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THE RISING TIDE OF COLOR AGAINST WHITE WORLD-SUPREMACY




THE RISING TIDE OF COLOR
AGAINST WHITE WORLD-SUPREMACY


BY LOTHROP STODDARD, A.M., PH.D. (Harv.)
AUTHOR OF "THE STAKES OF THE WAR,"
"PRESENT-DAY EUROPE: ITS NATIONAL STATES OF MIND,"
"THE FRENCH REVOLUTION IN SAN DOMINGO," ETC.


WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY MADISON GRANT
CHAIRMAN NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY; TRUSTEE AMERICAN
MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY; COUNCILLOR AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY;
AUTHOR OF "THE PASSING OF THE GREAT RACE"


NEW YORK
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS
1921




COPYRIGHT, 1920, BY
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS

_All rights reserved_

Published April, 1920
Reprinted June, July, September, October, 1920;
February, 1921




PREFACE


More than a decade ago I became convinced that the key-note of
twentieth-century world-politics would be the relations between the
primary races of mankind. Momentous modifications of existing
race-relations were evidently impending, and nothing could be more vital
to the course of human evolution than the character of these
modifications, since upon the _quality_ of human life all else depends.

Accordingly, my attention was thenceforth largely directed to racial
matters. In the preface to an historical monograph ("The French Revolution
in San Domingo") written shortly before the Great War, I stated: "The
world-wide struggle between the primary races of mankind - the 'conflict of
color,' as it has been happily termed - bids fair to be the fundamental
problem of the twentieth century, and great communities like the United
States of America, the South African Confederation, and Australasia regard
the 'color question' as perhaps the gravest problem of the future."

Those lines were penned in June, 1914. Before their publication the Great
War had burst upon the world. At that time several reviewers commented
upon the above dictum and wondered whether, had I written two months
later, I should have held a different opinion.

As a matter of fact, I should have expressed myself even more strongly to
the same effect. To me the Great War was from the first the White Civil
War, which, whatever its outcome, must gravely complicate the course of
racial relations.

Before the war I had hoped that the readjustments rendered inevitable by
the renascence of the brown and yellow peoples of Asia would be a gradual,
and in the main a pacific, process, kept within evolutionary bounds by the
white world's inherent strength and fundamental solidarity. The frightful
weakening of the white world during the war, however, opened up
revolutionary, even cataclysmic, possibilities.

In saying this I do not refer solely to military "perils." The subjugation
of white lands by colored armies may, of course, occur, especially if the
white world continues to rend itself with internecine wars. However, such
colored triumphs of arms are less to be dreaded than more enduring
conquests like migrations which would swamp whole populations and turn
countries now white into colored man's lands irretrievably lost to the
white world. Of course, these ominous possibilities existed even before
1914, but the war has rendered them much more probable.

The most disquieting feature of the present situation, however, is not the
war but the peace. The white world's inability to frame a constructive
settlement, the perpetuation of intestine hatreds, and the menace of fresh
white civil wars complicated by the spectre of social revolution, evoke
the dread thought that the late war may be merely the first stage in a
cycle of ruin.

In fact, so absorbed is the white world with its domestic dissensions that
it pays scant heed to racial problems whose importance for the future of
mankind far transcends the questions which engross its attention to-day.

This relative indifference to the larger racial issues has determined the
writing of the present book. So fundamental are these issues that a candid
discussion of them would seem to be timely and helpful.

In the following pages I have tried to analyze in their various aspects
the present relations between the white and non-white worlds. My task has
been greatly aided by the Introduction from the pen of Madison Grant, who
has admirably summarized the biological and historical background. A
life-long student of biology, Mr. Grant approaches the subject along that
line. My own avenue of approach being world-politics, the resulting
convergence of different view-points has been a most useful one.

For the stimulating counsel of Mr. Grant in the preparation of this book
my thanks are especially due. I desire also to acknowledge my indebtedness
for helpful suggestions to Messrs. Alleyne Ireland, Glenn Frank, and other
friends.

LOTHROP STODDARD.

NEW YORK CITY,
February 28, 1920.




CONTENTS


PAGE

INTRODUCTION BY MADISON GRANT xi


PART I

THE RISING TIDE OF COLOR

CHAPTER

I. THE WORLD OF COLOR 3

II. YELLOW MAN'S LAND 17

III. BROWN MAN'S LAND 54

IV. BLACK MAN'S LAND 87

V. RED MAN'S LAND 104


PART II

THE EBBING TIDE OF WHITE

VI. THE WHITE FLOOD 145

VII. THE BEGINNING OF THE EBB 154

VIII. THE MODERN PELOPONNESIAN WAR 173

IX. THE SHATTERING OF WHITE SOLIDARITY 198


PART III

THE DELUGE ON THE DIKES

X. THE OUTER DIKES 225

XI. THE INNER DIKES 236

XII. THE CRISIS OF THE AGES 299


INDEX 311




MAPS


PAGE

I DISTRIBUTION OF THE PRIMARY RACES 14

II CATEGORIES OF WHITE WORLD-SUPREMACY 150

III DISTRIBUTION OF THE WHITE RACES 228




INTRODUCTION


Mr. Lothrop Stoddard's "The Rising Tide of Color," following so closely
the Great War, may appear to some unduly alarming, while others, as his
thread of argument unrolls, may recoil at the logic of his deductions.

In our present era of convulsive changes, a prophet must be bold, indeed,
to predict anything more definite than a mere trend in events, but the
study of the past is the one safe guide in forecasting the future.

Mr. Stoddard takes up the white man's world and its potential enemies as
they are to-day. A consideration of their early relations and of the
history of the Nordic race, since its first appearance three or four
thousand years ago, tends strongly to sustain and justify his conclusions.
For such a consideration we must first turn to the map, or, better, to the
globe.

Viewed in the light of geography and zoölogy, Europe west of Russia is but
a peninsula of Asia with the southern shores of the Mediterranean Sea
included. True Africa, or rather Ethiopia, lies south of the Sahara Desert
and has virtually no connection with the North except along the valley of
the Nile.

This Eurasiatic continent has been, perhaps, since the origin of life
itself, the most active centre of evolution and radiation of the higher
forms.

Confining ourselves to the mammalian orders, we find that a majority of
them have originated and developed there and have spread thence to the
outlying land areas of the globe. All the evidence points to the origin of
the Primates in Eurasia and we have every reason to believe that this
continent was also the scene of the early evolution of man from his
anthropoid ancestors.

The impulse that inaugurated the development of mankind seems to have had
its basic cause in the stress of changing climatic conditions in central
Asia at the close of the Pliocene, and the human inhabitants of Eurasia
have ever since exhibited in a superlative degree the energy developed at
that time. This energy, however, has not been equally shared by the
various species of man, either extinct or living, and the survivors of the
earlier races are, for the most part, to be found on the other continents
and islands or in the extreme outlying regions of Eurasia itself.

In other words those groups of mankind which at an early period found
refuge in the Americas, in Australia, in Ethiopia, or in the islands of
the sea, represent to a large extent stages in man's physical and cultural
development, from which the more energized inhabitants of Eurasia have
long since emerged. In some cases, as in Mexico and Peru, the outlying
races developed in their isolation a limited culture of their own, but,
for the most part, they have exhibited, and continue to this day to
exhibit, a lack of capacity for sustained evolution from within as well as
a lack of capacity to adjust themselves of their own initiative to the
rapid changes which modern times impose upon them from without.

In Eurasia itself this same inequality of potential capacity is found, but
in a lesser degree, and consequently, in the progress of humanity, there
has been constant friction between those who push forward and those who
are unable to keep pace with changing conditions.

Owing to these causes the history of mankind has been that of a series of
impulses from the Eurasiatic continent upon the outlying regions of the
globe, but there has been an almost complete lack of reaction, either
racial or cultural, from them upon the masses of mankind in Eurasia
itself. There have been endless conflicts between the different sections
of Eurasia, but neither Amerinds, nor Austroloids, nor Negroes, have ever
made a concerted attack upon the great continent.

* * * * *

Without attempting a scientific classification of the inhabitants of
Eurasia, it is sufficient to describe the three main races. The first are
the yellow-skinned, straight black-haired, black-eyed, round-skulled
Mongols and Mongoloids massed in central and eastern Asia north of the
Himalayan system.

To the west of them, and merged with them, lie the Alpines, also
characterized by dark, but not straight, hair, dark eyes, relatively
short stature, and round skulls. These Alpines are thrust like a wedge
into Europe between the Nordics and the Mediterraneans, with a tip that
reaches the Atlantic Ocean. Those of western Europe are derived from one
or more very ancient waves of round-skulled invaders from the East, who
probably came by way of Asia Minor and the Balkans, but they have been so
long in their present homes that they retain little except their
brachycephalic skull-shape to connect them with the Asiatic Mongols.

South of the Himalayas and westward in a narrow belt to the Atlantic, and
on both sides of the Inland Sea, lies the Mediterranean race, more or less
swarthy-skinned, black-haired, dark-eyed, and long-skulled.

On the northwest, grouped around the Baltic and North Seas, lies the great
Nordic race. It is characterized by a fair white skin, wavy hair with a
range of color from dark brown to flaxen, light eyes, tall stature, and
long skulls.

These races show other physical characters which are definite but
difficult to describe, such as texture of skin and cast of features,
especially of the nose. The contrast of mental and spiritual endowments is
equally definite, but even more elusive of definition.

It is with the action and interaction of these three groups, together with
internal civil wars, that recorded history deals.

While, so far as we know, these three races have occupied their present
relative positions from the beginning, there have been profound changes
in their distribution.

The two essential phenomena, however, are, first, the retreat of the
Nordic race westward from the Grasslands of western Asia and eastern
Europe to the borders of the Atlantic, until it occupies a relatively
small area on the periphery of Eurasia.

The second phenomenon is of equal importance, namely, the more or less
thorough Nordicizing of the westernmost extensions of the other two races,
namely, the Mediterranean on the north coast of the Inland Sea, who have
been completely Aryanized in speech, and have been again and again
saturated with Nordic blood, and the even more profound Nordicization in
speech and in blood of the short, dark, round-skulled inhabitants of
central Europe, from Brittany through central France, southern Germany,
and northern Italy into Austrian and Balkan lands. So thorough has been
this process that the western Alpines have at the present time no separate
race consciousness and are to be considered as wholly European.

As to the Alpines of eastern and central Europe, the Slavs, the case is
somewhat different. East of a line drawn from the Adriatic to the Baltic
the Nordicizing process has been far less perfect, although nearly
complete as to speech, since all the Slavic languages are Aryan.
Throughout these Slavic lands, great accessions of pure Mongoloid blood
have been introduced within relatively recent centuries.

East of this belt of imperfectly Nordicized Alpines we reach the Asiatic
Alpines, as yet entirely untouched by western blood or culture. These
groups merge into the Mongoloids of eastern Asia.

So we find, thrust westward from the Heartland, a race touching the
Atlantic at Brittany, thoroughly Asiatic and Mongoloid in the east, very
imperfectly Nordicized in the centre, and thoroughly Nordicized culturally
in the far west of Europe, where it has become, and must be accepted as,
an integral part of the White World.

As to the great Nordic race, within relatively recent historic times it
occupied the Grasslands north of the Black and Caspian Seas eastward to
the Himalayas. Traces of Nordic peoples in central Asia are constantly
found, and when archæological research there becomes as intensive as in
Europe we shall be astonished to find how long, complete, and extended was
their occupation of western Asia.

During the second millennium before our era successive waves of Nordics
began to cross the Afghan passes into India until finally they imposed
their primitive Aryan language upon Hindustan and the countries lying to
the east.

All those regions lying northwest of the mountains appear to have been
largely a white man's country at the time of Alexander the Great. In
Turkestan the newly discovered Tokharian language, an Aryan tongue of the
western division, seems to have persisted down to the ninth century. The
decline of the Nordics in these lands, however, began probably far
earlier than Alexander's time, and must have been nearly completed at the
beginning of our era. Such blond traits as are still found in western Asia
are relatively unimportant, and for the last two thousand years these
countries must be regarded as lost to the Nordic race.

The impulse that drove the early Nordics like a fan over the Himalayan
passes into India, the later Nordics southward into Mesopotamian lands, as
Kassites, Mitanni, and Persians, into Greece and Anatolia as Achæans,
Dorians, and Phrygians, westward as the Aryan-speaking invaders of Italy
and as the Celtic vanguards of the Nordic race across the Rhine into Gaul,
Spain, and Britain, may well have been caused by Mongoloid pressure from
the heart of central Asia. Of course, we have no actual knowledge of this,
but the analogy to the history of later migrations is strong, and the
conviction is growing among historians that the impulse that drove the
Hellenic Nordics upon the early Ægean culture world was the same as that
which later drove Germanic Nordics into the Roman Empire.

North of the Caspian and Black Seas the boundaries of Europe receded
steadily before Asia for nearly a thousand years after our era opened, but
we have scant record of the struggles which resulted in the eviction of
the Nordics from their homes in Russia, Poland, the Austrian and east
German lands.

By the time of Charlemagne the White Man's world was reduced to
Scandinavia, Germany west of the Elbe, the British Isles, the Low
Countries, and northern France and Italy, with outlying groups in southern
France and Spain. This was the lowest ebb for the Nordics and it was the
crowning glory of Charlemagne's career that he not only turned back the
flood, but began the organization of a series of more or less Nordicized
marches or barrier states from the Baltic to the Adriatic, which have
served as ramparts against Asiatic pressure from his day to ours. West of
this line the feudal states of mediæval Europe developed into western
Christendom, the nucleus of the civilized world of to-day.

South of the Caspian and Black Seas, after the first swarming of the
Nordics over the mountains during the second millennium before Christ, the
East pressed steadily against Europe until the strain culminated in the
Persian Wars. The defeat of Asia in these wars resulted later in
Alexander's conquest of western Asia to the borders of India.

Alexander's empire temporarily established Hellenic institutions
throughout western Asia and some of the provinces remained superficially
Greek until they were incorporated in the Roman Empire and ultimately
became part of early Christendom. On the whole, however, from the time of
Alexander the elimination of European blood, classic culture, and,
finally, of Christianity, went on relentlessly.

By later Roman times the Aryan language of the Persians, Parthians, and
people of India together with some shreds of Greek learning were about all
the traces of Europe that were to be found east of the oscillating
boundary along the Euphrates.

The Roman and Byzantine Empires struggled for centuries to check the
advancing tide of Asiatics, but Arab expansions under the impulse of the
Mohammedan religion finally tore away all the eastern and southern coasts
of the Mediterranean Sea, while from an Arabized Spain they threatened
western Europe. With the White Man's world thus rapidly receding in the
south, a series of pure Mongol invasions from central Asia, sweeping north
of the Caspian and Black Seas, burst upon central Europe. Attila and his
Huns were the first to break through into Nordic lands as far as the
plains of northern France. None of the later hordes were able to force
their way so far into Nordic territories, but spent their strength upon
the Alpines of the Balkans and eastern Europe.

Eastern Germany, the Austrian states, Poland, and Russia had been Nordic
lands before the Slavs emerged after the fall of Rome. Whether the
occupation of Teutonic lands by the Wends and Slavs in eastern Europe was
an infiltration or a conquest is not known, but the conviction is growing
that, like other movements which preceded and followed, it was caused by
Mongoloid pressure.

That the western Slavs or Wends had been long Nordicized in speech is
indicated by the thoroughly Aryan character of the Slavic languages. They
found in the lands they occupied an underlying Teutonic population. They
cannot be regarded as the original owners of Poland, Bohemia, Silesia, or
other Wendish provinces of eastern Germany and Austria. The Teutonic
Marcomanni and Quadi were in Bohemia long before the Czechs came in
through the Moravian Gate in the sixth century. Pomerania and the Prussias
were the home of Teutonic Lombards, Burgunds, Vandals, and Suevi, while
the Crimea and the northwestern coast of the Black Sea were long held by
the Nordic Goths, who, just before our era, had migrated overland from the
Baltic by way of the Vistula.

No doubt some of this Nordic blood remained to ennoble the stock of the
later invaders, but by the time of Charlemagne, in the greater part of
Europe east of the Elbe, the Aryan language was the only bond with Europe.

When the Frankish Empire turned the tide and Christianized these Wendish
and Polish lands, civilization was carried eastward until it met the
Byzantine influences which brought to Russia and the lands east of the
Carpathians the culture and Orthodox Christianity of the Eastern or Greek
Empire.

The nucleus of Russia was organized in the ninth century by Scandinavian
Varangians, the Franks of the East, who founded the first civilized state
amid a welter of semi-Mongoloid tribes. How much Nordic blood they found
in the territories which afterward became Russia we have no means of
knowing, but it must have been considerable because we do know that from
the Middle Ages to the present time there has been a progressive increase
in brachycephaly or broad-headedness, to judge from the rise in the
percentage of round skulls found in the cemeteries of Moscow and elsewhere
in Russia.

Such was the condition of eastern Europe when a new and terrible series of
Mongoloid invasions swept over it, this time directly from the centre of
Asia.

The effect of these invasions was so profound and lasting that it may be
well to consider briefly the condition of eastern Europe after the
elimination of the Nordics and its partial occupation by the so-called
Slavs. Beginning with Attila and his Huns, in the fourth century, there
was a series of purely Mongoloid tribes entering from Asia in wave after
wave.

Similar waves ultimately passed south of the Black and Caspian Seas, and
were called Turks, but these were long held back by the power of the
Byzantine Empire, to which history has done scant justice.

In the north these invaders, called in the later days Tatars, but all
essentially of central Asiatic Mongol stock, occupied Balkan lands after
the expansion of the south Slavs in those countries. They are known by
various names, but they are all part of the same general movement,
although there was a gradual slowing down of the impulse. Prior to Jenghiz
Khan the later hordes did not reach quite as far west as the earlier ones.

The first wave, Attila's Huns, were followed during the succeeding
centuries by the Avars, the Bulgars, the Hunagar Magyars, the Patzinaks
and the Cumans. All of these tribes forced their way over the Carpathians
and the Danube, and much of their blood, notably in that of the Bulgars
and Magyars, is still to be found there. Most of them adopted Slavic
dialects and merged in the surrounding population, but the Magyars retain
their Asiatic speech to this day.

Other Tatar and Mongoloid tribes settled in southern and eastern Russia.
Chief among these were the Mongol Chazars, who founded an extensive and
powerful empire in southern and southeastern Russia as early as the eighth
century. It is interesting to note that they accepted Judaism and became
the ancestors of the majority of the Jews of eastern Europe, the
round-skulled Ashkenazim.

Into this mixed population of Christianized Slavs and more or less
Christianized and Slavized Mongols burst Jenghiz Khan with his great
hordes of pure Mongols. All southern Russia, Poland, and Hungary collapsed
before them, and in southern Russia the rule of the Mongol persisted for
centuries, in fact the Golden Horde of Tatars retained control of the
Crimea down to 1783.

Many of these later Tatars had accepted Islam, but entire groups of them
have retained their Asiatic speech and to this day profess the Mohammedan
religion.

The most lasting result of these Mongol invasions was that southern Poland
and all the countries east and north of the Carpathians, including Rumania
and the Ukraine, were saturated anew with Tatar blood, and, in dealing
with these populations and with the new nations founded among them, this
fact must not be forgotten.

The conflict between the East and the West - Europe and Asia - has thus
lasted for centuries, in fact it goes back to the Persian Wars and the
long and doubtful duel between Rome and Parthia along the eastern boundary
of Syria. As we have already said, the Saracens had torn away many of the
provinces of the Eastern Empire, and the Crusades, for a moment, had
rolled back the East, but the event was not decided until the Seljukian
and Osmanli Turks accepted Islam.

If these Turks had remained heathen they might have invaded and conquered
Asia Minor and the Balkan States, just as their cousins, the Tartars, had
subjected vast territories north of the Black Sea, but they could not have
held their conquests permanently unless they had been able to incorporate
the beaten natives into their own ranks through the proselytizing power of
Islam.


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