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might in time displace his mongrel rulers - provided he himself were not
also mongrelized. But the present "Indianista" movement is not a sign of
Indian political efficiency; not the harbinger of an Indian "renaissance."
It is the instinctive turning of the harried beast on his tormentor.
Maddened by the cruel vagaries of mongrel rule and increasingly conscious
of the mongrel's innate worthlessness, the Indian at last bares his teeth.
Under civilized white tutelage the "Indianista" movement would have been
practically inconceivable.

However, guesses as to the final outcome of an Indian-mongrel conflict are
academic speculation, because mongrel America will not be left to itself.
Mongrel America cannot stand alone. Indeed, it never has stood alone, for
it has always been bolstered up by the Monroe Doctrine. But for our
protection, outside forces would have long since rushed into this
political and economic vacuum, and every omen to-day denotes that this
vacuum, like all others, will presently be filled. A world close packed as
never before will not tolerate countries that are a torment to themselves
and a dangerous nuisance to their neighbors. A world half bankrupt will
not allow vast sources of potential wealth to lie in hands which idle or
misuse. Thus it is practically certain that mongrel America will presently
pass under foreign tutelage. Exactly how, is not yet clear. It may be done
by the United States alone, or, what is more probable, in "Pan-American"
co-operation with the lusty young white nations of the antipodean south.
It may be done by an even larger combination, including some European
states. After all, the details of such action do not lie within the scope
of this book, since they fall exclusively within the white man's sphere of
activity.

There is, however, another dynamic which might transform mongrel America.
This dynamic is yellow Asia. The Far East teems with virile and laborious
life. It thrills to novel ambitions and desires. Avid with the urge of
swarming myriads, it hungrily seeks outlets for its superabundant
vitality. We have already seen how the Mongolian has earmarked the whole
Far East for his own, and in subsequent pages we shall see how he also
beats restlessly against the white world's race-frontiers. But mongrel
America! What other field offers such tempting possibilities for Mongolian
race-expansion? Vast regions of incalculable, unexploited wealth, sparsely
inhabited by stagnant populations cursed with anarchy and feeble from
miscegenation - how could such lands resist the onslaught of tenacious and
indomitable millions? The answer is self-evident. They could not resist;
and such an invasion, once begun, would be consummated with a celerity and
thoroughness perhaps unexampled in human history.

Now the yellow world is alive to this momentous possibility. Japan, in
particular, has glimpsed in Latin America precious avenues to that racial
expansion which is the key-note of Japanese foreign policy. For years
Japanese statesmen and publicists have busied themselves with the problem.
The Chinese had, in fact, already pointed the way, for during the later
decades of the nineteenth century Chinamen frequented Latin America's
Pacific coast, economically vanquishing the natives with ease, and
settling in Peru in such numbers that the alarmed Peruvians hastily
stopped the inflow by drastic exclusion acts. The successes of these
Chinese pioneers, humble coolies entirely without official backing, have
fired the Japanese imagination. The Japanese press has long discussed
Latin America in optimistic vein. Count Okuma is a good exemplar of these
Japanese aspirations. Some years ago he told the American sociologist
Professor Ross: "South America, especially the northern part, will furnish
ample room for our surplus."[83] To his fellow countrymen Count Okuma was
still more specific. In 1907 he stated in the Tokio _Economist_ that the
Japanese were to overspread the earth like a cloud of locusts, alighting
on the North American coasts, and swarming into Central and South America.
Count Okuma expressed a strong preference for Latin American countries as
fields for Japanese immigration, because most of them were "much easier to
include within the sphere of influence of Japan in the future."[84]

And the Japanese have supplemented words with deeds. Especially since
1914, Japanese activity in Latin America has been ubiquitous and
striking. The west coast of South America, in particular, is to-day
flooded with Japanese goods, merchants, commercial missions, and financial
agents seeking concessions of every kind. Our State Department has had to
exercise special vigilance concerning Japanese concession-hunting in
Mexico.

Japan's present activity is of course mere reconnoitring - testings and
mappings of terrain for possible later action on a more extensive scale.
One thing alone gives Japan pause - our veto. Japan knows that real
aggression against our southern neighbors would spell war with the United
States. Japan does not contemplate war with us at present. She has many
fish to fry in the Far East. So in Latin America she plays safe. But she
bides her time. In Latin America itself she has friends - even partisans.
Japan seeks to mobilize to her profit that distrust of the "Yanqui" which
permeates Latin America. The half-castes, in particular, rage at our
"color line" and see in the United States the Nemesis of their anarchic
misrule. They flout the Monroe Doctrine, caress dreams of Japanese aid,
and welcome Nippon's pose as the champion of color throughout the world.

Japanese activities in Mexico are of especial interest. Here Japan has
three strong strings to her bow: (1) patriotic dislike of the United
States; (2) mestizo hatred of the white "gringo"; (3) the Indianista
movement. In Mexico the past decade of revolutionary turmoil has developed
into a complicated race-war of the mestizos against the white or
near-white upper class and of the Indian full-bloods against both whites
and mestizos. The one bond of union is dislike of the gringo, which often
rises to fanatical hatred. Our war against Mexico in 1847 has never been
forgotten, and many Mexicans cherish hopes of revenge and even aspire to
recover the territories then ceded to us. During the early stages of the
European War our military unpreparedness and apparent pacifism actually
emboldened some Mexican hotheads to concoct the notorious "Plan of San
Diego." The conspirators plotted to rouse the Mexican population of our
southern border, sow disaffection among our Southern negroes, and explode
the mine at the psychological moment by means of a "Reconquering Equitable
Army" invading Texas. Our whole Southwest was to be rejoined to Mexico,
while our Southern States were to form a black republic. The projected war
was conceived strictly in terms of race, the reconquering equitable army
to be composed solely of "Latins," negroes, and Japanese. The racial
results were to be decisive, for the entire white population of both our
South and Southwest was to be pitilessly massacred. Of course the plot
completely miscarried, and sporadic attempts to invade Texas during 1915
were easily repulsed.

Nevertheless, this incident reveals the trend of many Mexican minds. The
framers of the "Plan of San Diego" were not ignorant peons, but persons of
some standing. The outrages and tortures inflicted upon numerous Americans
in Mexico during recent years are further indications of that wide-spread
hatred which expresses itself in vitriolic outbursts like the following
editorial of a Mexican provincial paper, written during our chase after
the bandit Villa in 1916: "Above all, do not forget that at a time of
national need, humanity is a crime and frightfulness is a virtue. Pull out
eyes, snatch out hearts, tear open breasts, drink - if you can - the blood
in the skulls of the invaders from the cities of Yankeeland. In defense of
liberty be a Nero, be a Caligula - that is to be a good patriot. Peace
between Mexico and the United States will be closed in throes of terror
and barbarism."[85]

All this is naturally grist for the Japanese mill. Especially interesting
are Japanese attempts to play upon Mexican Indianista sentiment. Japanese
writers point out physical and cultural similarities between the Mexican
native races and themselves, deducing therefrom innate racial affinities
springing from the remote and forgotten past. All possible sympathetic
changes were rung during the diplomatic mission of Señor de la Barra to
Japan at the beginning of 1914. His reception in Tokio was a memorable
event. Señor de la Barra was greeted by cheering multitudes, and on every
occasion the manifold bonds between the two peoples were emphasized. This
of course occurred before the European War. During the war
Japanese-Mexican relations remained amicable. So far as official evidence
goes, the Japanese Government has never entered into any understandings
with the Mexican Government, though some Mexicans have hinted at a secret
agreement, and one Mexican writer, Gutierrez de Lara, asserts that in 1912
Francisco Madero, then President, "threw himself into the arms of Japan,"
and goes on: "We are well aware of the importance of this statement and of
its tremendous international significance, but we make it deliberately
with full confidence in our authority. Not only did Madero enlist the
ardent support of the South American republics in the cause of Mexico's
inviolability, but he entered into negotiations with the Japanese minister
in Mexico City for a close offensive and defensive alliance with Japan to
checkmate United States aggression. When during the fateful twelve days'
battle in Mexico City a rumor of American intervention, more alarming than
usual, was communicated to Madero, he remarked coldly that he was
thoroughly anxious for that intervention, for he was confident of the
surprise the American Government would receive in discovering that they
had to deal with Japan."[86]

But, after all, an official Japanese-Mexican understanding is not the
fundamental issue. The really significant thing is Mexican popular
antagonism to the United States, which is so wide-spread that Japan could
in a crisis probably count on Mexican benevolent neutrality if not on
Mexican support. The present Carranza government of Mexico is of course
notoriously anti-American. Its consistent policy, notably revealed in its
complaisance toward Germany and its intrigues with other anti-American
régimes like those of Colombia and Venezuela, makes Mexico the centre of
anti-Americanism in Latin America. As for the numerous Japanese residents
in Mexico, they have lost no opportunity to abet this attitude. Here, for
instance, is the text of a manifesto signed by prominent members of the
Japanese colony during the American-Mexican crisis of 1916: "Japanese:
Mexico is a friendly nation. Our commercial bonds with her are great. She
is, like us, a nation of heroes who will never consent to the
world-domination of a hard and brutal race, as are the Yankees. We cannot
abandon Mexico in her struggle against a nation supposedly stronger. The
Mexicans know how to defend themselves, but there is lacking aid which we
can furnish. If the Yankees invade Mexico, if they seize the California
coasts, Japanese commerce and the Japanese navy will face a grave peril.
The Yankees believe us impotent because of the European War, and we will
be expelled from American soil and our children from American schools. We
will aid the Mexicans. We will aid Mexico against Yankee rapacity. This
great and beautiful country is a victim of Yankee hatred toward Japan. Our
indifference would be a lack of patriotism, since the Yankees already are
against us and our divine Emperor. They have seized Hawaii, they have
seized the Philippine Islands, near our coasts, and are now about to
crush under foot our friend and possible ally, and injure our commerce and
imperil our naval power."[87]

The fact is that Latin America's attitude toward the yellow world tends
everywhere to crystallize along race lines. The half-castes, naturally
hostile to the United States, see in Japan a welcome offset to the
"Colossus of the North." The self-conscious Indianista elements likewise
heed Japanese suggestions of ethnic affinity. On the other hand, the
whites and near-whites instinctively react against Japanese advances. Even
those who have no love for the Yankee see in the Mongolian the greatest of
perils. Garcia-Calderon typifies this point of view. He dreads our
imperialistic tendencies, yet he reproves those Latin Americans who, in a
Japanese-American clash, would favor Japan. "Victorious," he writes, "the
Japanese would invade Western America and convert the Pacific into a vast
closed sea, closed to foreign ambitions, _mare nostrum_, peopled with
Japanese colonies. The Japanese hegemony would not be a mere change of
tutelage for the nations of America. In spite of essential differences,
the Latins oversea have certain common ties with the people of the
(United) States: a long-established religion, Christianity, and a
coherent, European, Occidental civilization. Perhaps there is some obscure
fraternity between the Japanese and the American Indians, between the
yellow men of Nippon and the copper-colored Quechuas, a disciplined and
sober people. But the ruling race, the dominant type of Spanish origin,
which imposes the civilization of the white man upon America, is hostile
to the entire invading East."[88]

White men throughout Latin America generally echo these sentiments. Chile
and Argentina repulse Oriental immigration, and the white oligarchs of
Peru dread keenly Japanese designs directed so specifically against their
country. Very recently a Peruvian, Doctor Jorge M. Corbacho,[89] wrote
most bitterly about the Japanese infiltration into Peru and adjacent
Bolivia, while some years ago Señor Augustin Edwards, owner of the leading
Chilean periodical, _El Mercurio_, denounced Count Okuma's menaces and
called for a Pan-American rampart against Asia from Behring Strait to Cape
Horn. "Japanese immigration," asserted Señor Edwards, "must be firmly
opposed, not only in South America, but in the whole American continent.
The same remark applies to Chinese immigration.... In short, these threats
of Okuma should induce the nations of South America to adopt the Monroe
Doctrine - an invincible weapon against the plans and intentions of that
'Empire of the Orient,' which has so lately risen up to new life, and
already manifests so dire a greed of conquest."[90] From Central America
similar voices arise. A Salvadorean writer urges political federation
with the United States as the sole refuge against the "Yellow Peril," to
avoid becoming "slaves and utterly insignificant";[91] and a well-known
Nicaraguan politician, Señor Moncada,[92] writes in similar vein.

The momentous implications of Mongolian pressure upon Latin America are
admirably described by Professor Ross. "Provided that no barrier be
interposed to the inflow from man-stifled Asia," he says, "it is well
within the bounds of probability that by the close of this century South
America will be the home of twenty or thirty millions of Orientals and
descendants of Orientals.... But Asiatic immigration of such volume would
change profoundly the destiny of South America. For one thing, it would
forestall and frustrate that great immigration of Europeans which South
American statesmen are counting on to relieve their countries from mestizo
unprogressiveness and misgovernment. The white race would withhold its
increase or look elsewhere for outlets; for those with the higher standard
of comfort always shun competition with those of a lower standard. Again,
large areas of South America might cease to be parts of Christendom. Some
of the republics there might come to be as dependent upon Asiatic Powers
as the Cuban republic is dependent upon the United States."[93]

Very pertinent is Professor Ross's warning as to the fate of the Indian
population - a warning which Indianista believers in Japanese "affinity"
should seriously take to heart. Whatever might be the lot of the Latin
American whites, Professor Ross points out that "an Asiatic influx would
seal the doom of the Indian element in these countries.... The Indians
could make no effective economic stand against the wide-awake,
resourceful, and aggressive Japanese or Chinese. The Oriental immigrants
could beat the Indians at every point, block every path upward, and even
turn them out of most of their present employments. In great part the
Indians would become a cringing _sudra_ caste, tilling the poorer lands
and confined to the menial or repulsive occupations. Filled with despair,
and abandoning themselves even more than they do now to pisco and coca,
they would shrivel into a numerically negligible element in the
population."[94]

Such are the underlying factors in the Latin American situation. Once more
we see the essential instability of mere political phenomena. Once more we
see the supreme importance of race. No conquest could have been completer
than that of the Spaniards four centuries ago. The Indians were helpless
as sheep before the mail-clad Conquistadores. And military conquest was
succeeded by complete political domination. The Indian even lost his
cultural heritage, and became a passive tool in the hands of his white
masters. But the Spaniard did not seal his title-deed with the indelible
signet of race. Indian blood remained numerically predominant, and the
conqueror further weakened his tenure by bringing in black blood - the most
irreducible of ethnic factors. The inflow of white blood was small, and
much of what did come lost itself in the dismal swamp of miscegenation.
Lastly, the whites quarrelled among themselves.

The result was inevitable. The colonial whites triumphed only by aid of
the half-castes, who promptly claimed their reward. A fresh struggle
ensued, ending (save in the antipodean regions) in the triumph of the
half-castes. But these, in turn, had called in the Indians and negroes.
Furthermore, the half-castes recklessly squandered the white political
heritage. So the colored full-bloods stirred in their turn, and a new
movement began which, if allowed to run its natural course, might result
in complete de-Aryanization. In other words, the white race has been going
back, and Latin America has been getting more Indian and negro for the
past hundred years.

This cycle, however, now nears its end. Latin America will be neither red
nor black. It will ultimately be either white or yellow. The Indian is
patently unable to construct a progressive civilization. As for the negro,
he has proved as incapable in the New World as in the Old. Everywhere his
presence has spelled regression, and his one New World field of
triumph - Haiti - has resulted in an abysmal plunge to the jungle-level of
Guinea and the Congo. Thus is created a political vacuum. And this vacuum
unerring nature makes ready to fill.

The Latin American situation is, indeed, akin to that of Africa. Latin
America, like Africa, cannot stand alone. An inexorable dilemma impends:
white or yellow. The white man has been first in the field and holds the
central colored zone between two strong bases, north and south, where his
tenure is the unimpeachable title of race. The yellow man has to conquer
every step, though he has already acquired footholds and has behind him
the welling reservoirs of Asia. Nevertheless, white victory in Latin
America is sure - if internecine discord does not rob the white world of
its strength. In Latin America, as in Africa, therefore, the whites must
stand fast - and stand together.




_PART II_

THE EBBING TIDE OF WHITE




CHAPTER VI

THE WHITE FLOOD


The world-wide expansion of the white race during the four centuries
between 1500 and 1900 is the most prodigious phenomenon in all recorded
history. In my opening pages I sketched both the magnitude of this
expansion and its ethnic and political implications. I there showed that
the white stocks together constitute the most numerous single branch of
the human species, nearly one-third of all the human souls on earth to-day
being whites. I also showed that white men racially occupy four-tenths of
the entire habitable land-area of the globe, while nearly nine-tenths of
this area is under white political control. Such a situation is
unprecedented. Never before has a race acquired such combined
preponderance of numbers and dominion.

This white expansion becomes doubly interesting when we realize how sudden
was its inception and how rapid its evolution. A single decade before the
voyage of Columbus, he would have been a bold prophet who should have
predicted this high destiny. At the close of the fifteenth century the
white race was confined to western and central Europe, together with
Scandinavia and the northwestern parts of European Russia. The total white
race-area was then not much over 2,000,000 square miles - barely one-tenth
its area to-day. And in numbers the proportion was almost as unfavorable.
At that moment (say, A. D. 1480) England could muster only about 2,000,000
inhabitants, the entire population of the British Isles not much exceeding
3,000,000 souls. To be sure, the continent was relatively better peopled.
Still, the population of Europe in 1480 was probably not one-sixth that of
1914.

Furthermore, population had dwindled notably in the preceding one hundred
and fifty years. During the fourteenth century Europe had been hideously
scourged by the "Black Death" (bubonic plague), which carried off fully
one-half of its inhabitants, while thereafter a series of great wars had
destroyed immense numbers of people. These losses had not been repaired.
Mediæval society was a static, equilibrated affair, which did not favor
rapid human multiplication. In fact, European life had been intensive and
recessive ever since the fall of the Roman Empire a thousand years before.
Europe's one mediæval attempt at expansion (the Crusades) had utterly
failed. In fact, far from expanding, white Europe had been continuously
assailed by brown and yellow Asia. Beginning with the Huns in the last
days of Rome, continuing with the Arabs, and ending with the Mongols and
Ottoman Turks, Europe had undergone a millennium of Asiatic aggression;
and though Europe had substantially maintained its freedom, many of its
outlying marches had fallen under Asiatic domination. In 1480, for
example, the Turk was marching triumphantly across southeastern Europe,
embryonic Russia was a Tartar dependency, while the Moor still clung to
southern Spain.

The outlook for the white race at the close of the fifteenth century thus
seemed gloomy rather than bright. With a stationary or declining
population, exposed to the assaults of powerful external foes, and racked
by internal pains betokening the demise of the mediæval order, white
Europe's future appeared a far from happy one.

Suddenly, in two short years, all was changed. In 1492 Columbus discovered
America, and in 1494 Vasco da Gama, doubling Africa, found the way to
India. The effect of these discoveries cannot be overestimated. We can
hardly conceive how our mediæval forefathers viewed the ocean. To them the
ocean was a numbing, constricting presence; the abode of darkness and
horror. No wonder mediæval Europe was static, since it faced on ruthless,
aggressive Asia, and backed on nowhere. Then, in the twinkling of an eye,
dead-end Europe became mistress of the ocean - and thereby mistress of the
world.

No such strategical opportunity had, in fact, ever been vouchsafed. From
classic times down to the end of the fifteenth century, white Europe had
confronted only the most martial and enterprising of Asiatics. With such
peoples war and trade had alike to be conducted on practically equal
terms, and by frontal assault no decisive victory could be won. But, after
the great discoveries, the white man could flank his old opponents. Whole
new worlds peopled by primitive races were unmasked, where the white man's
weapons made victory certain, and whence he could draw stores of wealth to
quicken his home life and initiate a progress that would soon place him
immeasurably above his once-dreaded assailants.

And the white man proved worthy of his opportunity. His inherent racial
aptitudes had been stimulated by his past. The hard conditions of mediæval
life had disciplined him to adversity and had weeded him by natural
selection. The hammer of Asiatic invasion, clanging for a thousand years
on the brown-yellow anvil, had tempered the iron of Europe into the finest


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Online LibraryLothrop StoddardThe Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy → online text (page 10 of 22)