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road.

319. Tolstoi speaks here of gymnastic exercises which
he sometimes took (see entry of May n, 1898).

368



Notes

320. Tolstoi used to receive contributions in aid of
the famine-stricken from various people.

321. In this article under the title, " Is There Famine
or No Famine ? " Tolstoi answers the following ques-
tions: I. Is there in the current year a famine or is
there not a famine? 2. To what is due the oft-repeated
need of the people? 3. What is to be done in order
that this need be not repeated ? These were printed with
omissions in the newspaper, Russ, of July 2 and 3, of
1898 and in full in Leaflets of The Free Press, No. 2
(England, 1898).

322. The Countess S. N. Tolstoi (born Philosophov) ,
wife of Tolstoi's son, Count I. L. Tolstoi.

323. Neighbouring landlords near Grinevka.

324. After a tiring, long ride by horse, Tolstoi
arrived at the Levitskys', and fell ill of severe dysen-
tery.

325. Tolstoi was forced to stop his work in aid of
the famine-stricken, as the Tula Governor forbade all
non-residents without his permission to establish and help
in the construction of soup-kitchens. Without these
people it was impossible to continue the work. ( See article
" Is There Famine or No Famine? ")

326. The well-known Swedish physician, Ernest
Westerlund, and his wife parents of the wife of Count
L. L. Tolstoy, Dora Fedorovna who arrived from
Sweden to visit her.

327. The novel, Father Sergius, which Tolstoi wrote
from 1890-1891.

328. I.e., from V. G. and A. K. Chertkov.

329. The story, The Forged Coupon, begun by Tol-

369



Notes

stoi as early as the end of the eighties and only begun
again by him at the end of 1902

330. N. S. Lieskov (1831-1895), a well-known
writer. In the last years of his life he shared in many re-
spects the views of Tolstoi. The story of Lieskov men-
tioned by Tolstoi is called The Hour of the Will of
God.

331. Five years later, in 1903, Tolstoi worked this
theme out in a story entitled Three Problems.

332. The christening of the first child of Count L. L.
Tolstoi.

333. About this time Tolstoi wrote to V. G. Chert-
kov : " My sickness at first began as dysentery, then I
had very great pains and fever and weakness. Now
everything has passed."

334. Prince E. E. Ukhtomsky, the editor and pub-
lisher of the Petrograd Viedomosti.

335. "Is There Famine or No Famine?"

336. The weekly newspaper issued in Petrograd by S.
F. Sharapov.

337. This was done in those places where Tolstoi or-
ganised aid to the famine-stricken.

338. I. C. Dieterichs, a former Cossack artillery
officer, who held the same views as Tolstoi, a brother of
Madame A. C. Chertkov, and his sisters, Maria and Olga
Constantinova.

339. There occurred in England at this time, some
misunderstandings between several friends of Tolstoi,
who had to be convinced by experience that having the
same point of view is far from being of one mind. The
misunderstandings were later smoothed over.

370



Notes

340. The contemporary French novelist.

341. See Note 339.

342. Elizabeth Picard, a Quaker, wrote an open letter
to the well-known English publisher, Stead, editor of the
magazine War Against War, which preached universal
peace, and which at the same time was against those
persons who refused military service.

343. C. T. Willard of Chicago offered himself as
mediator in the emigration of the Dukhobors to America.
Tolstoi sent his letter to England to V. G. Chertkov,
whose house at this time was the headquarters for all
communications concerning the emigration of the Duk-
hobors.

344. V. P. Gaideburov, from 1894 on, editor and pub-
lisher of Nediela.

345. In English in the original.

346. This intention was carried out by Tolstoi, at
least in regard to Resurrection, which he gave to the pub-
lication Niva, edited by A. F. Marx, who paid twelve
thousand roubles for the first printing. The money was
used by Tolstoi in aid of the emigrating Dukhobors.

Originally, Tolstoi suggested selling the copyright of
three of his novels, The Devil, Resurrection, and Father
Sergius, to English and American papers on advantageous
terms. Then he decided not to publish The Devil. At
first he thought that he would not make a final revision
of Resurrection and of Father Sergius, but would give
them over to be printed straight away, just as they were
written. But later he re-read Resurrection and little
by little began to work on it with such absorption " as
he had not experienced in a long time." Later Tolstoi

371



Notes

decided to give only Resurrection for the benefit of the
Dukhobors and did not begin to work on Father
Sergius.

347. Arvid Jarnefelt. The well-known Finnish
writer who held the same opinions as Tolstoi. After
graduating from Helsingfors University, he prepared
himself for the career of magistrate, but becoming ac-
quainted with the writings of Tolstoi, he brusquely
changed his life. He learnt the trade of cobbler and lock-
smith and later, at the end of the nineties, he bought a
plot of land and began to till the soil, not ceasing his
literary labours, however. He translated many works
of Tolstoi into Finnish. The novels of Jarnefelt are
My Native Land, Children of the Earth and several
stories which are translated into Russian. The acquaint-
ance of Jarnefelt with Tolstoi began with his sending
his book called My Awakening to Tolstoi in 1895. It
was in Finnish, and with it he sent a translation of one
of his chapters: "Why I Did Not Undertake the Post
of Judge." This chapter, together with an accompany-
ing letter by Jarnefelt, Tolstoi included in his manu-
script No. 4, Archives of L. N. Tolstoi.

Tolstoi's letter to Jarnefelt, mentioned in the Journal,
is as follows:

" Although we have never seen each other, we know
and love each other, and therefore I boldly turn to you
with a request to do me a great service.

" The matter which I bring before you ought to re-
main unknown to any one except to us, and therefore
speak to no one about this letter, but answer me (Station

372



Kozlovka on the Moscow-Kursk Railway), where you
are now, and whether you are ready to help me. I am
writing thus briefly, because I have little hope that with
the insufficient address, my letter will reach you.

"LEO TOLSTOI."

In explanation of this letter Jarnefelt communicated
the following to the editors: " I quickly answered Tol-
stoi's question. I was convinced that he wanted to leave
Yasnaya and to plan an escape. But when we met later
in Moscow in 1899, Tolstoi immediately said: 'Yes,
yes, you understood me, but the temptation passed by
me in time.' And then glancing about him with a deep
sigh of pain he said, ' You will excuse me, Jarnefelt,
that I live as I do, but probably it is as it ought to
be.' And we did not speak any more about this mat-
ter."

And so, in his letter to Jarnefelt of December 16,
1898, i.e., still before this meeting with him, Tolstoi
wrote: "If I should ever meet you, which I want to
very much, I will then tell you what kind of help I ex-
pected from you. Now the temptation which forced me
to seek help from you has passed."

In his letter to V. G. Chertkov of July aist of that
year, i.e., three days after the above mentioned note in
the Journal, Tolstoi wrote: "Read this to no one. I
teach others, but do not know how to live myself. For
how many years have I given myself the question, Is it
fitting that I continue to live as I am living, or shall I
go away ? and I cannot decide. I know that every-
thing is decided by renouncing oneself and when I attain

373



Notes

that then everything is clear. But they are rare mo-
ments."

348. See Note 347.

349. A collection in the church Slavonic tongue,
Love of Good, or Words and Chapters of Sacred So-
briety, collected from the writings of the Saints and
God-inspired fathers. In his library, Tolstoi had a
volume of Love of Good with a great many notes in
the margin made in his own hand.

350. With I. I. Gorbunov, who came for a short time
to Ovsiannikovo to his brother, who lived there at this
time, the actor N. I. Gorbunov. At this meeting, Tolstoi
said to I. I. Gorbunov that it was the gentlemanly state
of his life that had become more agonising to him, that
he was " ashamed to look in the eyes of his lackeys " and
that he wanted to go away. He said among other things
that he was thinking of going away with I. I. Gorbunov
to Kaluga (where Gorbunov lived at that time) and
further than that, he still had another plan . . . perhaps
it was the plan about which Tolstoi had written a little
while before to Jarnefelt. (See Note 347.)

351. Tolstoi's brother, Count Serge Nicholaievich.

352. Tolstoi's sister, Countess M. N. Tolstoi.

353. The English authorities of the Island of Cyprus
asked a money guarantee of about two hundred and
fifty roubles for each man from the Dukhobors emigrat-
ing there, so that in case of need they would not have
to be supported at the government expense. At that
time it became known, that in Russia several influential
governmental persons had begun to zealously urge the
government to send the Dukhobors to Manchuria for

374



the Russification of those Chinese borders adjacent to
Russia. It was necessary to hurry with the emigration
of the Dukhobors; the English Quakers pulled them out
of their helpless position, who first of all persuaded the
English Government to decrease the guarantee from two
hundred and fifty roubles to one hundred and fifty for
each man, and afterwards in several days, collected
among themselves a guarantee of one hundred thousand
roubles, which, together with the fifty thousand roubles
which were contributed at that time by various people,
made up the necessary sum for giving the guarantee for
the whole party of Dukhobors. In his letter to the
Dukhobors of August 27, iSgS, Tolstoi ended thus:
" May God help you to accomplish His will with Chris-
tian manhood, patience and faithfulness, in establishing
this change in your life."

354. M. N. Rostovtzev, the daughter of Madame M.
D. Rostovtzev, a land-lady of Voronezh, and a follower
of Tolstoi, on coming from the Chertkovs, was arrested
on the border because, at the custom examination some
pieces of proof of a forbidden book were found on her.
She was soon freed.

355. The interruption in receiving letters from V. G.
Chertkov was caused by the secret police looking through
them. Therefore Chertkov was forced to carry on a part
of this far-distant correspondence through a circuitous
address. In the letter to him at the end of August,
1898, Tolstoi, informing Chertkov that one of his let-
ters was kept back a month, wrote: "Yesterday I re-
ceived your letter of August 5th. It is terribly vexing,
this interference with our communications which now

375



have become so specially important. And what is it
for?"

356. See Note 355.

357. L. A. Sullerzhitsky went to the Caucasus to
help the Dukhobors arrange for their emigration abroad.

The first group of Dukhobors, to the number of 1,126
persons, who had suffered the most from exile, hunger
and illness, left on the 6th of August, 1898, for the
Island of Cyprus while other lands be found and suffi-
cient money collected for the transportation of those re-
maining to a more suitable place.

At the request of Tolstoi, L. A. Sullerzhitsky later
accompanied a group of Dukhobors to Canada. He
wrote a book about this journey, In America With the
Dukhobors, issued by Posrednik, Moscow, 1905.

358. The sister of Tolstoi, Countess Maria Nichol-
aievna. A month later, September 30, 1898, Tolstoi
wrote to V. G. Chertkov: "Yesterday my sister, M.
N., left, with whom I spent a very friendly month, never
having been so loving."

359. V. A. Kuzminsky, a niece of Countess S. A.
Tolstoi.

360. Countess Vera S. Tolstoi, a niece of Tolstoi,
daughter of Count S. N. Tolstoi.

361. Tolstoi's seventieth birthday, celebrated August
28, 1898.

362. According to the contract with the publisher of
Niva, A. F. Marx, Tolstoi at the conclusion of the
contract, received the whole of his royalty for only the
first 200 pages of Resurrection.

363. In regard to the false rumours which were reach-

376



Notes

ing Tolstoi at this time, about the affairs of the emigrat-
ing Dukhobors.

364. One of the Dukhobors exiled to Siberia, V. N.
Pozdniakov, was sent by his brethren to the leader of the
Dukhobors, P. V. Verigin, who was then in exile in the
village of Obdorsk in the province of Tobolsk. Receiv-
ing a letter of instructions from Verigin for the group
in general, he brought this letter to his brethren in the
Caucasus and on his way reached Yasnaya Polyana. He
showed Tolstoi marks on his body from ill-treatment he
had suffered three years before.

365. Herbert Archer, an English co-worker with V.
G. Chertkov, who went at his request to Tolstoi to
transmit information to him with regard to the Duk-
hobors and to dissipate the false rumours about them
which had reached Tolstoi from outsiders. About this
time, in his letter to Countess S. A. Tolstoi, Tolstoi
wrote about Archer: " He looks insignificant, but he is a
very good man and a remarkably clever one." (Letters
of Count L. N. Tolstoi to his Wife, March, 1913, page

555-)

366. This thought Tolstoi changed in the following
form for The Reading Circle: "Now I consider as my-
self my body with its senses, but then something entirely
different is being formed in me. And then the whole
world will become different, since the whole world is
not something different, only because I consider myself
such a being separated from the world and not another.
But there may be an innumerable quantity of beings sep-
arated from the world." The Reading Circle, issued by
Posrednik, Volume I, Moscow, 1911, for April 16.

377



Notes

367. Tolstoi's son, S. L. Tolstoi, and L. A. Sul-
lerzhitsky went to the Caucasus to accompany the re-
maining Dukhobors to Canada. Tolstoi in order to pro-
tect them from the oppression of the authorities wrote
a letter to the commander-in-chief of the Caucasus, Prince
G. S. Golitsin.

368. Tolstoi sometimes could not remember which
thought from his pocket note-book he had written out
into the Journal and which one he had not. This ex-
plains the fact that several thoughts are entered without
any changes at all in the Journal, in places not far from
one another.

369. In the eighties and nineties the Tolstois went
yearly from Yasnaya Polyana to Moscow to spend the
winter.

370. Princess E. V. Obolensky, niece of Tolstoi,
daughter of his sister, Countess Maria Nicholaievna.

371. In the finished form, the novel had 129 chapters.

372. In another place Tolstoi says: " Playing the fool
(like Christ) i.e., the purposeful representing of yourself
as worse than you are, is the highest quality of virtue."
(Journal, May 29, 1893.)

373. An omission in the copy in possession of the
editors.

374. Tolstoi wrote to V. G. Chertkov as early as
December 13, 1898: "I absolutely cannot occupy myself
with anything else than with Resurrection. Just like a
shell, when it gets to the earth, falls more and more
quickly, in the same way I now, when I am nearing the
end, I cannot think no, not that I cannot: I can and

378



Notes

even do think but I don't want to think about anything
else but about it."

375. At this time the emigration of the Dukhobors to
Canada had not yet been accomplished. Tolstoi took
an active part in the affair: he addressed various people
with the request for contributions for this purpose, he
carried on a correspondence with friends in England in
regard to a place of settlement for the Dukhobors, he
sent letters to the authorities to try to remove obstacles
which were in their way, he saw agents who suggested
places of settlement, he carried on a correspondence with
the Dukhobors themselves, etc.

376. February 15, 1899, Tolstoi wrote to V. G.
Chertkov: " My back hurts all the time and I am weak
and I am disgusted with Resurrection, which I can't
touch."

377. The retired officer addressed himself to Tol-
stoi with the question whether the Gospels were not
against military service. Tolstoi's answer was printed
in the leaflets of The Free Press, No. 5, 1899, and in
1906 in Petrograd in the publication, Obnovlenia, No.
130 (which was confiscated).

378. A group of representative Swedish intellectuals
addressed themselves to Tolstoi with a letter as to the
means of attaining universal peace. In this letter on
the one hand, they expressed the thought that universal
disarmament could be attained by the surest path of
each separate individual refusing to take part in mili-
tary service, and on the other hand, they acknowledged
that the Peace Conference fixed for The Hague at the

379



Notes

instigation of the Russian Government was useful to the
attainment of universal peace. . . .

379. In the middle of February, 1898, the students
of the University of Petrograd, in the form of a protest
against the beating of people in the streets, decided on
the day of the student holiday, February 8th, as a peace-
ful-minded group of students, to cease work. They
were soon joined by students of other higher schools in
Petrograd and later in Moscow, Kiev, Kharkov, Jurev,
Odessa, Tomsk, Kazan, Riga and Novaia Alexandria. In
this way the studies of several thousand men and women
students were suspended. The representatives of the
Moscow and Petrograd student bodies came to Tolstoi
with the purpose of obtaining his opinion and sympathy
for the student movement.

380. Sinet, an artist, who refused military service on
religious grounds and was sent to the Algerian discipli-
nary battalion and who escaped from there. Tolstoi called
Sinet the first religious Frenchman, therefore, because
he was the first Frenchman he met who believed truly as
he did.

381. In his letter to V. G. Chertkov of July 9, 1899,
Tolstoi wrote, " The matter of the translations worry
me. I can imagine, therefore, how they worry you.
To-day I thought this: To drop all contracts with the
translators and print the following in the news-
paper. . . ." Further on Tolstoi expounds the project
of his letter to the newspapers, that he, in the matter
of translation, decided to destroy the contracts with the
publishers of the translations and to refuse the royalty
of the first printing of these translations. And yet the

380



Notes

need of the Dukhobors was so great that "having no
means of employing cattle, they have hitched themselves
and their wives to the plough and are ploughing with
human power to till their land." For this reason, Tol-
stoi drops his plan : " I ask all the publishers who will
print this novel and the translators of it, as well as the
readers of the novel, to remember those people for whom
this publication has been begun and as far as their
strength and their desire go, to help the Dukhobors
by giving their mite to the Dukhobor fund in Eng-
land."

382. Taking no part in 1899, in the work of organis-
ing help for the famine-stricken peasants, Tolstoi directed
the contributions received for this purpose from various
people, to be sent to those who were occupied on the
spot in giving help to the inhabitants.

383. Originally in English.

384. This thought was maintained in the book then
being read by Tolstoi: Vergleichenden Uebersicht der
Vier Evangelien, von S. G. Verus, Leipzig, 1897. In
the letter of Biriukov of August i, 1899, Tolstoi wrote
thus about the significance of Verus' book: "This suppo-
sition or probability is the destruction of the last suburbs
which are susceptible to attacks from the enemy, so that
the fortress of the moral teaching of the good, flowing
not from a source which is only temporary and local, but
from a totality of the whole spiritual life of humanity,
be unshaken."

385. Countess S. N. Tolstoi.

386. See Note 385.

387. This thought is developed more in detail by Tol-



Notes

stoi in the Legend of the Stones (see The Reading
Circle, Volume II).

388. Alfred B. Westrup. Plenty of Money. N. Y.,

1899-

389. Countess O. C. Tolstoi, born Dieterichs, first
wife of A. L. Tolstoi.

390. The artist, Julia Ivanovna Igumnov, who lived a
long time in Yasnaya Polyana. At this time she helped
Tolstoi to copy his manuscripts and his letters.

391. A. D. Arkhangelsky, a student in the Moscow
University, who lived as a teacher in Tolstoi's house.

392. These chapters on Resurrection were sent to the
publishing house of Niva to be set up.

393. An interrogation point in the copy at the disposal
of the editors.

394. Living at this time with the Tolstois in Moscow,
Countess O. K. Tolstoi, in a letter to V. G. Chertkov
on November 22nd, 1899, described Tolstoi's illness in
this way : " Yesterday we lived through a terrible even-
ing and night. In the evening after dinner, Tolstoi
went to his room to lie down, and after several minutes
we were all attracted by terrible groans from him . . .
he was taken with severe stomach pains which were very
severe from four o'clock in the morning to seven in the
evening. He suffered terribly and at first nothing
helped." Tolstoi suffered especially from vomiting which
lasted twenty-eight hours. His doctors were P. S. Usev
and Prof. M. P. Cherinov. " Both medicine and feed-
ing," another person wrote to Chertkov from Moscow,
December 5, 1899, " IS given now by entreaty and per-
suasion, now by tears and now by deception, which is

382



Notes

even more depressing than tears. To-day everything is
better: pains and appetite and strength." Tolstoi got
out of bed December 6th and little by little began to
walk. But the following days he had pain and felt
weakness.

395. An omission in this place in the copy in possession
of the editors.

396. This word in the original is underlined twice.

397. From Derzhavin's Ode, " God."

398. The exact title of the book by M. A. Engel-
hardt is Progress, As an Evolution of Cruelty, issued by
F. F. Pavlenkov, Petrograd, 1899. To the author of
this book, M. A. Engelhardt (1858-1882), Tolstoi wrote,
in 1882, a very remarkable letter on the problem of non-
resistance to evil by violence.

399. The journal, Niva.

400. The novel, The Forged Coupon.



383



APPENDIX



A SHORT SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF

TOLSTOI AT THE END OF THE

NINETIES

BY CONSTANTINE SHOKOR-TROTSKY

The present volume of Tolstoi's Journal covers
a period from October 28, 1895, to December,
1899. During this time Tolstoi made in all 170
entries x in the Journal, the greatest number of
them falling in the year 1897, and the smallest in
1899. During certain months, Tolstoi made no
entries whatever. There were nine such months
in the four years; April and August, 1896; July,
1897; September, October and December, 1898;
March, May and August, 1899. The greatest
number of interruptions in the entries was caused
by ill health, sometimes also by intensive work
and sometimes on account of spiritual depression.

I

IMPORTANT EVENTS

Of important outer events which had more or
less significance for Tolstoi, and to which he re-

1 Of the 170 entries in the present edition, the editors have
omitted 102 places (1,707 words) because of their intimate char-
acter, and 55 places (1,102 words) on account of the censor.
Besides this, in the Notes, one place (9 words) has been omitted
on account of its intimate character and 14 places (245 words)
on account of the censor.

387



Appendix

sponded during this time, the following are to be
mentioned: l

In the first two months of 1896, Tolstoi notes in
his Journal and in private letters the death of sev-
eral people more or less near to him : his relative,
N. M. Nagornov; the well-known philosopher, N.
N. Strahkov, to whom he was bound by an old
friendship; an old woman, Agatha Michailovna,
a former maid of his grandmother, who lived all
her life in Yasnaya Polyana; the Yasnaya Polyana
peasant, Phillip Egorov, who had been a coachman
for many years at the Tolstois', and the steward,
at one time ; the wife of a professor, Olga Storoz-
henko.

In March and April of the same year, accord-
ing to his own words, the important events of his
life were: making the acquaintance of the peasant,
M. P. Novikov; the arrest of his friend, a woman
doctor, M. M. Kholevinsky, because she gave his
forbidden works to the working people; hearing
Wagner's opera, "Siegfried," which aided him in
clarifying his conception of true art; becoming ac-
quainted with the works of the noted philosopher,
A. A. Spier, which were sent to him by the latter's
daughter.

In May, in Moscow at the time of the Corona-
tion, the unfortunate catastrophe which took place


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