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242. The clergy who came carried the icon to the
churches, in the parish of which stood Yasnaya Poly-
ana. According to the order of the clergy, the elder of
Yasnaya Polyana called a village meeting and ordered
every one to go to church and meet the icon which was
afterwards carried from house to house in all the house-
holds of the village. Concerning Tolstoi and the icon,
see his letter to Countess S. A. Tolstoi, which evidently
by mistake is dated 1898 (Letters of Count L. N. Tolstoi
to his Wife, Moscow, 1913, page 558).

243. M. N. Miklukha-Maklai (1847-1887), a well-
known Russian traveller, living many years among the
Tuzemts of New Guinea and other islands. In his letter
to Miklukha-Maklai in the middle of the eighties, Tol-
stoi wrote that he considered him remarkable, not for
what every one else considered him remarkable, but that



" he could find manifestations of humanity among the
wildest men on the globe."

244. Such a type was afterwards portrayed by Tol-
stoi in his story The Forged Coupon, under the name of
the housekeeper, Vasili. (See Posthumous Literary
Works of L. N. Tolstoi, issued by A. L. Tolstoi, Volume


245. Every group of people is always inferior to the
elements which compose it.

246. The work by M. O. Menshikov, Concerning Holy
Love and Sex Love, was printed in Knighki Nedieli in
1897, No. ii. In Chapters IV and V of this work, Men-
shikov wrote about the struggle of the two principles : The
many-gods and the One-God ; Tolstoi was probably pleased
with the following lines: "The great teaching about
One-God wiped out, together with the idols, the very
conception of separate gods; the gods disappeared but
their elements the passions remained, until now the
overwhelming majority of Christians who profess by word
in the One-God, in reality bow to a plurality. . . .
(Italics made by the author.) Notwithstanding the thou-
sand year rule of the Gospels, we, in an overwhelming
majority are more sincerely idolaters than Christians of
course without suspecting it. ... Nihilist, Godless, pa-
ganized, the contemporary generation accepts as an un-
doubted law, that the development of man consists in
enlarging the number of needs and refining them to the
point of a cult. Is this not a new plurality of gods, an

247. In his book, What Is Art?

248. St. John, Chapter XIV, Verse I.



249. Chapter I, Verse 24, St. Paul to the Colos-

250. See letter of Count L. N. Tolstoi to his Wife,
March, 1913, page 535 (No. 583) and page 537 (No.


251. See letter of Count L. N. Tolstoi to his Wife,
March, 1913, pages 536-537-

252. About this time Tolstoi wrote to an acquaintance
of his: "You know Mme. M. A. Schmidt. She lives
near us, straining every effort, notwithstanding her weak
health and her age (about 50), to work to support her-
self. (She constantly helps people) and it is impossible
to see her without a softening of the heart and . . . envy.
She is always joyous, calm and graceful."

253. In the Novoe Vremia (November 19, 1897, No.
7,806) there appeared an article by V. V. Rozanov:
" Graceful Demonism " in which, in an ironical tone, he
criticised Menshikov's article, " On Sex Love," which was
printed in Knighki Nedieli (1897, Nos. 9-11). In his
words later on, Tolstoi speaks of his deeply loved brother,
Nickolai Nickolaievich (1823-1860). In his Recollec-
tions, Tolstoi relates the incident as follows: " I re-
member how once, a very stupid and bad man, an Adjutant
General, who was hunting with him, laughed at him and
how my brother, glancing at me, smiled kindly," evidently
finding great satisfaction in this. (Biriukov, Biography of
L. N. Tolstoi, Vol. I, Moscow, 1911, pages 43-44).

254. A. Maude translated What Is Art? into Eng-

255. The letter of N. Y. Grot is printed, I think, in
Tolstoi's book, What Is Art?



256. Grigori Antonovich Zakharlin (1829-1895), a
well-known professor in the Moscow University, in his
day, one of the most popular Moscow physicians.

257. Countess Maria Nicholaievna Tolstoi (1830-
1912), Tolstoi's only sister. As a young girl, she married
her second cousin, Count V. P. Tolstoi; some time later
she separated from him and soon after she became a
widow. When her daughters were married (Mme. V.
V. Nagarnov, Princess E. V. Obolensky and Mme. E.
S. Denisenko) Countess Tolstoi, under the influence of
the well-known Father Ambrose, of the Optina Desert,
entered the convent of Shamordino (in the province of
Kaluga) and later took the veil. In this convent she
spent the rest of her life.

258. Monk Ambrose, the celebrated holy man of the
Optina Desert, died in 1891, at the age of 80. About
Tolstoi's visits to the Optina Desert see fragment of
notes made by S. A. Tolstoi under the title My Life
(Tolstoi Annual, 1913, Petrograd, 1914).

259. Dushan Petrovich Makovitsky, then editor in
Hungary (in Ruzhomberg), of the Slavic publication
which corresponded to the publication Posrednik issued
in Moscow, in which Tolstoi and some of his friends took
a most active interest.

260. In this place, in the original Journal, a page
had been entered in Tolstoi's hand; evidently the be-
ginning of a letter. This was its contents :

" You ask me a question which I now for twenty
years have been trying to solve.

" It always seems to us when the simple truth is
that we ought to lead a Christian life, and when it is dis-



closed to us how terribly far from that life is the life
we lead it always seems to us that we for the moment
find ourselves in an exceptionally disadvantageous con-
dition for beginning that new life, which opens itself to
us: To one, it is a mother, to another a wife, to a third,
children, to a fourth, business; this one bought a bull,
or the other has a wedding which interferes from his going
to the feast. And we usually say to ourselves, ' Oh, if
it were not so,' looking at it as on an accidental hin-
drance and not as on the unavoidable conditions of Chris-
tian life, as on the law of gravitation in problems of

" Beauty which discloses to us the kingdom of God
blinds us so, that we immediately want to enter it and
we forget that this is not the programme of life, but the
ideal; and that the programme of life consists in struggle
and in effort to attain the kingdom of God, to approach

" And when you understand this, then the attitude
towards activity is changed. . . ."

261. The village of Dolgoe, province of Tula, district
of Krapevensk, nineteen versts from Yasnaya Polyana.
The Yasnaya Polyana house in which Tolstoi was born
stands there. In the fifties this house was sold to a
neighbouring landlord, Gorobov, who took it from Yasnaya
Polyana to Dolgoe, where it remained until 1913, when it
was destroyed.

262. Nichalai Ilich Storozhenko (1836-1906), profes-
sor in the Moscow University, author of numerous
books and articles on Russian history and general litera-



263. Tolstoi probably asked N. A. Kasatkin for ex-
amples of true art in painting.

264. N's stories seemed to be about some of the Chert-
kovs' difficult experiences in England.

265. Prince S. N. Troubetskoi (1862-1905), professor
of philosophy in the Moscow University, took an active
part in the magazine, Problems of Philosophy and Psy-
chology, and became after N. Y. Grot's death, the editor
of it. Tolstoi, as was said above, gave his work, What Is
Art? to this magazine.

266. Of these subjects Tolstoi, as much as can be
judged, made use of the following: the first, Father
Sergius, 1898; the second, The Posthumous Memoirs of
the Monk, Fedor Kuzmich, 1905 ; the fourth, Korni
Vasiliev, 1905; fifth, The Resurrection of Hell and Its
Destruction, 1902; sixth, The Forged Coupon, 1902-
1904; seventh, Hadji Murad, 1898, 1902-1904; the tenth,
Resurrection, 1898-1899; and the thirteenth, The Divine
and the Human, 1903-1904; the twelfth subject, Mother,
was begun by Tolstoi in the beginning of the nineties
(Introduction to The Story of a Mother, or A Mother's

267. It was disagreeable to Tolstoi that the foreign
publishers, who wished to print the first edition of his
book, What Is Art? made the condition that it should ap-
pear everywhere simultaneously and that it should not
be published anywhere first, not even in Russia. Tol-
stoi, being little acquainted with the conditions of foreign
publication, did not understand at first how unavoidable
these demands were for a simultaneous publication of
books in various countries, and he was disagreeably em-



barrassed that he had to absolutely forbid the appearance
of the book in Russia before the day arranged for foreign
publication. Later, realising the affair more closely, Tol-
stoi saw the necessity of these conditions of the pub-

268. I.e., he entirely finished the work What Is Art?
and gave it to Problems of Philosophy and Psychology.

269. V. G. Chertkov, being exiled from Russia, settled
in England, where he founded the publication, The
Free Press, in which the works of Tolstoi were printed,
as well as of authors near to him in point of view which
could not be printed in the Russian papers. He also ar-
ranged for the translations of the new works of Tolstoi
into the important European tongues. The telegram
which Tolstoi mentions must have been about the English
translation of What Is Art?

2 jo, Sofron Pavlovich Chizhov, a peasant from the dis-
trict of Umansk, in the province of Kiev, because of his
spreading of views adverse to the orthodox religion, was
exiled by administrative order, first to Poland and then to
eastern Siberia. His Memoirs were printed in The Free
Press, No. 10, 1904. Tolstoi often wrote to Chizhov in
exile, expressing his joy that he bears all oppression " like
a man, with patience and with love." Chizhov has re-
mained in Siberia for life and at present is living near

271. As in the copy in possession of the editors.

272. See Note 267.

273. In a letter to Chertkov, January 18, 1898, Tolstoi
wrote: " Letters with threats have, of course, no effect,
but they are unpleasant, in this sense, that there should be



people who hate futilely. I am always ready to die and
that is the thing. I thought a little while ago : . . . that
when one is healthy one ought to try to live better on the
outside, but when one is ill then learn to die better. Be-
sides, these letters haven't even this merit: they are so
stupidly written that they have been conceived evidently
only to frighten."

274. Concerning this illness, Tolstoi, mentioning it in
his letter to the Chertkovs, December 28, 1897, said:
" The illness was the usual one, biliousness, and has now
passed away."

275. Tolstoi began and finished this drama only in 1900.

276. Tolstoi's brother-in-law, A. A. Behrs.

277. Sergei Mickailovich Soloviev (1820-1879), the
Russian historian, the father of the philosopher, Vladimir
Sergeevich, and the novelist, Vsevolod Sergeevich Soloviev.

278. The preface to the English edition, What Is Art?
In his letter to Chertkov, December 27, 1897, Tolstoi
wrote :

" Wouldn't such a preface be suitable ?

" The book which is about to appear cannot be pub-
lished in its entirety in Russia on account of the censor,
and therefore it is being published in England in transla-
tion, the correctness of which I have not the least doubt
of. The five chapters printed in Russia in the magazine
Problems of Philosophy and Psychology have already suf-
fered several deletions and changes; the following chap-
ters, especially those which explain the essence of my point
of view on art, will surely not be permitted in Russia and
therefore I ask all those who are interested in this book
to judge it only by this present edition."



279. Nicholas Evgrafovivh Phedoseev, a political exile,
who went by etape with the Dukhobors exiled to Siberia.
In his letter Fedosiev told Tolstoi about the interviews
given to him by the Dukhobors themselves, concerning the
suffering those who were sent to the Ekaterinograd dis-
ciplinary battalion had to undergo, and he also gave him
information about the Dukhobors in Siberia. This let-
ter was printed in Leaflets of The Free Press, 1898, No. I.

280. " I received a letter through the Chertkovs,"
wrote Tolstoi, January 18, 1898 from G. Bedborough,
the publisher of The Adult, a letter with questions about
sex-problems and a very light-headed program.

281. Written in English, in the original.

282. Ilya Efimovich Repine. Concerning this visit,
Tolstoi wrote to Chertkov, January 21, 1898: " One of
the recent pleasant impressions was the meeting with Re-
pine. I think we made a good impression on each other.

283. Countess Alexandra Lvovna Tolstoi (born, 1884),
Tolstoi's youngest daughter.

284. The literary work conceived and written by Tol-
stoi only in 1902: The Legend of the Destruction of
Hell by Christ and Its Resurrection by the Devils, ar-
ranging the teaching of Christ so that it improve the evil
life of people.

285. As in the copy at the disposal of the editors.

286. Michail Fedorovich Gulenko, serving in the de-
partment of the Moscow-Kursk Railroad, and at this time
one of the most active contributors to Posrednik.

287. Leopold Antonovich Sullerzhitsky, later one of
the managers of the Moscow Artistic Theatre. In the
Tolstoi family he was often called for short, Suller.



288. A poem by V. D. Liapunov, printed at first with
a letter by Tolstoi in the magazine, Russkaia My si ( 1898,
No. i ) : and later in the book, V. D. Liapunov, a Young
Poet, " Library of Leo Tolstoi," edited by P. I. Biriukov,
Moscow, 1912.

289. In Paths of Life Tolstoi expresses this thought
more exactly: "That which we consider for ourselves
as evil, is in most cases a good which is not yet under-
stood by us." In another place he says in speaking of
the same problem : " We must distinguish between our
conceptions of evil in general, ' objective ' evil, as philos-
ophers say, an outer one, and between evil for each man
individually, a ' subjective ' evil, an inner one. There is
no objective evil. Subjective evil is a departure from
reason, it is indeed death. (A combination, The Four
Gospels Harmonized, Translated and Studied, Chapter
III.) See also Journal of May 28, 1896, thought I.

290. One word illegible. Note by Prince Obolensky
in the copy in possession of the editors.

291. To avoid misunderstanding as to whom this remark
of Tolstoi's refers, it is proper here to cite an extract from
another one of his writings: " They say that defence is
impossible under non-resistance; but the Christian does
not need any defence. All that an evil-doer can do is to
deprive one of property, to kill, and a Christian is not
afraid of that. The Christian not worrying about what
to eat, what to drink, what to wear, and knowing that
without the will of the Father not a hair will fall from
his head, the Christian has no need to use violence against
the evil-doer. The evil-doer can do nothing to him."
(From the rough draft of The Kingdom of God Within



Us, 1890-1893, with later corrections by Tolstoi made
during a revision of his Complete Collection of Thoughts.)

292. Jean Grave, a contemporary French writer, of
anarchical tendencies.

293. Shortly before that, February 14, 1898, Tolstoi
wrote to V. G. Chertkov : " About myself I can say that
I would be satisfied with my spiritual state, if I were not
dissatisfied with my small external output. The causes
are: 111 health, as well as the bustle of city life (although
now for about three days I have been well)."

294. The twentieth, the concluding chapter of What
Is Art? is devoted to a criticism of con tempo raary science
from the standpoint of Christian philosophy.

295. Anatol Ivanovich Pharesov, the democratic fiction
writer and publicist.

Alexander Kapitonovich Malikov, who lived in the sev-
enties in Orel, preached the doctrine of " God-humanity,"
consisting in this, that each man ought to be re-born
morally and exalt the divine principle which was in him.
Malikov was absolutely opposed to all violent methods
of fighting evil. In 1875 Malikov with a small circle
of persons who shared his opinions (fifteen in all) emi-
grated to America, where in the State of Kansas he
established an agricultural community on the basis of the
doctrine professed by him. When two years later the
community fell apart, Malikov returned to Russia. He
died in 1904 at the age of sixty-two. See about him the
article of A. S. Prugavin, " Leo Tolstoi and the Man-
Gods," and the book on Leo Tolstoi and the Tolstoians,
Moscow, 1911.

296. The agricultural colony, Georgia, issued a mag-



azine with a Christian tendency, called Social Gospel.
Among the members of this colony was Crosby. There
were about one hundred colonists. In this letter, ad-
dressed to George Howard Gibson, Tolstoi expressed his
opinion on agricultural societies in general.

297. At this time, the Dukhobors received permission
from the Russian authorities to emigrate. Tolstoi ad-
dressed himself to Russian, European and American so-
ciety with an appeal, in which he summoned them to help
the Dukhobors with money as well as with direct assist-
ance in the difficulties of emigration. The appeal to
Russian society was printed among other places in the
Full Collected Works of Tolstoi, published by Sytin,
subscribed and popular editions, Volume XVIII; and
the letter to the English newspapers was printed in The
Free Press, No. I (1898, England), in the article of
P. I. Biriukov and afterwards reprinted in his book The

298. When What Is Art? was already printed in the
Problems of Philosophy and Psychology and submitted
to the censorship there came an order from Petrograd
to submit it to the theologic censorship. The theologic
censor not only crossed out many passages, but in some
places made changes which perverted the very thought of
the author. In the preface to the English translation of
this work, Tolstoi expressed regret that, contrary to his
custom, he consented at the request of N. Y. Grot to
print this work with the censor deletions and softenings.
And he also speaks about the harm of every kind of com-
promise. . . . This preface was printed in Russian in
The Free Press, No. I.


299- At this place in the Journal there was a diagram
composed of flowing lines, irregularly drawn. As the
editors did not have the original of the Journal, but used
the copy made by Prince Obolensky, it was impossible to
make an exact facsimile of the original diagram.

300. In his letter to V. G. Chertkov, Tolstoi wrote:
". . . This happened: In the morning they told me that
two men came from the Caucasus. They were the Duk-
hobors, P. V. Planidin, an acquaintance of yours, and
Chernov. They came, naturally, without passports to
give me information and to find out everything pertain-
ing to their affair. After talking with these dear friends
and finding out everything, I decided to send them to
Petersburg. . . . They went, spent the day there, and re-
turned. . . . They are touchingly instructive." " The
principal reason for Planidin's and Chernov's coming,"
Tolstoi wrote April 6th, " was to ask some one of our
friends to go to visit Verigin in Obdorsk."

301. Ivan Petrovich Brashnin, a typical old-fashioned
Moscow merchant, a dealer in raw silks; his family con-
sisted of his wife and two sons. A. N. Dunaev in-
troduced him to Tolstoi in the eighties. He was then
over 60. He had wanted to make his acquaintance, be-
cause the views of Tolstoi were near to his soul; in spite
of his former strict orthodoxy he warmly accepted the
views of Tolstoi. Being sincere and straight-forward,
he rejected the . . . teaching and became a convinced fol-
lower of the pure Christian teaching. He spoke with
great pleasure and emotion about his visits and talks with
Tolstoi, which gave him the greatest joy.

A few years prior to his death he became a strict veg-


etarian. Before his death he refused the viaticon of the
priest and the rites of confession and the sacrament.

In his letter to A. C. Chertkov of March 30, 1898,
Tolstoi wrote him about his last visit to Brashnin :

"You know there is an old man, a rich merchant,
Brashnin, who is near to us in spirit. I have already
known him for about fifteen years. He has cancer of
the liver, so the doctors have found out. I visited him
once in the winter. He was very weak, thin, yellow,
but on his feet. One morning about a week ago A. N.
Dunaiev came to me with the news that Brashnin is
dying and that he had sent a boy to ask that I take
leave of him. We went and found him dying. My
first words were : ' Is he calm ? ' Absolutely. He was
in full possession of his memory, had a clear mind,
thanked me, and took leave of me and I of him, as
people do before going on a journey. With sadness we
spoke about the ... I said that we will see each other
again. He calmly answered, ' No more.' He took leave
and thanked us for our visit. Everything was so simple,
peaceful and earnest."

302. The article on war and on military service was
called forth by the request of two foreign papers to
the representatives of political and social workers, and the
representatives of science and art, to express themselves
on whether war was necessary in our time, what were
the consequences of militarism and what were the means
that led the quickest way to a realisation of universal

303. The former estate of Count I. L. Tolstoi in
Cherni, the province of Tula, to which Tolstoi went to



help the famine-stricken peasants. As in the year 1891
when Tolstoi helped the famine-stricken peasants of the
province of Riazan, he considered the establishment of
soup-kitchens as the most sensible form of help, for which
he set himself to work upon his arrival in Grinevka.
On May 2, 1898, in his letter to the Countess S. A.
Tolstoi, Tolstoi wrote in reference to his activity that
" the work which was being done was necessary and is
advancing. There is no famine, but the need is killing,
cropless, very difficult, and it helps us to see it." (Let-
ters of Tolstoi to his Wije, Moscow, 1913, pages 542
and 543.)

304. April 21, 1898, by order of the Minister of the
Interior, the Russkia Viedomosti was suspended for two
months " for the collection of contributions in aid of
the Dukhobors and for evading the executive orders of
the Moscow Governor-General." The regulation of the
Moscow Governor-General which the newspaper did not
fulfil was to give over for disposal to the authorities
the money contributed through the editorial offices for the
aid of the Dukhobors. The editors could not do that,
because the money had already been sent to Tolstoi.

305. Lopashino, as well as Sidorovo, Kamenka, Gubar-
evka, Bobriki, Michails Ford, Kukuevka, which are
mentioned below, are villages near to Grinevka where
Tolstoi established soup-kitchens for the famine-stricken.

306. For an orderly organisation of aid for the needy,
Tolstoi had collected the necessary detailed information
concerning the number of souls and the economic condi-
tion of each household in the suffering villages.

307. See Note 136.



308. The Tsurikovs and Ilinskys neighbouring land-

309. Tolstoi wrote to V. G. Chertkov on that day: " I
haven't written for a whole week, but I feel pretty well.
It seems to me that after the Moscow bustle my im-
pressions are finding their place, the necessary thoughts
are coming forth."

310. See Letters of Count L. N. Tolstoi to his Wife,
March, 1913, pages 543 and 544.

311. I.e., at his son's, Count S. L. Tolstoi, on his
estate of Nicholskoe, near the station of Bastyevo.

312. V. G. Chertkov then wrote an article, "Where
is Thy Brother? About the attitude of the Russian
Government to the People Who Cannot Become Mur-
derers," in the defence of the oppressed Dukhobors. This
article was published in The Free Press (England,

313. G. R. Lindenberg, one of Tolstoi's co-workers
in aid of the famine-stricken, an artist.

314. The name of this teacher is Gubonin. Together
with Lindenberg he came to Tolstoi from Poltava.

315. The Appeal served as the beginning of two articles
on the labour question : Should it really be so, and Where
is the way out? upon which Tolstoi worked during the
year 1898 and revised it once again for printing in 1900.

316. The deceased, N. N. Stakhov.

317. The county seat of the province of Orel.

318. A railroad station on the Moscow-Kursk Rail-

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Online LibraryLeo TolstoyThe journal of Leo Tolstoi .. → online text (page 20 of 24)