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of a parcel be lost or damaged whilst in the custody of the Postmaster-
General, the Postmaster- General may pay to any person or persons who
may, in the opinion of the Postmaster-General, establish a reasonable
claim to oompensation (having regard to the nature of the article, the
care with which it was packed, and other circumstances) such sum in
respect of such parcel as he think just. Provided that — U) If only the
postage payable in respect of such |Mircel has been paid by the sender
the sum paid by way of compensation shall not exceed the sum of one
pomid ; (b) If in addition to the postage as aforesaid the sum of one
penny has been paid by the sender in respect of such parcel, the sum
paid by way of compensation shall not exceed the sum of five pounds ;
{e) If in addition to the postage as aforesaid the sum of two pence has
been paid by the sender in respect of such parcel, the sum paid by way
of compensation shall not exceed the sum of ten pounds. From May
Ist, the orduoary registration fee of twopence will cover an indemnity
extending to two pounds as before, but the indemnity will be applicable
not only to the total loss of a letter, or the abstraction of an article
fnmi its cover, but to damage in transmission. A regifttration fee of
threepence will entitle the sender to compensation up to five pounds and
a fee of fourpence to compensation not exceeding ten pounds.

Hedvction is Cable Bates to Australia and the East.— A reduced
cable tariil to Australia and the East will shortly be an accomplished
fact. The following reduced scale has been announced by the Eastern
Telegraph Company. On July 1 the following reductions of tariff will
take efifeot, viz. : to India, from 4s. Id, to 4«. per word ; to Hong.
Kong, Amoy, Foochow, and Shanghai, S«. 4(f. to 7«. \d, \ to other
places in China, 10«. to 8t. 9<f. ; to Macao, 8«. 9<f. to 7«. 6<^. ; to
Manila, 10«. to 9«. ; to Cochin China, 7». 9<f. to be, Sd, ; to South
Australia, 10«. Sd. to 9e, 4d. ; to Spain, 6d, to i^d. ; to Portugal and
Gibraltar, 6id. to b^d. ; to Malta 8^. to 7d. The rates to other
cdonies in Australasia are not yet fixed. Negotiations are in progress
which, it is hoped, will be concluded in time to allow of reduced rates
for press messages exchanged with Egypt, India, and Australia to
come into force on the same date.

GCRMANY. — ^Addbessiso Business Letters. — The Correspondenz
of the Seniors of the mercantile community of Berlin, calls attention to
the alarming increase of defective addresses on letters. At the Berlin
town post office no le^ than 8,000 letters daily are handed in imper-
fectly addressed, and, although everything is done that care and
ingenuity can devise, there arc genei*ally about 1,200 left at the end of
each day which cannot be delivered. Similar complaints have been
received from the post office authorities in all the other large towns of



the Empire. In consequence of this the service of the post office is
becoming increasingly tedious and expensive, for, in order to get over
the difficulties of the delivery of these badly addressed letters it has
become necessary to engage extra assistance. Strange to say the
majority of these letters are received from mercantilo firms in all
quarters of the world, and as many of the signatures to them are
illegible and without the addresses of the senders, .the latter cannot
even have undelivered letters returned to them, which has probably
already led to considerable inconvenience and even loss in many cases.
The public will see from the above how important it is in their own
interest to pay special attention to the correct and legible addressine of
letters, and the Chambers of Commeroe in all parts are recommended to
bring this by no means unimportant matter before the commercial
community of Uie towns in which they are located »



sAvnres bahks.



AUSTRALASIA.— Savings Bank Ebttjrns.— We have received
from Mr. John Alsop, the actuary of the Melbourne Savings Bank^ an
interesting comparative statement of the deposits in the various
savings bimks in the Australasian colonies. The returns are, with one
exception— the Post-Office Savings Bank in Yictoriar—made up to
December 31, 1885. For the institution just named the figures are
only available to September 30. Four of the colonies have, in addition
to the ordinary savings bank, similar facilities for small depositors in
connection with the post-office, and the returns relate to both. It will
surprise many of our renders to learn that the total value of the
deposits to the credit of the investors in all the Australasian savings
b^s is no less than 12,329,635/., the number of depositors being
477,386. About one person in every seven of the population is an
investor, the average amount to their credit being 25/. 6«. 6d. It is
pleasing to find that tiUdng all the facts into consideration South
Australia occupies the most favourable position. It is true Queensland
has the highest average — 87/. 0<. llrf.— but only one out of every
eight-and-a-half of the population of that colony is an investor. New
South Wales comes next with an average of 32/. 8». 2rf. ; but in spite
of the fact that the Post-Offioe Savings Bank system is in force in that
colony, only one in every nine is a depositor. In South Australia the
average is 29/. 7«. 7rf., and rather more than one in every six of the
inhabitants is an investor. This colony also pays the highest rate of
interest, and considering that we have not yet adopted the post-offioe
system for deposits below a shiUing, it is surprising and gratifying to
find that with so high an average deposit the number of depositors is
so Urge. The other colonies rank m the following order :—Li New
Zealand the average is 26/. 1». ; in Tasmania, 21/. be, 7rf, ; in Victoria,
19/. 2e. 9d,; in Western Australia, 12#. 19«. 7d. In New Zealand
rather more than one in every eight of the inhabitants is a depositor,
in l^smania not quite one in every seven, in Victoria rather more
one in every six, and in Western Australia scarcely one in every
sixteen. Commenting on these figures, the South Auetralian Begteter
says : *« Of course, the saving bank statistics by themselves are not an
infallible test of the comparative thrift of the inhabitants of the
different colonies, because in some the facilities for small investors
afforded by institutions besides the savings bank are greater than m
others of them ; but the figures upon the whole must be accepted as an
indication of a very heathy state of thmgs. The only cause for
regret as regards South Australia is that the Government have not yet
introduced the machinery for receiving stamps on cards when they
reach a shilling in value as deposits in connection with the post-office.
The feeling of Parliament last session was strongly expressed m »J0«r
of this change, and it would not merely increase the number of
depositors, but wonld provide facilities for enabhng children and
young persons to invest trifling amounts as low as a penny instead of
wastefimy spending them. In other words, the penny could be ex-
changed for a stamp to be affixed on a card, and when the card
contwns twelve of them it would be accepted as a deposit of a shilling.



TBADE BETUBHS.

UNITED KINGDOM.— Tkadb fou the Month or, and the
Threb Months ending, Maech, 1886.— For March the following figures
show the movement of imports and exports of the United Kingdom,
compared with the same month last year :—

*^ 1886. 188o.

Imports £31,490,987 .^32,067,667

Exports 23,141,868 ... 22,675,281

£54,632,805 £54,742,848

Decrease in March, 1886, £110,043.



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118



THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE JOURNAL.



May 5, 1886.



The following tables exhibit the
of the United Kingdom for tho
1886 :—

Imports*
Animuls, living (for food)
Artidei of fooa and drink —
- Free

Dntiablo

Tobacco— dutiablo

MetalB

Chemicals

Oils

Eaw materials —

For textiles

For sundry industries

Manufactures

Miscellaneous ...

Total value



amount of import and export trade
three months ending March 31 st



1886.

£

1,071,136

25,075,668
5,402,122
716,395
3,676,481
3,101,448
1,506,689

22,604,001
6.802,748

13,416,301
3,360,916

£86,733,846



1885.

£

1,683,786

29.608,083
5,128,283
716,701
4,105,628
3,330,850
1,694,627

26,228,163
7,053,124

13,618,199
3,751,271

£96,917,714



¥or the throe months there was a not decrease, therefore, of 10,183,869/.,
the largest contributions to wliich wore articles of food and drink, duty
free, 4,532,425/., raw materials for textile manufactures, 3,624,162/.,
metals, 429,147/., raw materials for sundry industries, 250,376/.,
chemicals, 229,402/., manufactured articles, 201,898/., oils, 187,988/.,
and animals (living), 612,649/. An increase is credited on dutiable
articles of food and drink of 273,839/.



ExroKTs.

Animals (living)

Articles of food and drink

Kaw materials

Articles manufactured and partly
manufactured



1886.


1885.


£


£


70.710 ...


95,662


2,000,369 ..


1,956,584


2,631,133 ...


2,849,771



Total (British)

Total (foreign and colonial)

Grand Total (exports)



46,404,648

52,106,806
13,059,282



48,239,353

53,141,470
14,454,907



£65,166,088 £67,596,877



The decrease for the three months was composed of 1,034,610/., on the
exports of British produce and manufactures, and 1,395, 625/. » on foreign
and colonial, a total decrease of 2,430,236/. The diminution in tibe
total trade, imports and exports, for the throe months has been
12,614,104/.

Tradb Repoets.— In the House of Commons on the 9th April, in
answer to a question by Mr. Lavnrence Baker as to the number of trade
reports received from the secretaries of legation and Consuls in 1884 and
1886, Mr. Bryce said that annual trade reports were required to be fur-
nished by 23 secretaries of legation and 156 consuls, llie usual reports
had been received for 1884, as well as reports upon matters of general
interest. The reports for 1886 were now coming in daily. Some had
been already published, and would be issued as soon as possible.

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.— Trade with Morocco.— The mer-
chants and manufacturers of Austria-Hungary have seieed the occasion
of the recent appointment of an Austrian Consul-Cteneral in Morocco
for making renewed efforts to extend their commercial relations with
that country. According to the latest publications Austria- Hungary
exports yearly to Morocco to the value of about 3,670,000 fs., and imports
from that country goods to the amount of about 3,410,000 fs. The
ports through which the business is done are Tangier, Tetuan, Slab,
Kabab, and Mogador. The imports from Austria consist of iron, glass-
ware, x^per, books, beer, matches, and dyeing materials. The imports
into Austria coming from Morocco are hides, legumas, medicinal plants,
olive oil, pearls, and mother-o' -pearl. Goods of Austro-Hungarian
origin pay in Morocco an import duty of 10 per cent, ad valoirm,

PRANCE.— Commercial Movements in March, 1886.— According
to the Journal Official the imports and exports during March were as
follows : —



Imports.
Articles of Food
Kaw Materials
Manufactures
Other goods

Total



1886.

Fes.

130,866,000

214,033,000

48,548,000

14,312,000

107,758,000



1885.

Fes.

118,739,000

250,419,000

60,540,000

13,490,000

443,188,000



Exports.
Articles of Food
Raw Materials
^lanufactures
Other goods



56,151,000

66,168,000

160,649,000

12,791,000



63,022,000

74.596,000

188,130,000

15,869,000



Total ... 284,749,000 ... 341,607,000

The imports and exports during tho first three months, 1885 and
1886, were as follows : —

Imports. 1886. 1885.

Fes. Fes.

Articles of Food ... 358,659,000 ... 352,644.000

Raw Materials ... 6ai»706,0O0 ... 625,137,000

Manufactures ... 140,926,000 ... 151,582,000

Other Goods ... 81,944,000 ... 30,927,000



Total
Exports.
Articles of Food
Raw Materials
l^Ianufactures
Other Goods

Total



1,068,214,000

. 143,777,000

162,804,000

. 896,942,000

34,004,000

. 737,527,000



1,160,190,000

168,022,000

154,480,000

374,992,000

34,221,000

731,715,000



GERMANY. — Imports and Exports.— The commercial movement
of Germany in February, 1886, is shown by the following figures:—

Double cwts. of 100 kilos.



February,



January and

Import. 1886. 1885. 1886.

Cotton 156,296 149,248 332,278

Cotton yams 17,472 16,741 33,488

Iron and Ironware ... 79,677 91,866 344,001

Wheat 113,970 1,418,648 672,176

Rye 191,112 1,168,760 579,800

Oats 41,777 229,401 122,564

Barley 228,376 776,797 799,944

Maize 99,168 137,464 221,636

Flour 11,162 65,146 20,980

Timber 421,180 1,398,598 806,869

Petroleum 292,845 306,264 923,693

Pit coal 934,484 916,724 1,807,346

Other coal 2,414,488 2,472,067 4,856,949

Wool 116,918 138,995 178,629

Export.

Kali 39,288 32,626 72,068

Iron and Ironware ... 1,032,779 709,488 1,807,667

Of which Raw iron ... 284,982 207,368 689,188

„ Pig iron ... 36,966 22,143 69,496

„ Wrought iron 109,027 103,292 206,414

Rails ... 96,476 61,568 181,012

„ Bars 34,702 35,212 61,834

„ Wire ... 270,227 119,310 480,191

Common Ironware ... 60,666 43,418 93,661

Wheat 6,960 10,781 12,874

Rye 3,774 3,032 6,619

Oats 13,207 9,673 27,118

Barley 10,663 34,650 14,882

Flour 64,681 67,969 125,619

Potatoes 87,807 73,385 132,878

Locomotives 4,674 6,446 13,647

Pianos 6,343 6,742 10,642

Engines 39,996 46,326 76,787

Beer 74,924 108,706 162,102

Sugar 194,000 705,680 462,854

Coal 6,893,313 7,377,889 13,878,699

Zinc 33,621 21,403 60,746



Febmarv,

1885.'

344,163

34,214

364,368

3,629,837

2,330,166

439,697

1,368,190

236,789

138,704

2,034,622

1,098,374

1,896,435

4,879,668

197,708

61,968

1,466,192

431,816

49,238
190,143
167,660

70,873
246,416

81,136

27,69«
7,789

22,227
138,704

61,817
104,364

10,760

10,887

82,767

204,463

1,438,608

14,779,878

42,271



Dbvelopment op German Exports. — ^The floating sample collections
of German export geods furnished by the 6(erman Export Bank in
Berlin arrived at Lisbon last month. According to a report in the
Exfwt the vessel was visited by a large number of people. Extra-
or<unary attention was g^ven by the numerous officers to the exhibitod
cannons, guns and other arms and machines. Rich and expensive lex-
tiles also attracted great attention. The existence of man;^ German
export articles was entirely unknown to the public. The exhibition has
succeeded in overcoming a large amount of prej udice fostered in Lisbon
against German industry by foreign competitoiB.

The Condiiion of Agriculture.— At a recent sitting of the Lower
House of the Diet, an interpellation was addressed to the Government
by a member asking whether it intended to take any measures to



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THE CHAMBER OP OOMMEEOE JOURNAL.



119



counteract the present depreciation in the prices of agricoltaral pro-
duce. The minister of agriculture in reply declared that the Govem-
ment did not consider an increase in tae dotiea on com and cattle
expedient at presMit. The iBtroducticn <^ a duty on wool, although
it might be henefidal to agricnltore, wonld be a severe blow to the
whole woollen trade» and an attempt to impose it would fail on account
of the impossibiUty of granting an export bounty oorrespondinjg^ with
the actaarauantity of wool used in the fabric. Agricultural distress,
ecMitinued the nnnLiter, prevailed throughout the continent, but it was
I«sa acute in Qermany than elsewhere. The Oovemment would con-
stantly keep the interests of agriculture in view, and would not hesitate
to Mibmit at the proper time the necessary measures to Parliament,
whose co-operation it looked for in the matter.

OoMMHaciAL Entbbprisb IK Baxony.— The '* Exp(»t Association for
the Kingdom of Saxcmy " has, according to the DeuUcht CofttulatS'
zeittmg, been engaged during the last few months in carefully estab-
lishing commercial relations with foreign countries, such as Spain
i Madrid, Barcelona, Seville), Portugal (Lisbon), Italy, Enfi^d,
(uiaia, Sweden, Egypt and Australia, Asia Minor, North and South
America. It is also hoped that the services of the German consuls
abroad will be secured for the benefit of the association. Samples
suitable for tho different foreign markets have been put at the disposal
of tho association, and good results are anticipated.

ITALY.— FoRBiox Tbade and National Peodtjction.— The
Krpori calls attention to the fact that foreign industry has succeeded
in obtaining great results in the Italian markets, and in preventing a
permanent development of national industry. In 1885 the import of
foreign goods on the one hand and the export of specie on the other
hand were larger than at any previous time, as will be seen from the
following tabic :—

Goods. Expoit.* Spbcxe.

Import. In 1,000 lire. Import. Export.

1872 1,182,610 1,162,263 4,102 4,938

1873 1,261,171 1,131,395 25,482 1,766

1874 1,296,647 078,189 9,347 7,270

1876 1,206,919 1,022,290 8,390 11,392

1876 1,307,080 1,208,488 20,143 8,356

1877 1,141,643 933,967 14.722 19,221

1878 1,058,950 998,698 ll,6h8 46,703

1879 1,247,029 1,071,768 14,632 35,161

1880 1,186,173 1,108,474 89,472 28,815

1881 1,238,713 1,164,347 93,299 27,075

1882 1,225,986 1,149,674 119,416 6,260

1B83 1,286,205 1,181,608 94,083 18,320

1884 1,317,679 1,065,407 26,085 31,010

1885 1,467,736 946,606 117,471 188,503

A .drawback which puts enormous difficulties in tho way of in-
dustrial devdopaumt is the entire absence of coal in Italy. The coal
import of Italy in 1880, amounted to 1,737,746 tons ; in 1881, to
2,073,316 tons ; in 1882, to 2,180,020 tons ; in 1883, to 2,351,092 tons ;
uA in 1884, to 2,605,051 t<ms. During the latter year England alcme
supplied 3,254,129 tons or 86*5 per cent., followed by France with
188,404 t^, Austria with 87,606 tons, and Germany with 70,004 tons.
km regards the most inipOTtant industry in Italy^-the silk industry —
the export value of silk in 1884 was 300,202,407 lire, and the impoii
value 100,663,323 lire. The export of wine during the last five years
is shown in the following table : —

In casks. In bottles,

hec. hundred.

1880 2,188,817 16,711

1881 1,741,710 17,801

1882 1,312,388 19,461

1883 2,611,366 17,705

1884 2,361,909 19,344

NORWAY.— ExpoKT op Timber.— The MonUcur Offieiel gives the
following figures representing the export of timber from Norway during

the first eleven months of 1886, information for December not being
yet available : —

1884. 1885.

England 574,666 tons 477,028 tons.

France 112.186 „ 88,207 .,

Holland 53,116 „ 55,672 „

Belgium 40,016 „ 44,367 ,,

(Germany 40,278 ,, 51,706 „

Denmark 35,026 „ 30,503 „

Australia 25,071 ,, 43,812 „

Spain 5,244 „ 7,978 „

Africa 4,462 „ 7,663 „

Other countries 16,164 „ 14,623 „



Total 906,103



821,646



PHILLIPINE ISLANDS.— The FoftBST Wbalth.— The DetUsehs
KoUmialzeitung says that in the Phillipine Island there are no less than
32 kinds of trees, which supply dyowoods of every shade. First of all
stands the Sapanwood, called Camyeachy by the Spaniards. The principal
customers for this wood are the Chinese, who use it for printinp^ in red and
also for dyeing. The exportation of the same has very much increased of
late. Next come the Luyong or Ebano of a uniform deep black colour,
used for superior furniture, for which it seems specially created ; it is
much valued, and paid for accordingly. The Ebano grows at
Luzon, also in the island of Negros. Then follows the Oamagon,
which resembles the Ebano in every respect ; it belongs also to the
species of the Ebenocede. Tall trees of this kind are rarely met with ;
it grows singly among other trees. Its wood is still more sought after
than that of the Ebano, for which it is frequently taken by those
who do not know it. The wood of tho Camagon is hkewise black, but
not so intensely so as that of the Ebano, from which it is distinguished
by its veins of a brownish or red-yellowish colour. This beautiful
peculiarity as well as its adaptability for receiving a magnificent polish
render the Cama^onwood most valuable for furniture of luxury. Tho
furniture at 3Iamla is mostly made of the Narra-wood, produced by a
most stately tree, which is not wanting in any of the districts of the
Phillipine Islands. This wood has a reddish tinge, which in some cases is
so intense that it assumes the colour of blood. The pleasant smell of
this wood us weU as the superb polish it is capable of receiving are
qualities which explain its frequent use for furniture and articles of
luxury. Less esteemed is the Amarilla, having tho colour of yellow
ochre, which turns darker in the course of time. Its veins are of a
deeper dye. The Narra Amarilla is frequently met with, especially in
the province of Laguna de Bay.

PORTUGAL.— Commercial Movement in 1885.— According to
official statistics the import during 1885 amounted to 32, 939, 21 8$000
against 32,553,978JO00 in 1884, being an incrtase of 385, 24OJO0O,
accounted for by the larger import of cattle, dried and salt fish, woollen
and cotton gooii, timber, machines and railway material. The export
on the other hand amounted to 24, 128, 949|000 against 21,567,905(000
in 1884, being an increase of 2,560,844$000. The exports of ordinary
wine, viz., other than port and madeira, rose to 1,129,890 hect. in 1885
against only 471,680 hect. in 1884, the increase representing an official
value of 221 million francs. The export of green fruit, figs, beans,
cork and preserved fish is also progressing favourably. On the other
hand tho export of cattle, fish, and minerals was less in 18S5 than 1884.
Tlie re-export which comprises especially the movement in^ provisions
coming from the Portuguese colonies, is constantly diminishing, and
the transit, viz., the passage throuj^h Portugal of the trade of
that important part of Spain for which Lisbon is the natural port,
shows a considerable falling oflf in 1885, in consequence of tho cholera
in Spain.

SPAIN. — Industrial and Commbrclal Situation. — The retrogres-
sive movement which has manifested itself in the manufacture of textiles,
has, accordingto the Ooftsul, not stopped, and no signs of improvement
are visible. This state of affairs has been caused by the state of siego
in Catalonia, which was only raised in December last. Under these
circumstances tho orders for manufactured articles have considerably
diminished, the goods have accumulated in the warehouses, and several
factories have been obliged to cease work. The cotton industry is of
very great importance in Catalonia, and raw cotton is one of the
principal impoii articles in Barcelona, which imported 214,312 bales in
1886, against 225,496 in 1884, and 213,842 in 1883. The export of
wine is fairly good, and large orders are given for suffar. llie import
of the latter article for the last six years has been as f oUows : — 4,469,020
kUos. in 1880; 8,379,630 in 1881; 6,720,280 in 1882; 9,636,161 in
1883 } 14,708,425 in 1884, and 20,868,168 kUosin 1885.

TURKEY.— Tho Turkish Government has just published the
statistics of the imports and exports during the year 130O (from 1st
March, 1884, to 29th February, 1885) :—



Imports
Exports



T. livre



1300.

20,037,624
12,798,166



T. livrc 33,463,790



1299.

19,757,840
12,390,201

32,149,041



An increase is particularly observable in the commercial intercourse ^
with Austria-Hungary, Russia and England, but on tho other hand
there is a large decrease of imports from Boumania. The duties levied
during the year amounted to T. livre 16,582,960 on the imports and
T. livre 1,674,755 on the exports. The two figuies combined represent
an increa«»e of T. livre 722,213 over the duties during the year 1299.



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THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE JOURNAL.



May 5, 1886.



EMIOBATIOV AHD COLOHIZATION.

UNITED KINGDOM.— State- DIRECTED CJolonxzatxon.— In the
House of Lords on 2nd April, the Earl of Harroway moved for all
papers addressed to the Colonial office during the last twelve months
in favour of State-directed colonization, as well as for any papers
addressed to the Colonial office requesting that official information for
those who desired to become colonists should be supplied to the post
offices and local authorities throughout the oountry ; and to ask the
Secretary of State for the Colonies how far Her Majesty's ^vemment



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