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govo. Uncle Serezha 351 is not as good as he
was before : he is not in the mood. Maria Nicho-
laievna. 352 For two days nothing has come into
my head.

During this time there was alarming news about

AUGUST] The Journal of Leo Tolstoi

the condition of the Dukhobors 353 and that Mme.
M. N. Rostovtzev was put in prison. 334 For a
long time there has been no letter from Chertkov.
Perhaps they intercept them. 355

Am going to continue to write out that which
I had not written out :

i) ...

2) There are two methods of human activity
and according to which one of these two kinds
of activity people mainly follow, are there two
kinds of people : one use their reason to learn what
is good and what is bad and they act according to
this knowledge ; the other act as they want to and
then they use their reason to prove that that which
they did was good and that which they didn't do
was bad.

3) It is absolutely clear that it is much more
profitable to do everything in common, but the
reasoning about this is insufficient. If the reason-
ing were sufficient then it would have happened
long ago. The fact that it is seen among Capi-
talists is unable to convince people to live in com-
mon. Besides the reasoning that this is profit-
able, it is necessary that the heart be ready to live
like that (that the world point of view should be
such that it would harmonise with the indications
of the reason) , but this is not so and will not be so
until the desires of the heart are changed, i.e., the
world point of view of people.


The Journal of Leo Tolstoi [1898

4) Even if that which Marx predicted should
happen, then the only thing that will happen, is
that despotism will be passed on. Now the capi-
talists rule, but then the directors of the working
people will rule.

5) The mistake of the Marxists (and not only
they, but the whole materialistic school) lies in the
fact that they do not see that the life of humanity
is moved by the growth of consciousness, by the
movement of religion, by an understanding of life
becoming more and more clear, general, meeting
all problems and not by an economic cause.

6) The most unthought thing, the error, of the
theory of Marx is in the supposition that capital
will pass from the hands of private people into the
hands of the government, and from the govern-
ment, representing the people, into the hands of
the workers. . . .

7) There is nothing that softens the heart so
much as the consciousness of one's guilt, and noth-
ing hardens it so much as the consciousness of
one's right.

8) Working people are so ... that it seems
to them they have no outlet. Salvation lies in
truth, in preaching and professing it.

9) They prove the law of the conservation of
energy; but energy is nothing else than an abstract
notion, just the same as matter. But an abstract
notion is always equal to itself. In fact, this is


AUGUST] The Journal of Leo Tolstoi

nothing else than as if we were to begin to prove
that the law of gravitation, notwithstanding seem-
ing departures, exists unchangingly in everything.
(Unclear and perhaps untrue.)

10) The belief in miracles has for its basis the
consciousness that our world just as it is, is the
product of our senses. But the error lies only in
supposing that the miraculous, that is, that some-
thing which is against the laws of reason, when
applied to our senses, can happen for us with our
tool of consciousness, i.e., with our senses. That
which is against our laws of reason, when applied
to our senses, can happen for other beings, for be-
ings with other "senses, just as our tool of con-
sciousness, our sense, is only one particular in-
stance from the innumerable quantity of other pos-

1 1 ) It is a great error to think that the reason
of man is perfect and can disclose everything to
him. The limitation of reason is best seen and
most obvious from the fact that a man cannot
solve (he clearly sees that he cannot) the problems
of infinity: for each time there is still more time,
for each space there is still more space, for each
number there is still a number, so that all time
and space is unknowable.

12) The reason of man is just as weak and in-
significant in comparison (and in an infinite num-
ber of times more so) with that which is, as is the


The Journal of Leo Tolstoi [i

reason (the means of perception) of a beetle and
an amaeba in comparison with the reason of man.
The reason of man in comparison, not only with
the highest reason, but with the reason which is
higher than his is just the same as the under-
standing of a complicated problem of higher math-
ematics or even of algebra for a man not knowing
mathematics, to whom it seems insoluble, as are
the problems of the infinity of space and time
to us. While the problem is simple and clear for
one knowing mathematics. The difference is only
in this, that one can learn mathematics, but no
study will help to solve the problem of space and
time. This is the limit of the possibility of our
knowledge under our reason.

13) I pray God that He release me from my
suffering which tortures me. But this suffering is
sent to me by God in order to release me from
evil. The master whips his cattle with the whip
in order to drive them from the burning yard and
save them, and the cattle pray that he do not
whip them.

14) There are common, sometimes intentional,
sometimes unintentional, misunderstandings of my
opinions which I confess irritate me :

a) I say that God ... is not God and that
God is that which alone is the unattainable
good, the beginning of everything: against me they
say, that I deny God ;


AUGUST] The Journal of Leo Tolstoi

b) I say that one ought not to resist violence by
violence : against me they say, that I say it is not
necessary to fight evil ;

c) I say that one ought to strive towards chas-
tity and that on this road the highest grade will
be virginity, and second a clean marriage, the third
not a clean, that is, not a monogamous marriage :
against me they say, that I deny marriage and I
preach the destruction of the human race.

d) I say that art is an infectious activity and
that the more infectious art is, the better it is. But
that this activity be good or bad, does not depend
on how much it satisfies the demands of art, i.e.,
its infectiousness, but on how much it satisfies
the demands of the religious consciousness, i.e.,
morality, conscience; against me they say that I
preach a tendence art, etc.

15) Woman and the legends say it also is
the tool of the devil. She is generally stupid, but
the devil lends her his brain when she works for
him. Here you see, she has done miracles of
thinking, far-sightedness, constancy, in order to do
something nasty; but as soon as something not
nasty is needed, she cannot understand the simplest
thing; she cannot see farther than the present
moment and there is no self-control and no pa-
tience (except child-birth and the care of children) .

1 6) All this concerns women, un-Christians, un-
chaste women, as are all the women of our Chris-,


The Journal of Leo Tolstoi [i

tian world. Oh, how I would like to show to
women all the significance of a chaste woman. A
chaste woman (not in vain is the legend of Mary)
will save the world.

17) People are occupied with three things: i)
to feed themselves, i.e., to continue their existence,
2) to multiply to continue the existence of the
specie, and 3) to fulfil that for which they had
been sent in the world: to establish the kingdom
of God. For this there is one means to perfect
onself. Almost all people are occupied with the
first two matters, forgetting the last, which at
bottom is the only real work.

18) The decline of the moral consciousness of
humanity lies in the greatest part of the people be-
ing placed in such a situation that all interest in
life for them is only to feed and to multiply. It is
just the same as if the master kept his cattle, car-
ing only that they be fed, or better, that they do
not die from hunger and that they multiply, and
never received any income from them : no wool, or
milk, or work from them from these cattle.
The Master who sent us in this world requires
from us, besides existence and its continuation, also
the labour He needs.

19) For Resurrection. It was impossible to
think and remember one's sin and be self-satisfied.
But he had to be self-satisfied in order to live, and
therefore he did not think and forgot.


AUGUST] The Journal of Leo Tolstoi

20) It is impossible to demand from woman
that she valuate the feeling of her exclusive love,
on the basis of moral feeling. She cannot do it,
because she hasn't got a real moral feeling, i.e.,
one that stands higher than everything.

To-day I plan to go home.

Aug. 4. Y. P. If I live.

Why does the 4th of August come to my mine
as if it were important? Nothing important has

To-day, August 24. Y. P.

During this time I received no letters from
Chertkov and am very perplexed. 356 I think that
during this time the Dukhobors were here. Let-
ters from Khilkov, from Ivan Michailovich. I an-
swered them all. To-day Sullerzhitsky arrived. 357
I am working all the time on Resurrection and am
pleased, even very much so. I am afraid of

. . . And I feel well. A full house of people :
Mashenka, 358 Stakhovich, Vera Kuzminsky, 359
Vera Tolstoi. 880

I am copying:

i) People were sent into the world to do the
work of God, but they quarrelled, fought and es-
tablished things in such a way that for some, there
is no time to do the work, because they have to


The Journal of Leo Tolstoi [i

feed themselves, and for others there is no time,
because they have to guard that which they took
away. What a waste of strength! It is just as
if workers had been sent to work and given food;
some have taken the food away and they have to
guard it and the others have to get food, and the
work stands still.

2) People live in the world not fulfilling their
mission it is the same way as if factory work-
ers were only busied with how to lodge them-
selves, feed themselves and amuse themselves.

3) One of the most important tasks of hu-
manity consists in the bringing up of a chaste

4) I often think that the world is such as it is,
only because I am so separated from all the rest.
As soon as my separateness from Everything will
end, then the limits will be torn away and other
limits will be established and then the world
will become altogether different for me.

5) You wish to serve humanity? Very well.
That which you wish to do, another will do. Are
you satisfied? No, dissatisfied, because the im-
portant thing for me is not what will be done, but
what / will do; that I do my work. This is the
best proof that the matter is not in the doing, but
in the advancement towards the good.

Is it possible that I am advancing? Help,


AUGUST] The Journal of Leo Tolstoi

6) How difficult it is to please people: some
need one thing, others another. They need both
my past and my future. God is one, and His Will
in respect to me is one, and He wants only my
present, what I am doing this minute is what He
wants. And what was, has been, and what will
be, isn't my business.

7) Egoism, the whole egoistic life, is legitimate
only as long as reason has not awakened. As soon
as it has awakened, then egoism is lawful, only to
that degree in which one has to sustain oneself as
a tool necessary for the service of people. The
purpose of reason is the service to people. All
the horror lies in its being used for service to one-

8) Man gives himself to the illusion of e.goism,
lives for himself and he suffers. It suffices
that he begin to live for others, and the suffering
becomes lighter and there is obtained the highest
good in the world : love of people.

9) As one disaccustoms oneself from smoking
or other habits, so one can and must disaccustom
oneself from egoism. When you wish to enlarge
your pleasure, when you wish to exhibit yourself,
when you call forth love in others, stop. If you
have nothing to do for others, or you have no de-
sire to do anything, then do nothing only don't
do anything for yourself.

10) The Bavarian told about their life. He


The Journal of Leo Tolstoi [i

boasts about the high degree of freedom, but at
the same time they have compulsory religious
teaching, a crude Catholic one. That is the most
horrible despotism. Worse than ours.
Aug. 25. Y. P. If I live.

Nov. 2. Y. P.

It is horrible to see for what a long time I have
made no entries : more than two months. And not
only has there been nothing bad, but rather every-
thing was good. The Jubilee was not as repuls-
ive and as depressing as I expected. 361 The sale
of the novel and the receipt of the 12,000 roubles
which I gave to the Dukhobors was well ar-
ranged. 362 I was displeased with Chertkov 363
and I saw that I was at fault. A Dukhobor ar-
rived from the province of Yakutsk. I liked him
very much 364 . . .

Masha is pitiable in her weakness, but she is
just as near in spirit. . . .

But glory to God and thanks be to Him that he
has awakened it in me and has kept it burning
so that it is natural for me either to love and re-
joice, or to love and to pity. And what happi-

Archer was here yesterday, arriving from
Chertkov I liked him. 365 There is much to do,
but I am all absorbed in Resurrection, being spar-
ing with the water and using it only for Resurrec-


NOVEMBER] The Journal of Leo Tolstoi

tion. It seems to me it won't be bad. People
praise it, but I don't believe.

Everything that I noted it was all very im-
portant I will write out later, but now I want
to write that which I just now, walking on the
path, in the evening, not only thought but felt

i) Under my feet there is the frozen, hard
earth ; around, enormous trees ; overhead a cloudy
sky; I feel my body, I feel pain in the head; I am
occupied with thoughts on Resurrection; and yet
I know, I feel in all my being, that both the firm
and frozen earth and the trees and the sky and
my body and my thoughts all this is only a
product of my five senses, my image, the world,
made by me because such is my partition from the
world. And that it will be sufficient for me to die
and all this will not disappear but will become
transformed, as they make transformations in
the theatres: from bushes and stones, they make
castles, towers, etc. Death is nothing else than
such a transformation, dependent from another
partition from the world, another personality:
Here I consider as myself, my body with my senses,
and then something else will detach itself to be
myself. And then the whole world will become
something else. But the world is such and not
something else, only because I consider myself as
this and not as something else. But there can be


The Journal of Leo Tolstoi [i

an innumerable quantity of divisions of the world.
(This is not entirely clear for others, but for me
very. ) 366
Nov. j. // I live.

Nov. 14. Y. P.

Again I have not noticed how 1 1 days have
passed. Have been very intensely occupied with
Resurrection and am making good progress. Am
absolutely near the end. Serezha and Suller were
here and both went away to the Caucasus with my
letter to Golitsin. 367 S. arrived yesterday. Very
well. It is a long time since I have felt so well and
keen, intellectually and physically.

I cannot make out what I have written out and
what I haven't. 368

1 ) How difficult it is to please people ! In or-
der to please them it is necessary that the past and
the future meet their demands. But in order to
please God, one has only to satisfy His demands
in the present.

2) To live for others seems difficult just as
to work seems difficult. But just as in work, in the
care for others there may be the best reward : love
of others may and may not be; while in labour
there is an inner reward, you work to the end, get
tired, and you feel good.

3) The poetry of the past occupied itself only
with the strong of the world : with the Czars, etc.,


NOVEMBER] The Journal of Leo Tolstoi

because the strong of the world appeared as the
highest and the most complete representatives of
the people. But if you take the plain people, then
it is necessary that they express general phenomena
. . . (Unclear.)

4) If you do not permit yourself to live for
yourself, then involuntarily, from boredom, you
begin to live for others.

5) Woman, just like man, is endowed with feel-
ing and brain, but the difference is in this, that men
mostly consider themselves and their feelings
bound by the commands of reason, while women
consider their feelings binding for themselves and
for their reason. The same thing, but only in
different places.

6) You get angry at the philosopher who rea-
sons, who considers that the main basis of the
life of man is his material nature; but this man
does not know the spiritual, but knows only
material effect and therefore he cannot think other-

7) You think that you are alone and you suffer
from loneliness ; yet you are not only in harmony,
but you are one with every one ; only artificial and
removable barriers separate you. Remove them
and you are one with every one. The remov-
ing of these barriers according to your strength
is the business of life.

8) If a man considers his animal being as him-


The Journal of Leo Tolstoi [i

self, then he will represent God also as a material
being, a ruler who rules materially over material
things. But God is not such, God is spirit and
does not rule over anything, but lives in everything.

9) ... If people could have been so deceived,
then there is no deception into which they would
not fall.

10) I have noted down that it is depressing be-
cause there is no life, but only an egoistic existence.
I cannot remember what else I could have meant
by this.

1 1 ) God manifests himself in our consciousness.
When there is no consciousness there is no God.
Only consciousness gives the possibility for the
good, for continence, service, self-sacrifice. Every-
thing depends to what consciousness is directed.
Consciousness directed to the animal " self " kills,
paralyzes life. Consciousness directed to the spir-
itual " self " rouses, lifts, frees life. Conscious-
ness directed to the animal " self " strengthens,
ignites passion, creates fear, struggle, the horror
of death. Consciousness directed towards the
spiritual " self " frees love. This is very import-
ant and if I live, I will write it out.

12) Death is a change of consciousness, a
change of that which I can recognise as myself.
And therefore fear of death is a horrible super-
stition. Death is a joyous event standing at the


NOVEMBER] The Journal of Leo Tolstoi

end of each life. Suffering is sent to people to
hold them back from death. Otherwise every one
understanding life and death, would struggle to-
wards death. But now it is impossible to go to-
wards death unless through suffering.

13) The greatest act in life is the consciousness
of one's self, and its consequences are benevolent
or most terrible, according to whether you direct
your consciousness towards the spirit or towards
the body.

14) In order to get rid of moral suffering (and
even physical) there are two means : to destroy the
cause of suffering or the feeling in one's self which
produces suffering. The first is not in man's
power, the second is. (I am repeating Epictetus) .

15) The moral progress of humanity advances
only because there are old people. The old peo-
ple become kinder, wiser, and give over that which
they have lived through to the following genera-
tions. If this were not so, humanity had not ad-
vanced ; and what a simple method !

1 6) If man looks on life materially, then old
people do not become better, but worse, and there
is no progress.

17) Technical progress is greeted by every one,
is pushed on by every one ; the moral, the religious
progress, is held back by the priests. From this
come the main calamities in life.


The Journal of Leo Tolstoi [i

November 15. Y. P. If I live.

It seemed to me that I made no entries for about
three days and now it is ten days. To-day, Nov.
25. Y.P.

... I promised to arrive December 6th. 369 . . .
I feel also like going to Pirogovo. We are alone :
Tania, Masha, Kolia. Only Liza Obolensky. 370
I am still diligently occupying myself with Resur-

Last night I thought out an article on why the
people are corrupted. They have no faith of any
kind. They christen naive infants and then they
consider every reasoning about faith (perversion)
and every lapse, as a capital crime. Only the sec-
tarians have faith. Perhaps I am going to bring
that into the Appeal. What a pity. I thought it
out well at night.

Resurrection is growing. It can hardly be com-
pressed into 100 chapters. 371

I have noted down the following and I think it is
very important (which might be good for the
Declaration of Faith) :

i ) We are very much accustomed to the reason-
ing as to how the life of other people, people in
general, should be arranged. And such kind of
reasoning does not seem strange to us. And yet
such kind of reasoning could in no ways exist
among religious and therefore free people; such
reasoning is the consequence of despotism, . . .


NOVEMBER] The Journal of Leo Tolstoi

In this way reason . . . They say : " If I had
the power I would do so and so with the others."
That is a dangerous error, not only because it
tortures, deforms people who have to undergo
violence . . . but it weakens in all people the
consciousness of the necessity of improving them-
selves, which is the only effective means of influ-
encing other people.

2) To-day I thought about this from another
angle. I recalled the words of the Gospel : " And
the pupil is not higher than the teacher; if he learns
then he will be like the pupil." We, the rich mas-
ter-classes, teach the people. What would happen
if we succeeded in teaching them so that they be-
come as we are ?

3) They talk, they write, they preach about the
knowing of God. What a horrible blasphemy,
and horrible admission of the non-understanding
of what God is and what we are. We, a particle
of the infinite whole, wish to understand not only
this whole, but its causes, the origin of the whole.
What absurdity and what a recognition of godless-
ness, or a recognition of God of that which is not
God. We can only know that He is, To oV, He
exists, and we can only conclude by ourselves, what
He is not.

4) Love is God. Love is only the recognition
that God is not flesh, not passion, not egoism, not
malice. (Doubtful.)


The Journal of Leo Tolstoi [i

5) Violence rules our world, i.e., malice, and
therefore there is always found in society a ma-
jority of dependent, unstable members: women,
children, stupid ones brought up on malice,
and who side with malice. But the world
ought to be ruled by reason, by goodness; then all
this majority would be brought up on goodness and
would side with it. In order that this should take
place it is necessary that reason and goodness mani-
fest themselves, and undismayed, assert their exist-
ence ; that is very important.

6) The complexity of knowledge is a sign of its
falseness. That which is true is simple.

7) How bad it is that people seeking perfec-
tion are pained at calumny, at a deserved bad name
(or better still, at an undeserved). Calumny, a
bad name, gives an opportunity, drives toward an
activity, the value of which is only in our con-
science. This is so rare, so difficult, and so useful.
Involuntary simpleness is the best school for
goodness. 372

8)1 have noted down : " Justice is insufficient.
It is . . . 373 necessary to oppose." I cannot re-
member what this means.

9) Physical labour is important, because it pre-
vents the mind from working idly and aimlessly.

10) Perhaps it is more important to know what
one ought not to think about, than to know what
one ought to think about.


NOVEMBER] The Journal of Leo Tolstoi

1 1 ) Women are weak and they not only do not
want to know their own weakness, but want to
boast of their strength. What can be more dis-

12) A good man if he does not acknowledge his
mistakes and tries to justify himself can become
a monster.

13) -..

Now Nov. 26. Morning. Y. P.

Did not sleep and thought :

i ) Evil is the material for love. Without evil
there is none and can be no manifestation of love.
God is love, i.e., God manifests Himself to us in

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