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a great many censor deletions in The Posthumous Liter-

306



Notes

ary Works of L. N. Tolstoi (edited by A. L. Tolstoi,
1911, Volume II).

36. The Englishman, John Manson, came to Tolstoi
with a request for his opinion on the collision between the
United States and England on account of the boundaries
of Venezuela. Tolstoi answered by an extensive letter
which was published under the title, " Patriotism or
Peace?" and printed abroad (by Deibner in Berlin, and
others.) It was not printed in Russia.

37. Ernest Crosby (1856-1907), an American social-
worker, a poet and writer. When he was a representative
of the United States in the International Court in Egypt,
he read Tolstoi's On Life, which caused an upheaval in his
soul. As a result, he left the Government service and
devoted his life to the propaganda of the social-religious
views of Tolstoi and the social-economic views of Henry
George. He founded The Social Reform League, the ob-
ject of which was the discussing of the problems of re-
organisation of contemporary life on the basis of justice
and equality, and the furthering of the actual realisation of
this reorganisation.

38. E. N. Drozhin, a district school teacher, in 1891,
refused military service at the recruiting in the city of
Sudzha in the Province of Kursk. He was sentenced to
be sent to a disciplinary battalion and stayed fifteen months
in the Voronezh disciplinary battalion. Here he fell ill
of consumption and the doctors pronounced him unfit to
continue military service, upon which he was transferred
to the state's prison to finish his sentence. He died in the
Voronezh prison on January 27, 1894, from inflammation
of the lungs which he contracted at the time of his trans-

307



Notes

fer . . . from the disciplinary regiment to the prison.
The story of his refusal from military service is described
in detail in the book by E. I. Popov: Life and Death of
E. N. Drozhin, 1866-1894, published by The Free
Press, England, 1899. Tolstoi wrote an appendix to this
book in which he expressed the opinion that such people
like Drozhin " by their activity help. . . ." In reference
to this article the well-known German writer, Frederick
Spielhagen, printed an open letter to Count Leo Tolstoi in
the newspapers, in which he considered Tolstoi guilty of
Drozhin 's death, a useless one, according to Spielhagen,
for the abolition of war and the establishment of universal
peace. This letter was translated into Russian in 1896
and appeared as a separate pamphlet.

39. See Note 36.

40. A voluminous letter devoted to the problem of non-
resistance to evil by violence and the relation of con-
temporary American writers to it.

41. Count Andrei Lvovich Tolstoi, born 1877, fourth
son of Tolstoi. In this year he served in the Tver mili-
tary as a volunteer (before the prescribed age).

42. Nicholai Michailovich Nagornov, husband of Tol-
stoi's niece, Vavara Valerianovna. In the letter to A. K.
Chertkov of January 13, 1896, Tolstoi wrote: " We had a
death lately. Nagornov died, the husband of my niece.
She loved him passionately and they lived together re-
markably happily ... no one knows anything of him, but
the good. . . . My heart feels solemn and good because of
this death."

43. Fedior Kudinenko, a peasant, a co-thinker of Tol-
stoi, a former gendarme.

308



Notes

44. See note 29.

45. Dushan Petrovich Makovitsky (Dusan Makovcky),
a Slovak, who later became one of the closest friends and
followers of Tolstoi, spent six years in Yasnaya Polyana
from the end of 1904 to the day Tolstoi left, in the ca-
pacity of family doctor, and was near Tolstoi until the
latter's death. At this time he lived in his native land, in
Hungary, taking part in the publication of translations into
the Slavonian of Tolstoi's books and of writers near to him
in spirit. The article here mentioned is " Instances of Re-
fusal from Military Service among the Sect of the Naz-
arenes, in Hungary." Printed in Leaflets of the Free
Press f England, 1898, No. I.

46. The Nazarenes, a sect spread in Hungary, Chorva-
tia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Switzerland and the United States,
whose members refuse military service.

47. Nicholai Nicholaievich Strakhov (1828-1896), a
friend of the Tolstoi family, a noted writer and phil-
osopher, highly valued by Tolstoi as a man and a literary
critic. He had an extensive correspondence with Tolstoi,
which was published by the Tolstoi Museum Society in
Petrograd, 1914.

48. The family of the Counts Olsuphiev was very much
liked by Tolstoi. This is what he wrote about them to V.
G. Chertkov on February 9, 1896: " They are such very
simple and good people, that the difference between their
opinion and mine, and not the difference but the non-recog-
nition of that by which I live, does not bother me. I know
that they cannot, but that they want to be good and that
they have gone as far as they could in that direction."

49. Nicholai Vasilevich Davydov, an old friend of the

309



Notes

Tolstoi family, being appointed at this time President of
the Tula District Court, was presented to the Emperor
and had a long conversation with him about Tolstoi, an-
swering the questions asked him by the Emperor. At pres-
ent, N. V. Davydov is President of the Tolstoi Society in
Moscow.

50. Alexander Ivanovich Ertel (1855-1908), a well-
known writer, author of the novel The Gardenins and
other stories and novels. The essay by Ertel which Tol-
stoi mentions was published in Nedielia .in 1896, No.
Ill, under the title, "Is Russian Society Declining?"
He objected to Tolstoi who said in the article " Shameful "
that one ought not to ask about the abolition of corporal
punishment, but " one must and ought only to denounce
such a thing." " The way of denunciation and repentance
is tested and is being tested " wrote Ertel, " but in
itself it is not sufficient for successful struggle against
evil. For the greatest effectiveness in this struggle of
changes, the judicial path of ' petitions, declarations and ad-
dresses, deserves every kind of sympathy from the side of
historical rationalism as well as from the Christian point
of view." Later Tolstoi, highly appreciating the pop-
ular style of Ertel, wrote a preface to the posthumous
edition of his works, Moscow, 1909.

51. See Note 38.

52. M. A. Sopotsko, at one time in the beginning of
the Nineties shared some of Tolstoi's views in relation to
the outer life, but never understood the essence of his
religious philosophy. Later Sopotsko became a supporter
of Orthodoxy and frequently attacked Tolstoi and his
friends in print.

310



Notes

53. Marian Zdziechowski, a professor in the Cracow
University, a well-known social worker. In the Sieverni
Viestnlk for the year 1895, No. 7, under the pseudonym
M. Ursin, he contributed an article : " The Religious
Political Ideals of Polish Society." In respect to this
article Tolstoi wrote him a long letter which was printed
abroad and later was reprinted in the New Collection of
Letters of L. N. Tolstoi, collected by P. A. Sergienko
(published by Okto, 1911), from which by order of the
Moscow Court it was deleted. After this letter M. E.
Zdziechowski wrote several times to Tolstoi on the prob-
lems of Catholicism, but to those letters, mentioned in the
Journal, Tolstoi evidently answered by a personal conver-
sation during the former's visit to Yasnaya Polyana in the
summer of 1896.

54. In her letter addressed to M. L. Tolstoi, Vera Step-
anovna Grinevich touched most seriously and deeply upon
the fundamental problems concerning the religious up-
bringing of children. This letter produced a very strong
impression on Tolstoi and he intended to answer it in
detail, but other work drew him away from accomplish-
ing this resolution. The letter of V. S. Grinevich and the
letter to her by N. L. Tolstoi and V. G. Chertkov are
printed in her book: The New School-family and the
Causes of its Origin.

55. Nicholskoe, an estate of Count Olsuphiev near Mos-
cow, close to the station of Podsolnechnaia on the Nicholai
railroad.

56. Eugene Heinrich Schmidt, a German-Hungarian
writer, resembling in some respects the philosophy of Tol-
stoi. In the Nineties he issued a magazine in Budapest:



Notes

Die Religion des Ge'istes, and a newspaper with a Chris-
tian anarchical tendency: Ohne Staat. In 1901 he
printed a book in Leipzig, Tolstoi, His Meaning to Our
Civilization (see also his article on the cultural signifi-
cance of the works of Leo Tolstoi, printed in the Interna-
tional Tolstoi Almanac by P. A. Sergienko, published by
Kniga, 1909.)

57. Sergei Alexandrovich Rachinsky (1836-1902), a
celebrated worker for popular education, who sacrificed his
lectures in the Moscow University for his favourite occu-
pation of teaching the peasant children in the village
schools to write and read. A relative to Tolstoi on ac-
count of the first wife of his son, Sergei Lvovich, and per-
sonally acquainted with Tolstoi as early as the beginning
of the Sixties.

58. Written originally in English.

59. The letter was called forth by the Italian-Abyssin-
ian war, which was then going on. The rather extensive
beginning of this letter has been preserved, but up to now
has not been published anywhere.

60. Here follow words that have been crossed out.
Note made by Prince N. L. Obolensky in the copy in
possession of the editors.

61. Michail Petrovich Novikov, a peasant of the Prov-
ince of Tula, who served a year as an army scribe in one
of the regiments stationed in Moscow. After his acquaint-
ance with Tolstoi he suffered much because of his en-
deavour to realise his beliefs in his life. A gifted writer.

62. Countess Tatiana Lvovna Tolstoi (born 1864),
the eldest daughter of Tolstoi. In the year 1899 she
married M. S. Sukhotin.

312



Notes

63. Maria Michailovna Kholevinsky, a woman doctor,
living in Tula. By Administrative order, after the event
mentioned in the Journal, she was exiled to Orenburg.

64. This letter, sent to both ministers (E. L. Goremy-
kin and N. V. Muraviev) and to the same publishing
house, was printed at first abroad in the paper The Free
Press, No. 2, in 1902 (England), afterwards in Russia.
( See Full Collected Works of Tolstoi, published by Sytin,
1913 popular edition, Volume XXII. It is known
that the request of Tolstoi in this letter : To direct all the
prosecutions for the spreading of his forbidden books in
Russia to himself and not to his followers and friends, as
well as a whole series of subsequent similar petitions to
Governmental officials was not granted. )

65. The second act of Wagner's opera, Siegfried. For
the impression produced on Tolstoi, see What Is
Art? chapter XIII in the letter to his brother, Count
S. N. Tolstoi, on April 20, 1896, Tolstoi under the
fresh impression of this opera wrote the following: " Last
night I was at the theatre and heard the celebrated new
music of Wagner's opera, Siegfried. I could not sit
through a single act and I fled from the place like mad,
and now I cannot talk calmly about it. It is stupid,
unfit for children above seven years of age, a Punch and
Judy show, pretentious, feigned, entirely false and with-
out any music whatever. And several thousand sat and
pretended to be fascinated."

66. Aphrikan Alexandrovich Spier (1837-1890), a
remarkable Russian philosopher, who lived many years
in Germany and who wrote his works in German:
Thinking and Reality, Morality and Religious, etc.



Notes

Tolstoi was then reading his principal work, Denken und
Wirchlikeit ( Thinking and Reality ) in a letter of
1896 to Countess S. A. Tolstoi, Tolstoi wrote: " I am
reading a newly discovered philosopher, Spier, and am
rejoicing. ... A very useful book, destroying many
superstitions, especially the superstition of materialism."
( The Letters of Count L. N. Tolstoi to his Wife, Mos-
cow, 1913, page 510.)

67. The philosopher's daughter, Elena Aphrikanovna
Spier, who sent her father's works to Tolstoi.

68. Grigori Grigorevich Myasoyedov (1835-1912).
A celebrated artist, the painter of the picture, " The Read-
ing of the Ordinance, of February igth " and others; one
of the principal initiators and founders of the Society of
Travelling Expositions.

69. Dmitri Dmitrievich Sverbeev, the Governor of
Courland, an acquaintance of the Tolstois'.

70. The cement factory, Gill, within 7 versts of Yas-
naya Polyana.

71. To the Coronation in Moscow there went:
Countess S. A. Tolstoi and Countess A. L. Tolstoi ; while
Countess T. L. Tolstoi went to Sweden for the coming
marriage in Stockholm of Count L. L. Tolstoi and D. Ph.
Westerlund.

72. The branch post office, 7 versts from Yasnaya Poly-
ana.

73. Died in 1913.

74. The well-known publisher of Novoe Vremia, M.
O. Menshikov, a contributor at that time to the liberal
magazine, Knizhki Nedieli, where among other things,
he occupied himself with popularizing Tolstoi's ideas.



Notes

In the article " The Errors of Fear," printed in that mag-
azine in 1896 (Nos. IV to VI) Menshikov sharply con-
demned certain governmental repressions of the time.
For this article the magazine received a warning.
Towards the later journalistic activities of Menshikov,
Tolstoi took a critical attitude.

75. Fedior Alexeievich Strakhov, a friend, who shared
the views of Tolstoi, author of philosophic articles pub-
lished by Posrednik under the titles Beyond Political In-
terests, The Search For Truth. Posrednik also published
a collection of articles of various thinkers compiled by him
under the title Spirit and Matter (against materialism).

Several of his other articles were issued abroad. For
Tolstoi's review of the books of F. A. Strakhov see in
Journal, August 15, 1910.

76. Nicholai Nicholaievich Strakhov (died in January
of this year).

77. With F. A. Strakhov.

78. Timofei Nicholaievich Granovsky (1813-1855), a
Russian historian, a professor at the Moscow Universtiy.

79. Vissarion Grigorevich Bielinsky (1810-1848), the
critic see in Journal, March 7, 1899, a comparison be-
tween Bielinsky and Gogol.

80. Alexander Alexandrovich Herzen (1812-1870),
a great writer. From 1847 to his death he lived abroad
as an exile. His collected works with censor deletions
have been published in Russia only in 1905. Tolstoi as
early as August 4, 1860, wrote in his Journal, " Herzen,
a scattered mind, sickly ambition. But his broadness,
skilfulness, kindness and refinement is Russian." Soon
after, in the beginning of 1861, Tolstoi, being abroad,

315



Notes

spent a month in London, where he saw Herzen almost
daily. In addition to the opinion expressed in this note
of Tolstoi's about Herzen, it should be noted that after-
wards Tolstoi, appreciating him from another point of
view, acknowledged a broad educational significance to
his works (see, for example, Journal, October 12, 1895).
In the letters to V. G. Chertkov of February 9, 1888,
and to N. N. Gay of February 13 of the same year, Tol-
stoi called Herzen " a man remarkable in strength, in
mind and in sincerity " and expressed regret that his
works were forbidden in Russia, as the reading of them,
according to his opinion, would be very instructive to the
youth.

81. Nicholai Gavrilovich Chernishevsky (1828-1889)
and Nicholai Alexandrovich Dobroliubov (1836-1861),
Russian critics. Tolstoi became acquainted with Chern-
ishevsky when he published his works in Sovremennik,
which was edited by Chernishevsky.

82. Five-year-old daughter of F. A. Strakhov.

83. Declaration of Faith, later re-named The Christian
Doctrine.

84. The estate of Tolstoi's brother, S. N. Tolstoi, in
the district of Krapivensk, in the Government of Tula,
35 versts from Yasnaya Polyana.

85. Count Sergei Nicholaievich Tolstoi (1826-1904).
See for him in Biography of L. N. Tolstoi by P. Biriukov
and in My Recollections by Count T. L. Tolstoi, Mos-
cow, 1914.

86. The daughters of Count S. N. Tolstoi: Vera,
Varvara and Maria Sergievna.

87. Charles Salomon, the translator of some of Tol-



Notes

stoi's works into French, and a professor of the Russian
language in the higher institutions in Paris.

88. Sergei Ivanovich Tanyeev (1856-1915), composer,
at one time director at the Moscow Conservatory, an
acquaintance of the Tolstoi family, who lived three sum-
mers (1894-1896) in Yasnaya Polyana.

89. On the Khodinka field at the time of the corona-
tion celebration of May 18, 1896. In the beginning of
the year 1910, Tolstoi wrote a little story called Khodinka,
printed for the first time in his Posthumous Literary
Works, Volume III, published by A. L. Tolstoi, Moscow,
1902.

90. Timofei Nicholaievich Bondarev (1820-1898), a
peasant of the district of the Don. In 1867 he was
exiled to Siberia for conversion to the Jewish faith and
lived in the district of Minusinsk, in the Province of
Yeniseisk, to the end of his life. Wrote a work called In-
dustriousness and Parasitism, or The Triumph of the Ag-
ricultural Worker (issued with abbreviations in 1906 in
Petrograd by Posrednik,) in which he proved the moral
obligation of each man to do agricultural work. Tolstoi
wrote a long introduction to this work. As to the im-
pression which this work produced on Tolstoi, he him-
self wrote in his book What Then Shall We Do? (1884-
1886) the following: " In all my life, two Russian
thinkers had upon me a great moral influence and enriched
my thought and clarified my philosophy. These people
were not Russian poets, scholars, preachers they were
two remarkable men who are now living, and who all
their life laboured in the muzhik labour of peasants,
Siutaev and Bondarev." In his letter here mentioned to

317



Notes

Bondarev, Tolstoi touched upon those religious problems
which Bondarev asked him. For more details about
Bondarev see in the article of C. S. Shokhor-Trotsky :
" Siutaev and Bondarev " (in the Tolstoi Annual, 1913),
Petrograd, 1914, issued by the Tolstoi Museum Society,
following which are printed ten letters by Tolstoi to
Bondarev and some writings of Bondarev himself.

91. My Refusal From Military Service, The Memoirs
of an Army Physician, issued by The Free Press, 1898,
England. Tolstoi read this work even before, in manu-
script, and at this time probably was re-reading it. In his
letter to A. A. Shkarvan of December 16, 1895, Tolstoi
wrote : " Your memoirs are interesting and important to
the highest degree. I read them with spiritual joy and
was touched."

92. See Note 29.

93. Stephane Mallarme (1842-1898), French poet,
considered one of the most prominent Symbolists. For a
more detailed opinion of him by Tolstoi, see his book,
What Is Art? Chapter X.

94. Goethe (1749-1832), the German poet. See for
Tolstoi's opinion of him in his Journal, September 13,
1906. Earlier in 1891, in his letter to Count A. A.
Tolstoi, Tolstoi wrote : " As to Goethe, I do not like
him at all. I don't like his conceited paganism."

Shakespeare (1564-1616). See Tolstoi's article about
him "On Shakespeare" and "On The Drama" and
the opinion in his journal March 15, 1897.

95. Declaration of Faith.

96. Henry George (1839-1897), noted American so-
cial worker and writer on economic questions. In his



Notes

numerous works, chiefly on agrarian questions, he was a
warm defender of the destitute and the oppressed.
George considered the existence of private land owner-
ship as the principal cause of the existence of poverty ; ap-
pearing as its opponent, he suggested the abolition of all
existing taxes, substituting for them a single tax on the
value of land; by means of this reform, land would pass
into the hands of people cultivating it by their own
labour, because for people who did not work it, it would
be unprofitable to own great stretches of land, since they
would have to pay a large amount of taxes on them.

Tolstoi sympathised very much with George's scheme
and wrote much about it ( The Great Sin, The Only Pos-
sible Solution of the Land Question, A Letter to a Peas-
ant and some chapters in Resurrection and others). Of
the works of George, Tolstoi recognised as the best his
Social Problems, to the Russian translation of which he
wrote a preface. In the last years of George's life, Tol-
stoi was in correspondence with him; in his letter to him
of 1894 Tolstoi among other things wrote: " The reading
of each one of your books clarifies for me much which
formerly was not clear to me and convinces me more and
more of the truth and practicality of your system " [trans-
lated from the Russian from a translation from the Eng-
lish. Translator's note}. On the occasion of George's
death, Tolstoi wrote to Count S. A. Tolstoi on October
24, 1897: " Serezha told me yesterday that Henry George
was dead. Strange to say, his death struck me as the
death of a very close friend. The death of Alexandre
Dumas produced the same impression upon me. One
feels as if it were the loss of a real comrade and friend."

319



Notes

Many works of George's are translated into the Russian ;
there is a splendid biography of him written by S. D.
Nicholaev, and published by Posrednik: The Great Fighter
for Land Liberation, Henry George, Moscow, 1906.

97. Anna Constantinovna Chertkov.

98. In the letter to Count L. L. Tolstoi of June 7,
1896, Tolstoi related the incident as follows: "Yester-
day a remarkable event happened to me. Two or three
times there came to me a young civilian from Tula ask-
ing me to give him books. I gave him some of my articles
and spoke with him. He was, according to his convic-
tions, a Nihilist and an Atheist. I told him from the
bottom of my heart all that I thought. Yesterday he
came and gave me a note : ' Read it,' he said, ' then tell
me what you think of me.' In the note it was written
that he was a junior officer in the gendarmerie, a spy, sent
to me to find out what is going on here, and that he be-
came unbearably conscience-stricken and that is why he
disclosed himself to me. I felt pity and disgust and
pleasure."

99. The priest, John Ilich Sergiev (of Kronstadt)
(1829-1908), who enjoyed great fame as "The suppli-
cator for the sick." In his preaching and his books he
many times made sharp attacks against Tolstoi and his
views.

100. Declaration of Faith.

101. Zakaz, a piece of Yasnaya Polyana forest, not far
from the house. Tolstoi was afterwards buried there.

102. Tolstoi had the opportunity to closely observe
the nomadic life of the Bashkirs in the province of
Samara, where he went in the Sixties to drink kumyss,

320



Notes

and in the Seventies and Eighties to his own estates (see
The Biography of L. N. Tolstoi written by P. I. Biriukov
(Moscow, 1913) published by Posrednik, Volume II,
Chapter VIII ; and also the Recollections in the Children's
Magazine, Mayak, 1913, by V. S. Morosov, a former
pupil of the Yasnaya Polyana school in the beginning of
the Sixties).

103. A village within four versts from Yasnaya Poly-
ana.

104. Leonilla Fominishna Annenkov (1845-1914), an
old friend of Tolstoi's and an adherent of his philosophy,
the wife of a Kursk landlord, the well-known scholarly
lawyer, K. N. Annenkov (1842-1910). She made the
acquaintance of Tolstoi in 1886 and from that time on
corresponded very much with him. Completely sharing
the opinions of Tolstoi, she applied them with a rare se-
quence to life and she was noted for her remarkable
abundance of love which attracted every one who met
her. Tolstoi valued her highly, considering that she had
" a clear mind and a loving heart."

105. Farther on one line is crossed out. A note of
Princess M. L. Obolensky in the copy at the disposal of
the editors.

106. It weighed upon him that certain persons to
whom he did not want to show his Journal had read it
nevertheless. In the last years of his life he was com-
pelled to hide the current Journal somewhere in his
rooms, and the finished note-books he gave away in safe
keeping.

107. A village four versts from Yasnaya Polyana,
where the Chertkovs lived in summer.

321



Notes

1 08. Declaration of Faith.

109. The note of July 19, 1896, he evidently originally
inserted in a note-book from which he later wrote it out
in his Journal.

no. Tolstoi's brother, Count S. N. Tolstoi.

in. This article under the title of " How to Read The
Gospels and What Is Its Essence " was printed at first
in the edition of The Free Press, 1898, and after in 1905
in Russia. (See the complete works of Tolstoi published
by Sytin, Popular Edition, Volume XV.) The central
thought of this article is that in order to understand the-
true meaning of the Gospels, one has to penetrate those
passages which are completely simple, clear and under-


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