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against all women in general.

Second, even in those instances where Tolstoi con-
sciously expressed himself adversely about women in. gen-
eral, he had in mind the most commonplace modern woman
with her adverse qualities.

But in his mind he absolutely discriminated in favour
of the intelligent, religious woman whom seldom he hap-
pened to meet in life and who always attracted his atten-
tion. So, for instance, he valued very highly the distant

337



Notes

relative who brought him up, T. A. Ergolsky, for her
self-sacrificing life; Mmes. M. A. Schmidt and L. F.
Annenkov he respected for their true religious lives, and
among the women writers he especially valued an Ameri-
can, Lucy Mallory, for her exceptional writings, from
which he selected many thoughts for The Reading Circle.
For women of this type he always had the greatest re-
spect, recognising fully their merits and their great sig-
nificance to humanity. In his literary works, Tolstoi, as
is known, frequently reproduced the highest type of
woman (for instance, Pashenka in Father Sergius, or the
old woman, Maria Semenovna in The Forged Coupon}.
Also in his other writings, Tolstoi did not always express
himself adversely about women, as can be seen, for in-
stance, from the following extracts:

" Oh, how I would like to show to woman the whole
significance of chaste women. The chaste woman (not
in vain is the legend of Mary) will save the world-"
(Journal, August 3, 1898.)

" One of the most necessary tasks of humanity consists
in the bringing up of chaste women." (Journal, August
24, 1898.)

" The virtues of men and women are the same ; tem-
perance, truthfulness, kindness; but in the woman, these
same virtues attain a special charm." (The Reading
Circle, June 2.)

" Men cannot do that highest, best work, which brings
men more than anything else nearer to God the work
of love, the work of complete self-surrender to him whom
you love, which good women have done so well and so
naturally, are doing, and will do. What would happen

338



Notes

to the world, what would happen to us men, if women
had not that quality and if they did not exercise it ...
Without mothers, helpers, friends, comforters, who love in
a man all that is best in him, and who with a suggestion
hardly to be noticed, call forth and support all the best
in him without such women it would be bad to live
in this world. Christ would not have had Mary and
Magdalene ; Francis of Assisi would not have had Clara ;
the Decembrists would not have had their wives with
them in exile; the Dukhobors would not have had their
wives who did not hold their husbands back, but sup-
ported them in their martyrdom for truth, there would
not have been those thousands and thousands of unknown
women, the very best, as everything that is unknown, the
comforters of the drunken, the weak, the debauched, those
for whom the consolations of love are more necessary than
for any one else. In this love, whether it is directed to
Kukin or to Christ, is the principal, great and irreplacable
strength of women." (Appendix to Chekhov's story,
Dushechka.)

178. On Life a religious-philosophic work by Tolstoi,
written by him in 1887 and printed in all his collected
works. An abbreviation of this work and an exposition
of it written in simple language for plain readers was
made by an American, Bolton Hall, and was approved by
Tolstoi and printed under the title, Life, Love and Death.
Later a translation of this under the title, True Life, ap-
peared in an issue of the Ethical Artistic Library, Mos-
cow, 1899. See article of Bolton Hall in the Interna-
tional Tolstoi Almanac compiled by P. A. Sergienko
(Kniga, 1909).

339



Notes

1 79. See Letters of L. N. Tolstoi to his Wife, Moscow,
, Pages 518 10519.

1 80. Tolstoi made a mistake of one year: the battle
against the Caucasian mountaineers in which he took part
in the capacity of an artillerist, took place February 18,
1853. (See P. Biriukov's Biography of Tolstoi, Volume
I, page 226.) Nine years after the above mentioned
note, February 18, 1903, Tolstoi wrote to Rusanov: " To-
day it is fifty-three years since hostile enemy shells struck
the wheel of that cannon which I directed. If the muzzle
of the gun from which the shell emerged had deviated
i-io,oooths of an inch to one side or another, I would have
been killed and I would no longer have lived. What non-
sense. I would have existed in a form now inconceivable
to me."

181. What Is Art?

182. Matthew Arnold (1822-1888), a well-known
English poet, critic and student of literature. Shortly be-
fore his death, Arnold printed an article in The Fort-
nightly Review, devoted to the critical analysis of Anna
Karenin and some of the religious philosophic writings of
Tolstoi. (See, Novoe Vremia, December n, 1887, the
article, " An English Critic on Leo Tolstoi.") The
thought quoted by Tolstoi was expressed by Arnold in
his article, " The Problems of Modern Criticisms " (a
Russian translation was issued by Posrednik). Tolstoi
valued the writings of Arnold highly, especially his book,
Literature and Dogma, of which a Russian translation
was published by Posrednik under the title, Wherein Lies
the Essence of Christianity and Judaism (Moscow,
1907).

340



Notes

183. Tolstoi, for the sake of an airing, rode about ten
versts to a dressmaker, for the dress of Nadezhda Mikhail-
ovna Yushkova.

184. Jules and Leo Edwardovich Konius, the volinist
and the pianist.

185. Countess T. L. Tolstoi and Count Mikhail Adam-
ovich Olsuphiev performed two small plays, Feminine
Nonsense by I. L. Stcheglov and The Lady Agreeable In
All Respects.

1 86. According to the copy in possession of the ed-
itors.

187. Evidently a mistake in the copy in possession of
the editors. This extract refers not to Book VII, but to
Book VI of Politics. The quotation cited by Tolstoi
reads in the Russian translation of Prof. S. A. Zhebelev
in this way: " In a state enjoying the best organisation,
and uniting in itself men absolutely just, and not rela-
tively just (in relation to this or that political system),
the citizens should not lead a life such as is led by crafts-
men or merchants (such a life is ignoble and is contrary to
virtue) ; the citizens of the state planned by us should like-
wise not be agricultural workers, because they will be in
need of leisure for the development of their virtue."
Aristotle's Politics: Works of the Petrograd Philosophic
Society, Petrograd, 1911, pages 318, 319.

1 88. An omission in the copy in possession of the ed-
itors.

189. The editor knows nothing about the acquaintance-
ship of Tolstoi with Madame Shorin.

190. Countess A. M. Olsuphiev, who had been on
friendly terms with Tolstoi. In a note to V. G. Chert-



Notes

kov, written on a piece of proof of Resurrection, June 8,
1899, Tolstoi communicated: "I have a sorrow. Anna
Mikhailovna Olsuphiev died."

191. A village near Nicholskoe, as well as the village
Shelkovo, mentioned below.

192. A young lively girl, whom Tolstoi met at the
Chertkovs' when they lived in the summer of 1896 near
Yasnaya Polyana. Being arrested on suspicion of revolu-
tionary activity and imprisoned in the fortress of Peter
and Paul, she committed suicide by setting herself on
fire.

In the letter to V. G. Chertkov, Tolstoi wrote:
" In Petersburg on February I2th the following oc-
curred : Vietrova, Maria Fedosievna, whom you know and
whom I knew, a student confined in the House of De-
tention before Trial in the strike case, little connected
with it, was transferred to the fortress of Peter and
Paul. There, as they say and surmise, after inquiry and
violation (that is still unestablished ) she poured kerosene
on herself, set fire to it and on the third day died.
Her comrades who visited her, kept on bringing her
things, which were accepted, and only after two weeks,
were they told that she had burnt herself. The youth,
all the students, up to three thousand persons (there
were some also from the Theological Seminary) gathered
in the Kazan Cathedral for the service of the dead.
They were not permitted, but they themselves began to
sing " Eternal Memory " and with wreaths, intended to
march on the Nevsky Prospect, but were not permitted,
and they went along Kazan Street. Their names were
taken and they were let free. Every one is indignant. I

342



Notes

receive letters and people come and tell me about it. I
feel great pity for all who take part in these affairs, and I
have a greater and greater desire to explain to people how
they ruin themselves simply because they neglect that law
(or they do not know it) which was given by Christ and
which frees from such deeds and from the participation in
them."

Tolstoi approached A. F. Koni for advice, whether it
were possible to publish what was authentically known
about this terrible case, and secondly about " what to do in
order to resist " this kind of event?

193. Two lines crossed out by Tolstoi. A note by M.
L. Obolensky in the copy in possession of the editors.

194. The Englishman, Aylmer Maude, translator of
many works of Tolstoi into English. The agricultural
colony which Tolstoi mentions was being founded at
that time in England in the town of Purleigh in Essex.
Maude settled in the neighbourhood of the colony and
supported it materially. Maude himself and several rep-
resentatives of this colony visited Tolstoi at this time.
He wrote and published in England, a biography of Tol-
stoi, The Life of Tolstoi, by Aylmer Maude, two volumes,
London, 1908 to 1910. Unfortunately this most detailed
biography of Tolstoi in English, contains among other
things the most perverted information about Tolstoi and
an absolutely incorrect interpretation of his views, as
well as of some of his acts. Tolstoi himself, learning be-
fore his death of the contents of some of these chapters
which were sent to Yasnaya Polyana in manuscript, found
the interpretation of the relation among people near to
him so incorrect that he wrote about it to Maude.

343



Notes

195. I. M. Tregubov, sentenced to exile by adminis-
trative order, was living in the Caucasus among the Duk-
hobors, far from the centres of administration, and re-
mained still free. (See entry of following day.)

196. This search was made in connection with I. M.
Tregubov's things, who was wanted at that time, and
which were left by him in A. N. Dunaev's apart-
ment.

197. That is, in England at the V. G. and A. K.
Chertkovs.

198. Further in Tolstois manuscript two pages are cut
out. Note of M. L. Obolensky in the copy in possession
of the editors.

In reference to the mood during the month mentioned by
him as " bad and unproductive " Tolstoi wrote to Chert-
kov (April 30, 1897) : " I will not sav th at I nave been
depressed, because when I ask myself, ' Who am I ?
For what am I ? ' I answer myself satisfactorily, but I
have no energy, and I feel as if Lilliputian hairs were
laid over me and I have less and less initiative and
activity.

199. In the beginning of June of that year, Tolstoi
decided to leave the conditions of his life which tortured
him and wrote a letter to his wife about this. But later
he changed his mind and on the envelope of this letter
made an inscription : " If I will make no special pro-
vision about this letter, then give this after my death
to S. A." This letter he gave afterwards for safe-keep-
ing to his son-in-law, Prince N. L. Obolensky, who did
deliver it, as was designated, after Tolstoi's death. At

344



Notes

that time it was printed in different publications. (See
Letters of Count L. N. Tolstoi to his Wife, March, 1913,
pages 524 to 526.)

200. In his letter to V. G. Chertkov of July 12,
1896, Tolstoi informed him of his illness: " About a week
ago when I began to answer letters, I fell terribly ill
with a bilious attack, so that I could only answer one
letter. My illness was very painful, but it passed away
quickly. I am now vigorous and healthy."

201. Tolstoi's daughter, Maria Lvovna, married to
Prince N. L. Obolensky.

202. Tolstoi wrote about him to A. C. Chertkov (July
12, 1897): "A young peasant, Shidlovsky, came to me
from the province of Kiev, a man with a very lively
spirit."

203. In his letter to Chertkov of July 23, 1897, Tolstoi
wrote: "Latterly I have begun again to make entries
in the Journal a sign that I have revived somewhat
spiritually and no longer feel myself alone."

204. William Crookes, a well-known English physicist
and chemist, a follower of spiritualism. A detailed re-
port about this speech was printed in the Novoe Vremia
of 1897, under the title, " On the Relativity of Human
Knowledge."

205. M. P. Novikov gave Tolstoi his notes, through his
brother, in which he described all the persecutions which
he had to undergo for his friendship with Tolstoi. The
notes up to this time have not yet been printed.

206. Paul Carus, editor of a Chicago magazine, The
Open Court, devoted to the scientific explanation of re-

345



Notes

ligious questions. (See his article, "A Tribute to Tol-
stoi," printed in the International Tolstoi Almanac, com-
piled by P. A. Sergienko, Kniga, 1909.)

207. Evgenie Ivanovich Popov, friend and adherent
of Tolstoi's ideas, author of the book, The Life and Death
of E. N. Drozhin (see Note 43), several other works
on vegetarianism, the simple life, mathematics, etc.

208. The family of Count I. L. Tolstoi.

209. Vasili Vasilevich Longinov, later Rector of the
Kharkov Theological Seminary.

210. In a letter to the Chertkovs of August 8, 1897,
Tolstoi wrote: " I feel weak also from the fact, that we
have a pile of visitors here ... all this wastes time and
strength and is useless. I thirst terribly for silence and
peace. How happy I would be if I could end my days
in solitude and principally, in conditions, not repulsive and
torturing to my conscience. But it seems that it is neces-
sary. At least, I know no way out."

211. Peter Alexeevich Bulakhov, a peasant from the
province of Smolensk, belonging to the sect of the
Old-Believers, the followers of which avoid military
service.

212. Mikhail Alexandrovich Stakhovich, afterwards a
member of the Council of Empire, an old friend of the
Tolstoi family, and probably his sister, Sophia Alexan-
drovna, or his brother, Alexander Alexandrovich (1858-

1915).

213. Probably Vasili Alexeevich Maklakov, a well-
known lawyer, afterwards a member of the Duma, and
his brother, Alexei Alexeevich, a well-known Moscow
physician.

346



Notes

214. Ilya Yakovlovich Ginsburg, a well-known Rus-
sian sculptor, who made several busts and statues of
Tolstoi

Mikhail Nicholaievich Sobolev, instructor in the Mos-
cow University, living at this time with the Tolstois as
a teacher to Count M. L. Tolstoi.

N. A. Kasatkin, a well-known Russian painter.

215. In regard to this letter of the Japanese, Tolstoi
in a letter of August 8, 1897, wrote: "Recently I re-
ceived a letter from Crosby with an enclosure of a letter
from a Japanese who lived with him in New York. The
Japanese read The Gospel in Brief, and writes that it
explained to him the meaning of life and that he is now
going home to Japan, in order to apply these beliefs to
his life and to the life of others and to establish settle-
ments there. A splendid letter which touched me deeply
and gave me joy. The same truth evidently is accessible
and necessary to every one."

216. Count L. L. Tolstoi (born in 1869), Tolstoi's
third son, and his wife, the Princess Dora Fedorovna
(born Westerlund).

217. B. N. Leontev, at one time calling himself a fol-
lower of Tolstoi, committed suicide in 1909.

2 1 8. In the Russkia Viedomosti (No. 211, 1897), * n
the report of the missionary congress which took place in
Kazan in August, 1897, m which many high representa-
tives of the hierarchy participated, it was stated among
other things, that for combating the spread of sects and
dissensions, the congress considered it necessary to adopt
the following measures: To forbid the dissenters to open
schools for their children and to close all the schools

347



Notes

existing at the present moment; to declare the adherence
to a particularly obnoxious sect as a compromising circum-
stance and to thus give the right to peasant communities
to expel from their midst members discovered as belong-
ing to an obnoxious sect and to exile them to Siberia.
For the sake of combating dissensions and sects, still other
measures were suggested and discussed at the congress,
which among others were : The soliciting of the passing of
a law, by which it would be possible to take away by
force the children of the dissenters and sectarians, and
the establishing of asylums in every diocese for bringing
them up in the orthodox faith. . . . The Archbishop of
Riazan, Meletie, called the attention of the congress to
another very important measure, and to his mind, a very
useful one for the success of missionary work: the con-
fiscation of the property of the dissenters and sectar-
ians.

219. B. A. Boulanger was sent abroad for continuing
the affair of helping the Dukhobors, for which V. G.
Chertkov, P. I. Biriukov and I. N. Tregubov were exiled
before him.

220. In his letter to the Swedish papers (not yet printed
in Russia) Tolstoi wrote that the Nobel prize ought to
be awarded to the Dukhobors, as people who have done
their utmost towards the establishment of universal peace.
This letter, dated August 27, 1898, was printed in P. I.
Biriukov's paper: Svobodnaia Mysl (Geneva), No. 4,

1899-

221. Arthur St. John, an Englishman, a former officer
in the India service, came to Moscow to deliver the money

348



Notes

donated for the benefit of the Dukhobors by English
Quakers. Wishing to come into personal relation with
the Dukhobors, he went to the Caucasus, where he was ar-
rested and sent out of Russia. Later, he went with
the Dukhobors to America and lived with them a long
time.

222. The Molokans, from the province of Samara,
district of Buzuluk, came twice (in April and September,
1897) to Tolstoi to ask him that he help them get
back the children taken from them by the police and
placed in orthodox monasteries. (See Tolstoi's letter
about this to the editor of the Peterburgskaia Viedomosti,
printed in that paper in October, 1897, and reprinted in
the Collected Works of Tolstoi, edited by Sytin, Popular
Edition, Volume XXII. See also, article of A. S. Pru-
gavin, " Leo Tolstoi and the Malakans of Samara," in his
book, On Leo Tolstoi and the Tolstoians, Moscow,
1911.)

223. About the children taken away from the Mo-
lokans. The rough draft of this letter is now in the Pet-
rograd Tolstoi Museum.

224. Count A. V. Olsuphiev, Adjutant General. In
letters to him and to the two other persons mentioned
below, Tolstoi asked their collaboration in freeing from
the monasteries, the children taken from the Molokans.

225. Charles Heath. An Englishman now dead, a
former instructor of English language and literature in a
law school, and later one of the tutors of the Emperor,
Nicholas II.

226. Mme. E. I. Chertkov, the widow of an Adjut-

349



Notes

ant General, a well-known follower of the " Evangelist "
teaching or what is known as The Pashkov Evangelist
Doctrine. The mother of V. G. Chertkov.

227. The Swede, Langlet, who previously had given
detailed information to Tolstoi about the Nobel prize.
He was a guest at Yasnaya Polyana at this time.

228. The last sentence was marked off in the
original.

229. To V. G. Chertkov, during the time of his en-
forced two-year sojourn abroad, Tolstoi from time to
time actually sent extracts of his Journal. But in gen-
eral, Tolstoi, for reasons which will be given at the
proper time and place, found it later necessary to change
his decision not to give his Journal to be copied in its
entirety to any one; the confirmation of this can be found
in the fact that the present issue of the Journal is being
printed from a transcript made according to Tolstoi's
wishes. When V. G. Chertkov returned to Russia, Tol-
stoi continually gave him his Journals to copy in their
entirety.

230. In the letter to A. C. Chertkov of October 13,
1897, Tolstoi wrote: " How many people are there with
whom one does not speak unreservedly, because you know
that they are drunk. Some are drunk with greed, some
with vanity, some with love, some simply with drugs.
Lord forfend us from these intoxications. These intoxi-
cations place no worse boundaries between people than
religion, patriotism, aristocracy do, and prevent that union
which God desires."

231. V. G. Chertkov lived through hard times in
England; his condition naturally reflected itself upon his

350



Notes

family, among which number was his sister-in-law, O.
K. Dieterichs, who was their guest at this time.

232. Tolstoi sent to the editor of the Peterburgskaia
Viedomosti a letter in regard to the children taken away
from the Samara Molokans, and about those measures
which were suggested as a means of fighting the sectarians
and Old-Believers which were made in the missionary
congress in Kazan. This letter was printed in No. 282,
of October I5th.

233. Protestant ministers of various localities in Hol-
land: L. A. Beller, A. De-Kuh and I-Kh. Klein, at a
meeting in Grevenhagen, definitely expressed themselves
against war and military service.

324. N took an adverse attitude to Chertkov's social
work among Englishmen. Chertkov fell ill with pneu-
monia.

235. To Moscow to be copied.

236. V. D. Liapunov (1873-1905), peasant-poet of
Tula. Working in Tula, Liapunov in the autumn of
1897 came to Tolstoi that he judge his poetry. Tolstoi
was very much pleased with the poems, contrary to his
custom, for in general he did not like poetry. Tolstoi
proposed that Liapunov stay in his house to help copy his
manuscripts.

237. Afanasi Aggeev, a free-thinking peasant from the
village of Kaznacheevka, 4 versts from Yasnaya Poly-
ana. In 1903 he was sentenced by the Tula District
Court to exile in Siberia for life for the public utter-
ance of words insulting to the Orthodox Faith. He died
in 1908.

238. N. Y. Grot (1852-1899), professor at the Mos-

351



Notes

cow University, author of numerous articles on philosophic
questions and editor of the magazine, Problems of Phil-
osophy and Psychology. Tolstoi submitted his work,
What Is Art? to Grot to be printed in his magazine.
Shortly before his death, at the request of Grot's brother,
Tolstoi wrote his recollections about him, which were
printed, together with his letter to Grot, in the compila-
tion, N. Y. Grot, in Sketches, Recollections and Letters by
Comrades and Pupils, Friends and Admirers, Petrograd,
1911, and in the Full Collected Works of L. N. Tol-
stoi, issued by Sytin, subscribed edition, Volume XV;
Popular Edition, Volume XXIV.

239. A. P. Ivanov (died 1912), ex-officer and old
scribe, with whom Tolstoi became acquainted at the
time of the census of 1862, having found him among the
Moscow tramps. He led a vagabond life, coming or
tramping from time to time to Yasnaya Polyana to help
Tolstoi copy his manuscripts.

240. Prince D. A. Khilkov (1858-1915), who at this
time was in accord with Tolstoi in several questions of
a more external nature, formerly an officer of the Hussars
and afterwards of the Cossacks, a landlord in the district
of Sumsk, province of Kharkov. In the eighties, he re-
signed from military service and sold for a trifle his 400
dessiatines of land, the only personal property he had at
the time, to the peasants of the village of Pavlovok; in
1889, n account of his propaganda against religion, he
was exiled by administrative order to Zakavkaz. In 1893
Khilkov and his wife suffered a great sorrow: their chil-
dren were taken away from them by order of the gov-
ernment (following the manipulations of Khilkov's

352



Notes

mother), and they were given over to this lady for bring-
ing up, she having absolutely no sympathy with the opinions
of her son. Afterwards, when a strong movement among
the Dukhobors began in the Caucasus, Khilkov was
sent over to the Baltic Provinces, where he lived up to
1899, at which time it was decided that he be sent
abroad. In his sojourn abroad, his convictions underwent
a change to the side of the violent revolutionaries. But
when Khilkov returned to Russia in 1905, he absolutely
abstained from every political activity. In the beginning
of the Russian-German War, Khilkov entered the army
as a volunteer and in October, 1914, was killed at Lvov
(Lemberg).

241. A peasant from Yasnaya Polyana, now dead, who
was well-lettered and loved to read.


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