London Caxton Celebration.

Catalogue of the loan collection of antiquities, curiosities, and appliances connected with the art of printing online

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pull was a dead one. The ink was very liquid, and was applied by balls
of sheepskin stuffed with wool. The first improvement in the press was
made in the beginning of the seventeenth century by Willem Jansen
Blaew, of Amsterdam, who strengthened it, and gave a spring to the im-
pression. This press, with slight improvements, remained in vogue till
the year 1800, when Charles Mahon, third Earl Stanhope, invented one
made of iron with a series of powerful levers which enabled the platen
to be greatly enlarged. His press is the foundation of those used at the
present day, namely, the Columbian, invented by George Clymer, of
Philadelphia, and patented in England in 1817, and the Albion, invented
by R. W. Cope, of London, in 1824. These presses are worked by
hand and require two workmen. They are being superseded by " Ma-
chines," driven by steam or treadle.

Printing machines are of three kinds : platen machines, ordinary
cylinder machines, and rotary machines. In the first, the type is on a
fiat bed, and receives the impression from a flat surface ; in the second,
the bed is flat, and is made to pass under a revolving cylinder which gives
the impression ; in the third, the type is placed on the periphery of one
cylinder and is pressed by another. The principles of the second and
third kinds were patented by William Nicholson in 1790, but the first

45* Cajton Celebration*

actual machine was made here by Frederick Konig, a Saxon, in 1810. It
was of the platen kind, and not very successful. Two years later he
made a cylinder machine, and in 1814 erected at the Times office a
double or " two-feeder " machine that is to say, a machine that would
print two sheets at once.

According to the kinds of work that they are intended for, printing
machines are divided into fast newspaper machines, book machines, and
jobbing machines. The first class is chiefly composed of rotary machines,
the second comprises both cylinder and platen machines driven by steam
power, though the former greatly preponderate, while the third consists
of small cylinder and platen machines worked by steam or by treadle.

Of book machines we have, first, the " perfecting " machine (one that
prints the sheet on both sides), which generally comprises two large
cylinders such as that invented by Cowper and Applegath in 1818-24;
secondly, the large-cylinder gripper machine, invented by Napier in
1824, and the small-cylinder gripper machine, first made by Main, in
1851, and at the present time the most usual of all; and thirdly, the
large platen machine, a development of the hand press. This last is
now rapidly becoming obsolete.

Jobbing machines comprise small editions of the cylinder book ma-
chines, and a new kind of platen machine introduced into this country
from the United States in 1867. During the ten years which have
elapsed since that date, it has been generally adopted throughout the
country. It is only made in small sizes, and is for the most part driven
by treadle by the lad who works it.

A few years ago, all cylinder machines required a lad to " lay on " or
" feed " the sheets to be printed, and another to take them off, or " fly "
them. Of late, however, they have been fitted with automatic flyers,
which dispense with the attendance of one of the boys. Feeding is still
performed by hand, though machines have been constructed to super-
sede manual labour in this department. The last brought out in this
country is the invention of an ingenious American.

Most newspapers were originally printed on ordinary single cylinder
machines. The Times, however, as has been already stated, procured
from Konig a two-feeder machine, and this was capable of producing
i, TOO impressions an hour. Cowper and Applegath subsequently im-
proved it, so that it would print 2,000, and in 1827 they constructed a
machine with four impression cylinders, which would turn out 6,000 im-
pressions per hour. This was used at the Times office till 1847, when
Applegath brought out his eight-feeder vertical rotary machine, capable
of producing 12,000 impressions an hour. In 1852 Hoe's rotary
machine was introduced from America. A ten-feeder of this kind, as
used by the leading London papers, would print 20,000 per hour.

These machines printed only on one side. The next advance was

TL ^ppe and otljer printing S^ateriate. 453

made by Marinoni, of Paris, who constructed a machine to print 10,000
perfect papers per hour, with little more than half the number of men
required by the Hoe. His machine was adopted by the proprietors of
the Echo in 1868, and may be remembered by those who visited these
galleries during the International Exhibition of 1872.

Newspapers of the present day are for the most part printed on what
are called " Web " machines, the principle of which was to some extent
foreshadowed by Nicholson in the last century, but the first actual
machine in which the practical difficulties were overcome was invented
and exhibited by Mr. (now Sir) Rowland Hill in 1835-6. Owing, how-
ever, to the refusal of Government to allow the Newspaper Duty Stamp
to be impressed on the paper as it passed through the machine the
adoption of such machines was at that time rendered impossible, and
the practical application of the principle was not made until a dozen
years ago, when it was contemporaneously effected in the United States
by Mr. Charles Bullock, and in this country by Messrs. Macdonald and
Calverley, of the Times office. The machine invented by the latter is
called the "Walter Press," and is constructed to print from a reel of
paper some five miles in length, and to separate and deliver more than
12,000 perfect sheets per hour, with the attendance of but one man and
two boys. Several other machines are now made on the same principle,
some of them delivering the papers folded as well as printed.

Though of late years the development of the printing press has been
very rapid, the mechanical appliances of the compositor have remained
almost unchanged. Attempts have been made to substitute machinery
for manual labour in the operation of type-setting, but they have not yet
been successful, and its use is quite exceptional. Specimens of all the
best machines of this kind are shown in operation in this Exhibition, and
their leading features are described in the body of the catalogue.



The machinery is driven by a twelve horse-power portable steam-engine and
boiler, lent by Messrs. Ransome and Sims ; by a three and a half horse-power "Otto"
silent gas-engine lent by Messrs. Crossley Bros., and by a small gas-engine lent by
Messrs. Louis Simon & Sons.

4538. A COMPOSITOR'S Case as used by Caxton, showing all the com-
binations and double letters in his founts. Lent by Mf. W. Blades.

4539. WOODEN Composing Stick. Belgium. 1 6th century. Fixed measure
for a folio page. An exact facsimile of one in the Plantin
Museum, Antwerp. Lent by Mr. W. Blades.

454 Cajton Celebration.

4540. IRON Composing Stick for a single line of pica, with moveable
slide. French. 1 8th cent. Lent by Mr. W. Blades.

4541. AN old Wooden " Tenacle " or " Visorium," used in Germany by
compositors to hold "copy." Lent by Mr. W. Blades.

4542. AN old Wooden " Tenacle " or " Visorium." i8th cent.

Lent by Mr. W. Blades.

4543. A MODERN "Copy-holder" in brass manufactured.

Lent by Mr. W. Blades.

4544. A MODERN " Copy-holder." Iron. Lent by Mr. W. Blades.

4545. A COMPLETE Composing Room of the present day, comprising
types, brass rules, cases, frames, composing-sticks, galleys, imposing
surface, chases, apparatus for locking-up, stereotype formes, racks
for cases, galleys, formes, chases, leads, furniture, &c.

Lent by Messrs. Miller 6 Richard.

4546. THE Walbrook Case and Frame. Lent by Messrs. Harrild 6 Sons.

The cases are specially arranged to meet the convenience of the compositor.
The lower case is made to slide under the upper case. The frame is fitted
with a galley rest and other appliances.

4547. MACPHAIL'S Frame. Lent by Mr. Joseph M. Powell.

Fitted with galley rest, and contrived so that the compositor may use a case
in the rack without removing or running the risk of upsetting it.

4548. MACKIE'S Steam Type Composer. Lent by Mr. Alexander Mackie.

The apparatus consists of two distinct parts, a perforater and a composer.
The former is fitted with keys, similar to those of a pianoforte, upon which the
operator spells out the matter to be set up. As the keys are depressed holes
are perforated in a band of paper of unlimited length. The band when perfo-
rated is transferred to the composer, which, being driven by steam power,
automatically sets up the types in a long line. The perforated band plays the
same part in the composer as the card does in the Jacquard loom. Justifying
and distributing are performed by hand.

4549. HATTERSLEY'S Type Composing, Distributing and Justifying

In the composing machine the types are stored in rows on two horizontal
galleys, being separated by brass partitions and kept in their places by elastic
bands. On the operator depressing a key, a type is shot through a grooved
V-shaped guide-plate by a steel piston into a small slide beneath. The matter
may be set in long lines, but usually it is set at once to the measure required,
a bell signalling the operator when to stop. By a movement the line is pressed
into a composing stick (holding about 40 lines), where it is at once justified.

With the justifying apparatus, the type is set as before till the bell signals,
when a lead is dropped in, and it and the unjustified line are pressed into the

and otfjer printing; S^aterfaljaf. 455

composing stick. This is repeated till the stick is full, when it is removed to
the justifying apparatus, at which the operator, by an arrangement, moves a
line opposite the end of a galley, when he puts in the required spaces.
The leads are mechanically thrown out or left in as required.

At the distributor, the brass partitioned galleys before mentioned are placed
side by side upon a hinged inclined plane. By an apparatus termed a dis-
tributing stick, the operator takes a line of matter from the end of a galley.
With the aid of a short plate and index bar conveniently placed, the operator
distributes the type into the proper partitions.

4550. WORKING Models of Kastenbein's Type Composing and Dis-
tributing Machines. Lent by Mr. Charles Kastenbein.

In Kastenbein's composer the types are kept in iron tubes placed vertically
at the top of the machine. On a key being depressed an iron finger pushes the
undermost type from its tube into a grooved V-shaped conducting plate, at the
bottom of which it is deposited in a receptacle. The matter is set up in a long
line, the division of it into lines of the required measure, and the justifying,
being done by a separate operator aided by a simple apparatus attached to the

In the distributor the tubes before mentioned are placed in a row at the base
of an A-shaped grooved conducting plate. The matter is placed in an adjustable
galley at the top of the machine and under the eye of the operator. As the
keys are successively depressed the types are made to descend through the
grooves in the conducting plate to their proper tubes, being guided in their
transit by means of switches corresponding in action to the "points" of a

4551. THE "Clowes" Type Composing Machine (Hooker's Patent).

Lent by Messrs. W. Clowes and Sons.

In this machine a small but powerful magnet discharges an individual type
with certainty, whenever contact with the galvanic battery is made with the
particular wire belonging to that magnet. Each wire is furnished with a
separate little copper plate, the whole being arranged on a board exactly in the
same order as the compartments in a compositor s " lower case," so that any
compositor or other person can at once work the machine by touching the
copper plates with the contact-wire. The types are carried by tapes to the

4552. A WORKING Model of Mullens Type Composing Machine.

Lent by Mr. M. L. Mulkr.

The types are stored in vertical grooves, behind which, on a level with the
lowermost extremity, is a brass platform with an endless band of leather con-
stantly passing over it. On a key being depressed, the type is pushed between
the platform, and the leather band, and is drawn by the latter to the delivery
channel, whence it passes into the composing-stick.

4553. HEINEMANN'S Type Composing and Distributing Machine.

Lent by Herr Lg. Heinemann.

The upper part of the frame holds a row of type holders ; the lower
supports a slide, which moves easily in grooves on the frame. By pressing a
handle the type is passed from the holder into a receptacle corresponding to a
composing-stick. By laying it down horizontally and reversing the action,
the machine is used for distributing into the appropriate type holders.

456 Cajton Celebration.

4554. A WOODEN Two-pull Press with iron screw. The platen of wood
and slung up with " Garters." Wooden tympan-frame, Ball-rack,
&c. On the bed is a stone upon which was placed the forme.
Supposed to be one of the first presses set up in the City of Bath
early in the i8th century. Lent by Mr. W. Blades.

All presses were made of wood until the commencement of the present
century. The platens were very small and necessitated two pulls to each

4555. AN ancient Wooden Printing Press of double foolscap size.

Lent by Messrs. Henderson^ Rait, and Fenton.

4556. TOY Press. Used by King Charles I. Lent by Mr. John Coe.

4557. DUTCH (wooden) Printing Press. Used by Herr Fleischmann.

Lent by Messrs. Ensched'e.

4558. A STANHOPE Press. Lent by Messrs. Nichols and Son.

The first iron press. Invented by the third Earl of Stanhope in 1800. The
system of levers adopted for producing the impression enabled a much
larger forme to be printed at one time than with the previous presses. The
press exhibited is supposed to be the first iron press ever made. It was con-
structed in 1800 by Mr. Walker from designs furnished by the Earl, and was
sold by him to Mr. Bulmer (Shakespeare Press), where it remained till 1854,
when it passed into the hands of the exhibitors.

4560. A COLUMBIAN Press. Lent by Mr. Joseph M. Powell.

The Columbian Press was invented by George Clymer, of Philadelphia, and
patented in this country in 1817. With the exception of the Albion (see
No. 4564), it is the only hand-press now made.

4562. THE original Inking-table and Roller for the Hand-press, invented
by Edward Cowper in 1818. Lent by Mr. E. A. Cowper.

4563. THE Albion Press as invented by R. W. Cope in 1824.

Lent by Messrs. Hopkinson and Cope.

4564. AN Albion Press of the present day.

Lent by Messrs. Hopkinson and Cope.

4565. A SMALL Albion Press of the present day.

Lent by Mr. Fred. Ullmer.

4566. THE Alexandra Press (an Albion Press with a few modifications).

Lent by Messrs. Blades^ East and Blades.

4567. A MODEL of part of James M. Napier's Platen Machine.

Lent by Messrs. D. Napier and Son.

This model shows the arrangement of Mr. James M. Napier's Patent Platen
Machine in respect of the improved means of distributing the ink and inking
the forme, as well as in the improved mechanism for securing a powerful and
dwelling impressrbn.

Clagg 2U ^ppe and ot^er printing 9aterfal0. 457

4568. THE " Minerva " Treadle Platen Machine.

Lent by Messrs. H. S. Cropper and Co.

This machine was introduced into England from America in 1867. It is there
called the " Gordon Press," after its inventor.

4569. IRON Ball-rack and Inking-ball. Lent by Messrs. Nichols and Son.

4570. THE "Universal" Treadle Platen Machine.

Lent by Messrs. Hopkinson and Cope.

4571. THE " Bremner" Treadle Platen Machine.

Lent by Messrs. Harrild and Sons.

4572. A " LIBERTY " Treadle Platen Machine, made by Degener and
Wetter, of New York. Lent by Messrs. Degener and Weiler.

4573. THE " Model " Printing Press.

Lent by Messrs. C. G. Squintani and Co.
A platen hand-press somewhat similar to the "Liberty," and self-inking.

4574. THE "Quadrant " Cylinder Printing Machine, worked by treadle,
and fitted with flyers for delivering the printed sheets auto-
matically. Lent by Mr. Joseph M. Powell.

4575. A SINGLE Cylinder Printing Machine (double royal size) with
taking-off apparatus. Lent by Messrs. Miller and Richard.

4576. THE Registered " Bremner" Single Cylinder Machine, with flyers.

Lent by Messrs. Harrild and Sons.

4577. THE "Excelsior" Cylinder Printing Machine, fitted with flyers.

Lent by Mr. W.Hester.

4578. PAYNE'S Single Cylinder " Wharfedale" Machine.

Lent by Messrs. Hopkinson and Cope*

4579. THE Anglo-French Perfecting Machine.

Lent by Messrs. Hopkinson 6 Cope.

In single- cylinder machines the sheets are printed on one side only ; in per-
fecting machines they are delivered with both sides printed.

4580. A LARGE-CYLINDER Perfecting Machine.

Lent by Messrs. Dry den and Foord.

Apart from improvements in matters of detail, this is the machine invented
by Cowper and Applegath in 1818-1823.

4581. A MODEL in metal of Cowper and Applegath's Perfecting
Machine, invented by them 1818-1823.

Lent by Mr. E. A. Cowper.

In this machine the principle (now universally adopted) of distributing the
ink transversely as well as longitudinally, was first introduced and patented by
E. Cowper in the year 1818 ; it was further improved in 1823 by A. Apple-
gath, by the use of diagonal distributing rollers. In the newspaper and per-

458 Cajton Celebration*

fecting machines, the ink was so distributed on a flat table, whilst in the curved
stereotype, bank note, and other two and three-colour machines, it was distri-
buted on a portion of the cylinder.

4582. A MODEL in wood of Cowper and Applegath's Perfecting
Machine, invented by them 1818-1823.

Lent by Mr. E. A. Cowper.

4583. PARTS of a Rotary Printing Machine, invented by the exhibitor in
1835, for printing from wedge-shaped types, or curved stereotype
plates, upon a reel or web of paper.

Lent by Sir Rowland Hill, K. C.B.

This was the first actual attempt at web printing. A perfect machine was
constructed according to this invention and publicly exhibited in Chancery
Lane in 1835 one cylinder being covered with moveable type and one with
curved stereotype plates. The machine gave excellent impressions with very
great rapidity, but its adoption was rendered, at that time, impossible by the
refusal of Government to allow the Newspaper Duty Stamp to be impressed
on the paper as it passed through the printing machine.

The type cylinder and that which was covered with curved stereotype plates,
together with part of the inking apparatus of the perfected machine, are exhi-
bited herewith.

It is claimed for this machine that in some respects it possesses advantages
superior to those of even the best newspaper machines of the present day, inas-
much as it is adapted not only for curved stereotype plates, but for moveable
types, thus in some cases saving the time required for making the stereotype
plates, and in all cases affording a ready means for insertion up to the latest
moment in at least one machine of any fresh news which may arrive even after
the printing has commenced.

4584. THE " Whitefriars " Rotary Machine, invented by the Exhibitors.

Lent by Messrs. Pardoe and Davis.

This machine prints from curved stereo plates affixed to a cylinder. It is
fed with sheets by hand.

4585. NEWSUM'S Rotary Two-Colour Machine.

Lent by Messrs. Newsum, Wood and Dyson.

Two formes are placed in beds on opposite sides of an irregular-shaped drum.
The impression cylinder advances and retires to meet the type, and auto-
matically delivers the sheet when printed.

4586. SERVANTE'S Rotary Two Colour Machine.

Lent by Messrs. Hopkinson and Cope.

This machine prints from stereo plates only. It can be used as a perfecting
machine as well as for two-colour work.

4587. ASHLEY'S Automatic Paper Feeder. Lent by Mr. B. F. Fuller.

A pile of paper is placed at one end of the printing machine. The topmost
sheet is lifted by hollow fingers exhausted of air by means of a fan, and by
them transferred to a set of rollers and a slide, where it is automatically ad-
justed for register, and placed in position to be seized by the grippers of the
impression cylinder.

TL. ^ppe and otfjer printing 9$aterfaI0 459

4588. AN iron Lever Galley Press. Z^/ by Messrs. Miller and Richard.

4589. A PROOF Galley Press. Lent by Messrs. Miller and Richard.

4590. POWELL'S Web Galley Press, for automatically inking types in the
galley and pulling proofs upon a reel of paper.

Lent by Mr. Joseph M. Powell.

4591. A ROLLER Galley Press. Lent by Mr. W. Hester.

4592. A HAND Roller, for pulling proofs.

Lent by Mr. Joseph M. Powell.

4593. A MITREING Machine. Lent by Messrs. Miller and Richard.

This machine is for cutting brass rule at various angles so that it may form
corners neatly.

4594. A MACHINE for cutting Brass Rule and Leads.

Lent by Messrs. Miller and Richard.

4595. A HAND Paging Machine, for numbering consecutively, alternately,
or in duplicate. Lent by Mr. Joseph M. Powell.

4596. A SMALL Hand Paging Machine. Lent by Mr. Joseph M. Powell.

4597. A PERFORATING Machine, worked by treadle.

Lent by Mr. Joseph M. Powell.

4598. A PERFORATING Machine, worked by hand.

Lent by Mr. Joseph M. Powell.

4599. AN Apparatus for Lifting Formes. Lent by Mt. T. G. Daw.

4600. THE process of Printing as exercised by the Chinese.

Lent by Mr. Thomas Jenner.

4601. ALISOFF'S Mechanical Printer or Type Writer: a machine for
printing without setting up type. Lent by Mr. C. G. Kleberg.

4602. THE Remington Type Writer.

Lent by the Remington Sewing Machine Company.

4603. A RAILWAY Ticket Printing Machine.

Lent by Messrs. Waterlow and Sons^ Limited.

4604. A MACHINE for Counting Railway Tickets.

Lent by Messrs. Waterlow and Sons, Limited.

4605. A MACHINE for Wetting Paper in the Web.

Lent by Messrs. Slater and Palmer.

4o Canton Celebration*

4606. GILL'S Hot Rolling Machine for finishing printed sheets.

Lent by Messrs. Furnival and Co.

4607. AN " Express " Guillotine Cutting Machine, with steam Press.

Lent by Messrs. Furnival and Co.

4608. A BOOK-FOLDING Machine.

Lent by Messrs. Louis Simon and Son.

4609. THE Boomer and Boschert Screw Press.

Lent by Messrs. J. Ladd and Co.

4610. A GLASS Case, containing various materials and appliances for
Printing. Lent by Mr. Frederick Ullmer.

461 1. A CASE containing specimens of Printing Inks and Machinery Oils.

Lent by Messrs. A. B. Fleming and Co.

4612. A CASE of " Protean" Wood Types. Lent by Mr. G. Shore.

46 1 3. TYPES used in printing the Dividend Books at the Bank of England,
and specimens of printing executed at the same establishment.

Lent by the Governor and Company of the Bank of England.

Drawings, Photographs, &c.

4614. A DRAWING of the "Walter Press."

Lent by Mr. John Walter, M.P.

This is the machine used for printing the "Times." It was patented in
1866 by Mr. J. C. Macdonald and Mr. J. Calverley, both of the "Times" office.

4615. A PHOTOGRAPH of a Cylinder Printing Machine for numbering,
dating, and signing Bank Notes, as used at the Bank of England.

Lent by Messrs. D. Napier and Son.

4616. A PHOTOGRAPH of Napier's Double Gripper Perfecting Machine.

Lent by Messrs. D. Napier and Son.

4617. A PHOTOGRAPH of a Tape and Gripper Perfecting Machine.

Lent by Messrs. D. Napier and Son.

4618. A PHOTOGRAPH of Napier's Double Platen Machine.

Lent by Messrs. D. Napier and Son

4619. A PHOTOGRAPH of a Double Platen Machine for printing Bank
Notes, as used at the Bank of England.

Lent by Messrs. D. Napier and Son.

4620. A DRAWING of a Perfecting Machine invented by Cowper and
Applegath. Lent by Mr. E. A. Cowper.

%* ^jpe and otfjer printing Slaten'ate* 461

4621. A DRAWING of a News Machine invented by Cowper and Apple-
gath. Lent by Mr. E. A. Cou'per.

4622. Nine DRAWING of a Rotary Machine for printing from a web of
paper, patented by the exhibitor in 1835.

Lent by Sir Rowland Hill, K. C.B.
See also No. 4583.

4623. A DRAWING of an Old Printing Machine in use about 1820.

Lent by Mr. W. S. Parsons.

4624. A DRAWING of Bacon and Donkin's Steam Printing Machine,
used at the Cambridge University Press in 1820.

Lent by Mr. W. S. Parsons.

4625. DRAWING of Cowper's Curved Stereotype Plate Perfecting Ma-
chine. Lent by Mr. E. A. Cowper.

4626. DRAWING of Cowper's Curved Stereotype Plate Two-Colour
Printing Machine. Lent by Mr. E. A. Cowper.

4627. DRAWING of Inking Table and Roller for Hand Press.

Online LibraryLondon Caxton CelebrationCatalogue of the loan collection of antiquities, curiosities, and appliances connected with the art of printing → online text (page 41 of 42)