standable. Tolstoi advises all those who wish to under-
stand the true meaning of the Gospels to mark everything
which is for them completely clear and understandable
with a blue pencil and marking at the same time with a
red one, around the words marked in blue, the words of
Christ Himself as differing from the words of the
Apostles. It is those places marked by the red pencil
which will give the reader the essence of the teaching of
Christ. Tolstoi in his own copy of the Gospels made
such marks which he mentions later in the Journal with
the words: "Marked the Gospels."
112. Hadji Murad, one of the boldest and most re-
markable leaders of the Caucasian mountaineers who
played a big role in the struggle of the mountaineers with
the Russians in the Forties of the Nineteenth Century.
In 1852 he was killed in a skirmish with the Cossacks.
Tolstoi heard much about him as early as the beginning
of the Fifties, when he himself took part in the fight with
the mountaineers. A month after the above-mentioned
note in the Journal, Tolstoi made a rough sketch of his
story, Hadji Murad, on which he worked with inter-
ruptions until 1904. This story was printed for the first
time in his Posthumous Literary Works (published by A.
L. Tolstoi, Volume III, 1912.) It is interesting to com-
pare the introduction to it with the above note of Tolstoi's
in his Journal.
113. As in the copy at the disposal of the editors.
114. Afanasie Afanasevich Fet (Shenshin) (1820-
1892), a Russian lyric poet and translator and friend of
the Tolstoi family. Concerning the relations of Tolstoi
with him, see My Recollections, by Fet (Volume II,
1890) and The Biography of L. N. Tolstoi by Biriukov.
In the letter of November 7, 1866, Tolstoi wrote to Fet:
" You are a man whose mind, not to speak of anything
else, I value higher than any one of my acquaintances'
and who in personal intercourse is the only one who
gives me that bread by which it is not alone that man
lives." Later Tolstoi and Fet became estranged from each
115. Kant, the German philosopher (1724-1804),
For the opinions of Tolstoi about him see the Journal,
February 19, and September 22, 1904, and September 2,
1906; August 8th, 1907; March 26, 1909. Kant's
Thoughts, selected by Tolstoi, were published by Pos-
rednik, Moscow, 1906.
1 1 6. As a sixth sense, Tolstoi recognised the muscular
sense. See the note of October 10, 1896.
117. S. I. Tanyeev.
1 1 8. The Shenshins Tula landlords who lived on
their estate, Sudakovo, five versts from Yasnaya Poly-
119. Prosper St. Thomas, tutor of Tolstoi and his
brothers. The incident mentioned in the Journal pro-
duced a tremendous impression on Tolstoi. " It may have
been that this incident was the cause of all the horror and
aversion to all kinds of violence which I experienced
throughout life," Tolstoi wrote afterwards in his recol-
lections (See P. Biriukov: The Biography of L. N. Tol-
stoi, Moscow, issued by Posrednik, Volume I, pages 99-
IOO.) In Tolstoi's story Boyhood, St. Thomas is pic-
tured under the name of Saint Jerome. The incident
mentioned here is described in Chapters XIV, XV and
XVI of that story.
1 20. Written in English in the original.
121. Tolstoi, together with Countess S. A. Tolstoi,
visited his sister, Countess Maria Nicholaievna, living in
the convent of Shamordino near the Optina Desert. In
his letter to her of September 13, 1896, Tolstoi wrote,
" With great pleasure and emotion I recall my stay with
122. The story, Hadji Murad. See Note 112.
123. Count Sergei Lvovich, with his wife, Countess
Maria Constantinovna (born Rachinsky, who died in
1899) ; Count Ilya Lvovich, with his wife, Countess
Sophia Nicholaievna, and Count Leo Lvovich, with his
wife, the Countess Dora Fedorovna.
124. The Dutchman, Van-der-Veer, refused military
service, as he declared in his letter to the Commander of
the National Guard, on the grounds that he hated every
kind of murder of men as well as of animals, especially
murder at the order of other people. The military au-
thorities sentenced him to three months' solitary confine-
ment. Later Van-der-Veer for several years published a
magazine with a Christian tendency called Vrede.
125. Van-der- Veer's letter, with the appendix by Tol-
stoi under the title " The Beginning of the End " was
printed in the edition of The Free Press, 1898, England,
later in Russia in the Obnovlenia, Petrograd, 1906,
which was soon confiscated.
126. Alexandra Mikhailovna Kalmikov, a noted
worker for popular education, who turned to Tolstoi with
the request that he express himself in regard to the order
then given by the Minister of the Interior to close the
committees on illiteracy. In answer to her letter, Tolstoi
expressed his opinion about the activity of the Russian
Government in general and about the methods of re-
sisting it used by the Liberals. His answer, under the
title of " A Letter to the Liberals," in revised form was
printed in full in the publication of The Free Press:
" Concerning the Attitude Towards the State " (England,
1898) and with omissions in the publication of Obnovlenia
(Petrograd, 1906,) which was confiscated.
127. logos Philosophy. Lectures on Rajah loga or
Conquering Internal Nature, by Swdmi Vivekdnanda,
New York, 1896.
128. "The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles," dis-
covered in 1883. A document of the Christian literature
of the First Centuries. Tolstoi translated it from the
Greek and twice wrote a preface to it: in 1885 and twenty
years later, in 1905. The passage mentioned in the Jour-
nal reads this way: " It is not good to love only those
who love you. Heathens do the same. They love their
own and hate their enemies and therefore they have ene-
mies, but you should love those who hate you and then you
will have no enemies."
129. Daniel Pavlovich Konissi, a Japanese, converted to
the Greek Church, who studied in the Kiev Theological
Academy, then came to Moscow and here made the ac-
quaintance of Tolstoi. Later he became professor in the
University in Kioto. Translated Lao-Tze from the
Chinese into the Russian (this translation was printed at
first in Problems of Philosophy and Psychology and later
in separate pamphlet, Lao-Se, Tao-Te-King, Moscow,
1913.) For D. P. Konissi see article of I. Alexeev,
" The Skies Are Different the People Are the Same "
(in the paper, Nov, 1914, No. 154.)
About the Japanese who visited him, Tolstoi wrote to
Countess S. A. Tolstoi, September 26th : " This morning
the Japanese arrived. Very interesting, fully educated,
original and intelligent and free-thinking. One an ed-
itor of a paper, evidently a very rich man and an aristocrat
there, no longer young ; the other one, a little man, young,
his assistant, also a literary man " (Letters of Tolstoi to
his Wife, Moscow, 1913, page 507).
130. Peter Vasilevich Verigin, the leader of the
Dukhobors, when in exile in the town of Obdorsk, in the
province of Tobolsk, wrote to Tolstoi about his life and
expounded his views on the printing of books. Tolstoi's
reply, written on October 14, 1896, in which he answered
the objections of Verigin against the printing of books,
was printed in the book, The Letters of the Dukhobor
Leader, P. V. Verigin, published by The Free Press, 1901,
England. See also the letter of P. V. Verigin on his ac-
quaintance with Tolstoi printed in the International
Tolstoi Almanac compiled by P. A. Sergienko (issued by
131. Further in Tolstois manuscript, one page has been
crossed out. A note by M. L. Obolensky in the copy in
possession of the editors.
132. This letter was printed at first in an issue of
The Free Press, No. 8, 1898, England, and later in
Russia in Obnovlenia, Petrograd, 1906, and was con-
133. Brother of Tolstoi, Count S. N. Tolstoi.
134. A peasant of the province of Kharkov in the dis-
trict of Sumsk, Peter Vasilevich Olkhovik. Refused mili-
tary service October 15, 1895, at recruiting, in the city
of Bielopolie, province of Kharkov. Was sentenced by
the Vladivostok military court to three years in a discipli-
nary battalion. The letters of Olkhovik to his relatives
and acquaintances about his refusal were published by
The Free Press, 1897, England, and in 1906 in Russia
by Obnoblenia (and were confiscated). Influenced by
Olkhovic, the private, Cyril Sereda, also refused military
service, with whom Olkhovic became friendly on the
steamer on the way to Siberia, where he was appointed
for service. Both of them were turned over to the
Irkutsk disciplinary battalions. Tolstoi's letter to the
commanding officer of the regiment, in which he asks
him " as a Christian and as a kind man to have pity on
these people . . ." was printed at first also in The Free
Press and afterwards in various publications in Russia.
(See the Complete Works of Tolstoi, published by Sytin:
subscribed edition, Volume XX, popular edition, Volume
XXII.) On the effect that Tolstoi's letter produced on
the officer of the regiment, Tolstoi himself wrote the fol-
lowing in a letter to P. A. Boulanger, March 29, 1898:
" Recently I was surprised, and very pleasantly, by a let-
ter from a man exiled administratively from Verkholensk,
who writes that the commanding officer of the disciplinary
battalion in Irkutsk openly told Olkhovich and Sereda
that my appeal for them saved them from corporal punish-
ment and shortened their sentence. Let a thousand let-
ters pass in vain: if but one has such a result, then one
ought to write unceasingly." The fate of P. V. Olkhovich
was as follows: From the disciplinary battalion he was
exiled for eighteen years to the district of Yakutsk, where
he lived together with the exiled Dukhobors until 1905,
when together with them he went to America. At the
present moment he is living in California.
135. Edward Carpenter, a noted contemporary English
thinker, some of whose works Tolstoi valued highly.
Carpenter's article, " Contemporary Science," was later
translated into Russian by Countess Tolstoi and printed
with a preface by Tolstoi in the magazine Sieverni Viestnik
(1898, No. 3), later it was issued separately (Posrednik,
136. Count Sergei Lvovich Tolstoi (born, 1863),
eldest son of Tolstoi.
137. To the Ekaterinograd disciplinary battalion were
sentenced the Dukhobors (41 in number) who had re-
fused military service, while being in actual military serv-
ice ... See The Dukhobors in the Disciplinary Regi-
ment, published by The Free Press, 1902, England,
where was printed also the letter of Tolstoi to the com-
manding officer of the regiment. Stating those religious
convictions of the Dukhobors for which they suffered
persecutions and calling their acts . . . , Tolstoi asked
the commanding officer to do all that he could to lighten
their fate. The letter of Tolstoi produced a softening ef-
fect on the commanding officer.
138. Vladimir Vasilevich Stasov (1824-1906), a critic
of art and music and the librarian of the Imperial Public
Library in Petrograd, a friend of the Tolstoi family.
When, after Stasov's death, his friend, the sculptor, I. Y.
Ginzburg, asked Tolstoi to write his recollections of him,
in the compilation, " To The Memory of V. A. Stasov,"
Tolstoi in his letter of November 7, 1907, replied that
it was difficult for him to write about Stasov on account
of " the misunderstanding " which had taken place be-
tween them : " the misunderstanding consisted in that
Vladimir Vasilevich Stasov loved and valued prejudicially
in me that which I did not value and could not value in
myself, and in his goodness forgave me that which I valued
and value in myself above everything else, that by which
I lived and live. With every other man such a misunder-
standing would lead, if not to hostility then to a coolness,
but the gentle, kind, spontaneous, warm nature of Vladi-
mir Vasilevich and at the same time, his childlike clarity,
was such, that I could not help succumbing to his in-
fluence and loving him without any thought of the dif-
ference of our points of view. I shall always remember
our good friendly relationship with emotion."
139. Nicholai Nicholaievich Gay, the son of the old
friend of Tolstoi, N. N. Gay.
140. These thoughts were called forth in Tolstoi by
a letter received on October, 1896, from V. V. Rakh-
manov, who, being acquainted with this work of Tolstoi,
found it written in a cold and didactic tone and advised
Tolstoi to abandon it.
141. See Journal, Oct. 20, 1896. Thoughts 9 and 10.
142. This served as a beginning to Tolstoi's book,
What Is Art? completed by him only in 1898.
143. The initials I. G. C. in the original.
144. The Spaniard, Demetrio Zanini, wrote from
Barcelona to Tolstoi that the members of a certain club,
who were his admirers, decided to offer him a present of
a splendid inkwell, money for the purchase of which was
being collected by subscription. At the request of Tolstoi,
his daughter, Tatiana Lvovna, wrote to Zanini, saying
that he preferred this money to be used for some good
work. In answer to this, Zanini informed Tolstoi that
they had already collected about 22,500 francs. Tolstoi
explained in a letter to him the miserable condition of
the Dukhobors and suggested using the money collected
for their help.
145. A close friend of Tolstoi, Senator Alexander
Mickailovich Kuzminsky, president at this time of the St.
Petersburg District Court. The finance-Minister, S. Y.
Witte, wanted to communicate with Tolstoi through A.
M. Kuzminsky, hoping to call forth his approval in the
matter of his introducing the government sale of vodka
and the founding of temperance societies. Tolstoi's let-
ter to A. M. Kuzminsky, in which he answered Witte's
proposal in the negative, with the omission of the harsh
opinions concerning General Dragomirov (the author
of the periodical, The Soldier's Manual, which was being
displayed in the barracks) was printed in the bulletin of
the Tolstoi Museum Society, 1911, Nos. 3 to 5.
146. This article has remained unfinished and up to the
present has not been printed anywhere.
147. Ilya Efimovich Repine, an old acquaintance of
Tolstoi and one of his most favourite Russian painters.
On the occasion of the celebration of his twenty-fifth year
of artistic work, I. E. Repine wrote a letter in the Novoe
Vremia, 1896, No. 7435, Nov. 7th, expressing gratitude
to all those who honoured him, in which among other
things he said, when comparing the work of artists with
the work of teachers, officials, bookmakers, doctors, agri-
cultural workers, " We are the lucky ones, our work is
148. Ivan Michailovich Tregubov, a friend and fol-
lower of Tolstoi, later a noted student of religious sects.
149. Ivan Ivanovich Gorbunov (Posadov), an adherent
of Tolstoi's views and a close friend of his ; an active con-
tributor and from 1897 tne editor-publisher of Posrednik,
and his brother, Nicholai Ivanovich, a performer (pianist
150. Paul Alexandrovich Boulanger, a friend and ad-
herent of Tolstoi's views, author of several works on
Oriental religions published by Posrednik.
151. Gabriel Andreevich Rusanov (1844 to 1907),
friend and adherent of Tolstoi's views; a small land-
owner in the province of Voronezh. Until 1884 he was
a member of the Kharkov district court. In his will,
among other things, he wrote the following: "Already
at the age of fourteen or fifteen (now I am about fifty-
seven) I ceased to be Orthodox and lived until the age
of thirty-eight as an atheist. At thirty-eight, thanks to
the greatest of men, Leo Tolstoi, I acquired faith in God
and believed in the teaching of Christ. Tolstoi gave me
happiness. I became a Christian." For several decades
G. A. Rusanov was confined to his arm-chair with an in-
curable disease consumption of the spinal cord; not-
withstanding his illness, he preserved his full freshness of
mind up to the end of his life, reading much and being pos-
sessed of a rich memory. A splendid student in Russian
and foreign literature, and noted for his extraordinary ar-
tistic instinct, Tolstoi valued his opinions, especially in
regard to his own literary writings.
152. Alexander Borisovich Goldenweiser, friend and
follower of Tolstoi, professor in the Moscow Conserva-
tory. Tolstoi valued his piano playing highly and loved
it very much. Towards the end of Tolstoi's life, A. B.
Goldenweiser visited him often and took a close interest
in his life. In 1910, according to Tolstoi's wish, he acted
in the capacity of witness to his will.
153. Chromatic phantasy and fugue by Bach.
154. Anton Stepanovich Arensky (1861-1906), a cele-
brated Russian composer, later personally acquainted with
155. See Note 144. Receiving a letter from Zanini
that the collection reached to 31,500 francs, Tolstoi in
his letter to him of December 6, 1896, asked that this
money be transferred through the Tiflis bank to his Cau-
casian friends, who were in charge of helping the Dukho-
bors. At the end of his letter he wrote that he was
touched by " this sign of sympathy " which the Spaniards
expressed for him in this unusual way. This money,
though, was never received by Tolstoi, nor was the ink-
well. (See Letters of Count L. N. Tolstoi to his Wife,
Moscow, 1913, page 516.)
156. This story of F. F. Tistchenko under the title,
Daily Bread (A true tale of the sufferings of a village
School teacher), was printed with a letter of Tolstoi in
Knizhki Nedieli, 1897, No. 10, and later in the collection
of Tales by Tistchenko.
157. Princess Gorchakov, a distant relative of Tolstoi,
a lady-in-waiting, and principal of one of the Moscow
158. Anatol Fedorovich Koni, a well-known jurist, a
member of the Imperial Council and a writer. Became
acquainted with Tolstoi in the eighties and wrote recollec-
tions of him (see his book, On the Path of Life, Volume
II, 1913). He gave Tolstoi the theme for Resurrec-
tion (see Note 23).
159. Maria Fedorovna Kudriavtsev, an adherent of
1 60. The Appeal, under the title Help, was written and
signed by P. I. Biriukov, I. N. Tregubov and V. G.
Chertkov. This was an appeal to society to render as-
sistance to the persecuted Dukhobors " by money sacrifices,
so as to ease the sufferings of the old, the sick and the
young, as well as by lifting one's voice in defence of the
persecuted." The Appeal was spread by the authors
in manuscript and in typewritten copies and among other
things was delivered to many persons of high position.
Tolstoi wrote the appendix to it, in which he explained
the significance of the act of the Dukhobors towards the
realisation of Christianity in our life. Help! was printed
with Tolstoi's appendix by The Free Press (1897, Eng-
land). The appendix is printed also in the Full Collected
Works of Tolstoi, published by Sytin, subscribed edition,
Volume XVI, popular edition, Volume XIX.
161. The editors were unable to ascertain the author
of the history of music which Tolstoi was reading.
162. Jean Batiste Faure, the celebrated French singer
and composer (in the second half of the Nineteenth Cen-
tury), author of Tolstoi's favourite duet, " The Crucifix."
163. Vasali Stepanovich Perfileev, a former Moscow
Governor, a friend of Tolstoi in the fifties and sixties, and
a distant relative of the Tolstois.
164. An omission in the copy in possession of the
165. This theme was not executed by Tolstoi. A work
under a similar title begun by him in 1883 was printed in
Volume III of The Posthumous Literary Works of Tol-
stoi, issued by A. L. Tolstoi.
1 66. Katiusha Maslov and Nekhliudov, the principal
characters of the novel.
167. Alexander Ivanovich Arkhangelsky (1857-1906),
an adherent of Tolstoi's views, about whom after his death
in the letter of October 26, 1906, Tolstoi wrote: "This
was one of the best men I ever happened to know in
my life." A. I. Arkhangelsky was a veterinary surgeon
in the district of Bronnitsk, Province of Moscow. Later,
becoming acquainted with the works of Tolstoi, he left
his position, considering it impossible to apply against the
peasants the compulsory measures required of him as vet-
erinary surgeon, and became a watch-maker, by which he
supported himself until his death. His work, Whom
to Serve? is devoted to explaining the question of the
incompatibility . . . with the service to God. When
he read this work in manuscript in 1895, Tolstoi wrote
Arkhangelsky that " it will do the people much good and
will advance the word of God." This work was issued
only in 1911 in the Russian language by the publishing
house, " Vozrozhdenie," in Bourgas (Bulgardia). The
same publishing house issued a biography of A. I. Ark-
hangelsky compiled by Kh. N. Abrikosov. Extracts from
Whom to Serve signed by the pseudonym, " Buka," were
printed by Tolstoi in The Reading Circle. It should be
also mentioned that the publication of the Veterinary Man-
ual compiled by Arkhangelsky was suspended at one time
by the censor, who demanded that it include the com-
pulsory regulations. Protesting against this, Arkhangel-
sky wrote a remarkable letter to I. I. Gorbunov which
Tolstoi included in his Archives of L. N. Tolstoi, No. 5.
This letter formed the basis of the article, " Whom To
Serve." Later the veterinary manual was issued by Pos-
1 68. Prince Ilya Petrovich Nakashidze, a Georgian
writer, a close adherent of Tolstoi's ideas.
169. Tolstoi had the intention of writing (but did
not write) an introduction to the Russian translation of
the Philosophical Work of A. A. Spier, which was to have
appeared in Problems of Philosophy and Psychology.
170. Tolstoi was considering at this time an appeal
against the existing social-political order.
171. An omission in the copy in possession of the ed-
172. Stepan Andreevich Behrs, Tolstoi's brother-in-law,
author of Recollections About Count L. N. Tolstoi (Smo-
lensk, 1894), now dead.
173. V. G. Chertkov and P. I. Biriukov, and later
also I. M. Tregubov, were exiled after a search of their
homes: V. G. Chertkov abroad P. I. Biriukov to Bausk
in Courland, and I. N. Tregubov to Goldingen, also in
Courland. The cause of exiling was the writing of an
appeal to help the persecuted Dukhobors (see Note 160)
and their activity in behalf of the Dukhobors and the
persecuted sects in general. See the memoirs of P. I.
Biriukov, " The Story of My Exile," printed in the
publication O Minuvshen (Petrograd, 1909). These
memoirs contain several letters by Tolstoi to Biriu-
174. Tolstoi went to take leave of the Chertkovs who
were then living in Petrograd.
175. Nicholai Alexandrovich Yaroshenko (1846-
1898), a well-known artist, to whose brush belongs also
the portrait of Tolstoi, painted in 1895.
176. Countess Alexandra Andreevna Tolstoi (1817-
1904), a second cousin of Tolstoi, lady-in-waiting to the
Empress. Tolstoi in his youth was on friendly terms with
her. His correspondence with the Countess A. A. Tol-
stoi, with the addition of a memoir by her, was published
by the Tolstoi Museum Society, Petrograd, 1911. In
reference to this meeting with her, mentioned by Tolstoi
in the Journal, see the memoirs (pages 71, 72 of the
above mentioned publication). About this same meeting
and about the visit to Petrograd in general, Tolstoi wrote
to V. G. Chertkov the following (February 15, 1897) :
" St. Petersburg gave me a most joyous impression. Of
course the principal thing was the meeting at your house.
The depressing impression was my conversation with A. A.
Tolstoi. The terrible thing was not only the coldness,
but the cruelty and the forcing oneself into one's soul and
the violence, the very same which had estranged us.
What a bad belief it is, which makes good people so cruel
and therefore so insensible to the spiritual condition of
others. Believe word for word as I do, otherwise if you
are not exactly my enemy, still you are a stranger." It
should be noted that from the autumn of 1895, for the
course of several years, Tolstoi did not write at all to the
Countess A. A. Tolstoi.
177. In considering Tolstoi's opinions concerning
women found in the Journal, one should be particularly
careful to avoid misunderstanding. First, Tolstoi, wish-
ing from natural delicacy to make his remarks impersonal,
often generalised his private impressions and observations
from intercourse with separate individuals, and therefore
these remarks in reality carried no reflection whatever