it all ; but
what you say has either no sense or a very bad sense.
How is it that you find unimportant the fact that the
masses whom you love, as you assure me — "

" I have never assured," thought Konstantin Levin.

" — are dying without receiving any assistance ?
Coarse midwives kill the children, and the masses grow
up in stark ignorance and remain in the power of every
scribe, and you are given the means for aiding them, and
you do not aid them because, in your opinion, this is not

And Sergyey Ivdnovich placed a dilemma before him :
" Either you are so undeveloped that you cannot see what
you can do, or you do not wish to forfeit your peace, am-
bition, and I know not what, in order to do this."

Konstantin Levin felt that all he could do was to
surrender, or to acknowledge that he lacked love for
the common good. And this offended and grieved him.



" Both," he said, with determination. " I do not see
how it is possible — "

" What ? It is not possible, by properly investing the
money, to furnish medical assistance ? "

" It is impossible, as it seems to me. Over the four
thousand square versts of our county, with our thaws,
snow-storms, and working season, I see no possibility of
furnishing medical assistance everywhere. And, besides,
I do not believe in medicine."

" Excuse me, that is not just. I will give you a thou-
sand examples. Well, and schools ? "

" What are the schools for ? "

" What are you saying ? Can there be any doubt about
the usefulness of education ? If it is good for you, it is
good for everybody."

Konstantin Levin felt himself morally pinned to the
wall, and so grew excited and involuntarily expressed
the chief cause of his indifference to the common good.

" All this may be very well ; but why should I bother
myself about establishing medical centres, which I never
make use of, and schools, whither I will not send my
children, and whither the peasants do not wish to send
theirs, and whither I am not yet firmly convinced that
they ought to be sent ? " he said.

Sergy^y Ivanovich was for a moment surprised to hear
this unexpected view of things ; but he immediately formed
a new plan of attack.

He was silent for awhile, pulled out one rod, threw the
line into another place, and, smiling, turned to his brother.

" You must excuse me. In the first place, the medical
centre has done you some good. We had to send for the
county doctor to look after Agafya Mikhaylovna."

" Well, I think that her hand will remain crooked."

" That is still a question. Then again, a literate peasant
and labourer is more useful and valuable to you."

" No, you may ask whom you please," Konstantin Levin


replied, with firmness, " a literate man, as a labourer, is
much worse. You can't mend the roads with him, and if
he builds a bridge, he steals the material."

" However," Sergy^y Ivanovich said, with a frown, dis-
liking contradictions, especially such as kept jumping from
one subject to another, and disconnectedly introduced new
proofs, so that it became impossible to tell to what to
reply, " however, this is a different matter. Excuse me :
do you acknowledge that education is good for the
people ? "

" I do/' said Levin. He immediately thought that he
had said something different from what he believed. He
felt that, from his admitting this, it would be proved to
him that he was talking nonsense. He did not know how
this would be proved to him, but he knew that this would
be proved to him logically, and he waited for this proof.

The proof was much simpler than Konstautin Levin
had expected it to be.

" If you acknowledge it to be good," said Sergy^y Ivano-
vich, " you, as an honest man, cannot fail to love this
matter and sympathize with it, and, therefore, to wish to
work for it."

" But I do not yet acknowledge it to be good," Kon-
stantin Levin said, blushing.

" What ? You just said — "

" That is, I do not recognize it either as good or as

" That you cannot know, having made no effort."

" Well, let us suppose," said Levin, although he did not
at all suppose it, " let us suppose that it is so ; I still fail
to see why I should bother myself about it."

" How is that ? "

" Well, since we have gone so far in our conversation,
explain it to me from the philosophical point of view,"
said Levin.

"I cannot understand what philosophy has to do with


it," said Sergy^y Ivanovich, in a tone which to Levin
seemed to imply that he did not recognize his brother's
right to talk philosophy. And this irritated Levin.

" This ! " he said, excitedly. " I believe that the prime
mover of all our actions is, after all, our personal happiness.
Now, in the institutions of the County Council, I, as a
nobleman, see nothing which might conduce to my well-
being. The roads are no better, and cannot be better ;
the horses take me over bad roads as well. I need no
doctors and no medical centres. I need no justice of the
peace, — I never turn to him, and never will I not only
need no schools, but regard them even as harmful, as I
have told you. For me the establishments of the County
Council are merely the obligation to pay eighteen kopeks
for each desyatina, to journey to town, to sleep with bed-
bugs, and to listen to all kind of nonsense and trash, —
but my personal interest does not incite me."

" Excuse me," Sergy^y Ivanovich interrupted him, with
a smile, " it was not personal interest that incited us to
work for the emancipation of the peasants, and yet we

" No," Konstantin interrupted him, getting more and
more excited. " The emancipation of the peasants was a
different matter. There was a personal interest connected
with it. We wanted to throw off the yoke which was
crushing us, all good people. But to be a member of the
Council, to discuss how many privy cleaners are needed,
and how the pipes are to be laid in town, where I do not
live, and to be a juryman and sit in judgment over a
peasant who has stolen a ham, and for six hours listen to
every kind of nonsense rattled off by the defence and by
the prosecuting attorneys, and to the presiding judge
asking my old peasant Al^shka, the fool, ' Defendant, do
you confess to the fact of the appropriation of the ham ? '
— ' Eh ? ' "

Konstantin Levin was carried away and began to repre-


sent the presiding judge and Al^shka the fool ; it seemed
to him that that was part of his argument.

But Sergy^y Ivanovich shrugged his shoulders.

" Well, what do you wish to say ? "

" All I want to say is that all the rights which touch
me — my interests — I shall always defend with all my
power ; that, when the gendarmes used to make a domi-
ciliary search at the houses of us students, reading our
letters, I was ready with all my power to defend my
rights of education and of freedom. I understand military
service, which touches the fate of my children, my brothers,
and myself, and I am ready to discuss that which touches
me ; but to discuss how to distribute forty thousand of
the county's money, or to sit in judgment over Ale*shka
the fool, I do not understand, and never shall understand."

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