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the Far East itself, in order to determine how much of this race-expansion
can be satisfied at home, thereby diminishing, or at least postponing,
acute pressure upon the political and ethnic frontiers of the white world.

To begin with, the population of Japan (approximately 60,000,000) is
increasing at the rate of about 800,000 per year. China has no modern
vital statistics, but the annual increase of her 400,000,000 population,
at the Japanese rate, would be 6,000,000. Now the settled parts of both
Japan and China may be considered as fully populated so far as agriculture
is concerned, further extensive increases of population being dependent
upon the rise of machine industry. Both countries have, however, thinly
settled areas within their present political frontiers. Japan's northern
island of Hokkaido (Yezo) has a great amount of good agricultural land as
yet almost unoccupied, some of her other island possessions offer minor
outlets, while Korea and Manchuria afford extensive colonizing
possibilities albeit Chinese and Korean competition preclude a Japanese
colonization on the scale which the size and natural wealth of these
regions would at first sight seem to indicate. China has even more
extensive colonizable areas. Both Mongolia and Chinese Turkestan, though
largely desert, contain within their vast areas enough fertile land to
support many millions of Chinese peasants as soon as modern roads and
railways are built. The Chinese colonization of Manchuria is also
proceeding apace, and will continue despite anything Japan may do to keep
it down. Lastly, the cold but enormous plateau of Tibet offers
considerable possibilities.

Allowing for all this, however, it cannot be said that either China or
Japan possess within their present political frontiers territories likely
to absorb those prodigious accretions of population which seem destined to
occur within the next couple of generations. From the resultant congestion
two avenues of escape will naturally present themselves: settlement of
other portions of the Far East to-day under white political control, but
inhabited by colored populations; and pressure into accessible areas not
merely under white political control, but also containing white
populations. It is obvious that these are two radically distinct issues,
for while a white nation might not unalterably oppose Mongolian
immigration into its colored dependencies, it would almost certainly
fight to the limit rather than witness the racial swamping of lands
settled by its own flesh and blood.

Considering the former issue, then, it would appear that virtually all the
peninsulas and archipelagoes lying between China and Australia offer
attractive fields for yellow, particularly Chinese, race-expansion.
Ethnically they are all colored men's lands; politically they are all,
save Siam, under white control; Britain, France, Holland, and the United
States being the titular owners of these extensive territories. So far as
the native races are concerned, none of them seem to possess the vitality
and economic efficiency needed to maintain themselves against unrestricted
Chinese immigration. Whether in the British Straits Settlements and North
Borneo, French Indo-China, the Dutch Indies, the American Philippines, or
independent Siam, the Chinaman, so far as he has been allowed, has
displayed his practical superiority, and in places where, like the Straits
Settlements, he has been allowed a free hand, he has virtually supplanted
the native stock, reducing the latter to an impotent and vanishing
minority. The chief barriers to Chinese race-expansion in these regions
are legal hindrances or prohibitions of immigration, and of course such
barriers are in their essence artificial and liable to removal under any
shift of circumstances. Many observers predict that most of these lands
will ultimately become Chinese. Says Alleyne Ireland, a recognized
authority on these regions: "There is every reason to suppose that,
throughout the tropics, possibly excepting India, the Chinaman, even
though he should continue to emigrate in no greater force than hitherto,
will gradually supersede all the native races."[30] Certainly, if this be
true, China has here a vast outlet for her surplus population. It has been
estimated that the undeveloped portions of the Dutch Indies alone are
capable of supporting 100,000,000 people living on the frugal Chinese
plane. Their present population is 8,000,000 semi-savages.

China's possibilities of race-expansion in the colored regions of the Far
East are thus excellent. The same cannot be said, however, for Japan. The
Japanese, bred in a distinctively temperate, island environment, have not
the Chinese adaptability to climatic variation. The Japanese, like the
white man, does not thrive in tropic heat, nor does he possess the white
man's ability to resist sub-Arctic cold. Formosa is not in the real
tropics, yet Japanese colonists have not done well there. On the other
hand, even the far-from-Arctic winters of Hokkaido (part of the Japanese
archipelago) seem too chilly for the Japanese taste.

Japan thus does not have the same vital interest as China in the Asiatic
tropics. Undoubtedly they would for Japan be valuable colonies of
exploitation, just as they to-day are thus valuable for white nations. But
they could never furnish outlets for Japan's excess population, and even
commercially Japan would be exposed to increasing Chinese competition,
since the Chinaman excels the Japanese in trade as well as in migrant
colonization. Japanese lack of climatic adaptability is also the reason
why Japan's present military excursion in eastern Siberia, even if it
should develop into permanent occupation, would yield no adequate solution
of Japan's population problem. For the Chinaman, Siberia would do very
well. He would breed amazingly there and would fill up the whole country
in a remarkably short space of time. But the Japanese peasant, so averse
to the winters of Hokkaido, would find the sub-Arctic rigors of Siberia
intolerable.

Thus, for Japanese migration, neither the empty spaces of northern or
southern Asia will do. The natural outlets lie outside Asia in the United
States, Australasia, and the temperate parts of Latin America. But all
these outlets are rigorously barred by the white man, who has marked them
for his own race-heritage, and nothing but force will break those barriers
down.

There lies a danger, not merely to the peace of the Far East, but to the
peace of the world. Fired by a fervent patriotism; resolved to make their
country a leader among the nations; the Japanese writhe at the
constriction of their present race-bounds. Placed on the flank of the
Chinese giant whose portentous growth she can accurately forecast, Japan
sees herself condemned to ultimate renunciation of her grandiose ambitions
unless she can somehow broaden the racial as well as the political basis
of her power. In short: Japan must find lands where Japanese can breed by
the tens of millions if she is not to be automatically overshadowed in
course of time, even assuming that she does not suffocate or blow up from
congestion before that time arrives. This is the secret of her aggressive
foreign policy, her chronic imperialism, her extravagant dreams of
conquest and "world-dominion."

The longing to hack a path to greatness by the samurai sword lurks ever in
the back of Japanese minds. The library of Nippon's chauvinist literature
is large and increasing. A good example of the earlier productions is
Satori Kato's brochure entitled "Mastery of the Pacific," published in
1909. Herein the author announces confidently: "In the event of war Japan
could, as if aided by a magician's wand, overrun the Pacific with fleets
manned by men who have made Nelson their model and transported to the
armadas of the Far East the spirit that was victorious at Trafalgar.
Whether Japan avows it or not, her persistent aim is to gain the mastery
of the Pacific. Although peace seems to prevail over the world at present,
no one can tell how soon the nations may be engaged in war. It does not
need the English alliance to secure success for Japan. That alliance may
be dissolved at any moment, but Japan will suffer no defeat. Her victory
will be won by her men, not by armor-plates - things weak by
comparison."[31]

The late war has of course greatly stimulated these bellicose emotions.
Viewing their own increased power and the debilitation of the white world,
Japanese jingoes glimpse prospects of glorious fishing in troubled
waters. The "world-dominion" note is stressed more often than of yore. For
instance, in the summer of 1919 the Tokio _Hochi_, Count Okuma's organ,
prophesied exultantly: "That age in which the Anglo-Japanese alliance was
the pivot and American-Japanese co-operation an essential factor of
Japanese diplomacy is gone. In future we must not look eastward for
friendship but westward. Let the Bolsheviki of Russia be put down and the
more peaceful party established in power. In them Japan will find a strong
ally. By marching then westward to the Balkans, to Germany, to France, and
Italy, the greater part of the world may be brought under our sway. The
tyranny of the Anglo-Saxons at the Peace Conference is such that it has
angered both gods and men. Some may abjectly follow them in consideration
of their petty interests, but things will ultimately settle down as has
just been indicated."[32]

Still more striking are the following citations from a Japanese
imperialist pronouncement written in the autumn of 1916:

"Fifty millions of our race wherewith to conquer and possess the earth! It
is indeed a glorious problem!... To begin with, we now have China; China
is our steed! Far shall we ride upon her! Even as Rome rode Latium to
conquer Italy, and Italy to conquer the Mediterranean; even as Napoleon
rode Italy and the Rhenish States to conquer Germany, and Germany to
conquer Europe; even as England to-day rides her colonies and her
so-called 'allies' to conquer her robust rival, Germany - even so shall we
ride China. So becomes our 50,000,000 race 500,000,000 strong; so grow our
paltry hundreds of millions of gold into billions!

"How well have done our people! How well have our statesmen led them! No
mistakes! There must be none now. In 1895 we conquered China - Russia,
Germany, and France stole from us the booty. How has our strength grown
since then - and still it grows! In ten years we punished and retook our
own from Russia; in twenty years we squared and retook from Germany; with
France there is no need for haste. She has already realized why we
withheld the troops which alone might have driven the invader from her
soil! Her fingers are clutching more tightly around her Oriental booty;
yet she knows it is ours for the taking. But there is no need of haste:
the world condemns the paltry thief; only the glorious conqueror wins the
plaudits and approval of mankind.

"We are now well astride of our steed, China; but the steed has long
roamed wild and is run down: it needs grooming, more grain, more training.
Further, our saddle and bridle are as yet mere makeshifts: would steed and
trappings stand the strain of war? And what would that strain be?

"As for America - that fatuous booby with much money and much sentiment,
but no cohesion, no brains of government; stood she alone we should not
need our China steed. Well did my friend speak the other day when he
called her people a race of thieves with the hearts of rabbits. America,
to any warrior race, is not as a foe, but as an immense melon, ripe for
the cutting. But there are other warrior races - England, Germany - would
they look on and let us slice and eat our fill? Would they?

"But, using China as our steed, should our first goal be the land? India?
Or the Pacific, the sea that must be our very own, even as the Atlantic is
now England's? The land is tempting and easy, but withal dangerous. Did we
begin there, the coarse white races would too soon awaken, and combine,
and forever immure us within our long since grown intolerable bounds. It
must, therefore, be the sea; but the sea means the Western Americas and
all the islands between; and with those must soon come Australia, India.
And then the battling for the balance of world-power, for the rest of
North America. Once that is ours, we own and control the whole - a dominion
worthy of our race!

"North America alone will support a billion people; that billion shall be
Japanese with their slaves. Not arid Asia, nor worn-out Europe (which,
with its peculiar and quaint relics and customs should in the interests of
history and culture, be in any case preserved), nor yet tropical Africa,
is fit for our people. But North America, that continent so succulently
green, fresh, and unsullied - except for the few chattering, mongrel
Yankees - should have been ours by right of discovery: it shall be ours by
the higher, nobler right of conquest."[33]

This apostle of Japanese world-dominion then goes on to discuss in detail
how his programme can best be attained. It should be remembered that at
the time he wrote America was still an unarmed nation, apparently ridden
by pacifism. Such imperialist extravagances as the above do not represent
the whole of Japan. But they do represent a powerful element in Japan,
against which the white world should be forewarned.




CHAPTER III

BROWN MAN'S LAND


Brown Man's Land is the Near and Middle East. The brown world stretches in
an immense belt clear across southern Asia and northern Africa, from the
Pacific to the Atlantic Oceans. The numbers of brown and yellow men are
not markedly unequal (450,000,000 browns as against 500,000,000 yellows),
but in most other respects the two worlds are sharply contrasted. In the
first place, while the yellow world is a fairly compact geographical
block, the brown world sprawls half-way round the globe, and is not only
much greater in size, but also infinitely more varied in natural features.

This geographical diversity is reflected both in its history and in the
character of its inhabitants. Unlike the secluded yellow world, the brown
world is nearly everywhere exposed to foreign influences and has undergone
an infinite series of evolutionary modifications. Racially it has been a
vast melting-pot, or series of melting-pots, wherein conquest and
migration have continually poured new heterogeneous elements, producing
the most diverse racial amalgamations. In fact, there is to-day no
generalized brown type-norm as there are generalized yellow or white
type-norms, but rather a series of types clearly distinguished from one
another. Some of these types, like the Persians and Ottoman Turks, are
largely white; others, like the southern Indians and Yemenite Arabs, are
largely black; while still others, like the Himalayan and Central Asian
peoples, have much yellow blood. Again, there is no generalized brown
culture like those possessed by yellows and whites. The great spiritual
bond is Islam, yet in India, the chief seat of brown population, Islam is
professed by only one-fifth of the inhabitants.

Nevertheless, there is a fundamental comity between the brown peoples.
This comity is subtle and intangible in character, yet it exists, and
under certain circumstances it is capable of momentous manifestations. Its
salient feature is the instinctive recognition by all Near and Middle
Eastern peoples that they are fellow Asiatics, however bitter may be their
internecine feuds. This instinctive Asiatic feeling has been noted by
historians for more than two thousand years, and it is just as true to-day
as in the past. Of course it comes out most strongly in face of the
non-Asiatic - which in practice has always meant the white man. The action
and reaction of the brown and white worlds has, indeed, been a constant
historic factor, the rôles of hammer and anvil being continually reversed
through the ages. For the last four centuries the white world has, in the
main, been the dynamic factor. Certainly, during the last hundred years
the white world has displayed an unprecedentedly aggressive vigor, the
brown world playing an almost passive rôle.

Here again is seen a difference between browns and yellows. The yellow
world did not feel the full tide of white aggression till the middle of
the last century, while even then it never really lost its political
independence and soon reacted so powerfully that its political freedom has
to-day been substantially regained. The brown world, on the other hand,
felt the impact of the white tide much earlier and was politically
overwhelmed. The so-called "independence" of brown states has long been
due more to white rivalries than to their own inherent strength. One by
one they have been swallowed up by the white Powers. In 1914 only three
(Turkey, Persia, and Afghanistan) survived, and the late war has sent them
the way of the rest. Turkey and Persia have lost their independence,
however they may still be painted on the map, while Afghanistan has been
compelled to recognize white supremacy as never before. Thus the cycle is
fulfilled, and white political mastery over the brown world is complete.

Political triumphs, however, of themselves guarantee nothing, and the
permanence of the present order of things in the brown world appears more
than doubtful when we glance beyond the map. The brown world, like the
yellow world, is to-day in acute reaction against white supremacy. In
fact, the brown reaction began a full century ago, and has been gathering
headway ever since, moved thereto both by its own inherent vitality and by
the external stimulus of white aggression. The great dynamic of this brown
reaction is the Mohammedan Revival. But before analyzing that movement it
would be well to glance at the human elements involved.

Four salient groupings stand out among the brown peoples: India, Irán,
"Arabistán," and "Turkestán." The last two words are used in a special
sense to denote ethnic and cultural aggregations for which no precise
terms have hitherto been coined. India is the population-centre of the
brown world. More than 300,000,000 souls live within its
borders - two-thirds of all the brown men on earth. India has not, however,
been the brown world's spiritual or cultural dynamic, those forces coming
chiefly from the brown lands to the westward. Irán (the Persian plateau)
is comparatively small in area and has less than 15,000,000 inhabitants,
but its influence upon the brown world has been out of all proportion to
its size and population. "Arabistán" denotes the group of peoples, Arab in
blood or Arabized in language and culture, who inhabit the Arabian
peninsula and its adjacent annexes, Syria and Mesopotamia, together with
the vast band of North Africa lying between the Mediterranean and the
Sahara Desert. The total number of these Arabic peoples is 40,000,000,
three-fourths of them living in North Africa. The term "Turkestán" covers
the group of kindred peoples, often called "Turanians," who stretch from
Constantinople to Central Asia, including the Ottoman Turks of Asia Minor,
the Tartars of South Russia and Transcaucasia, and the Central Asian
Turkomans. They number in all about 25,000,000. Such are the four
outstanding race-factors in the brown world. Let us now examine that
spiritual factor, Islam, from which the brown renaissance originally
proceeded, and on which most of its present manifestations are based.

Islam's warlike vigor has impressed men's minds ever since the far-off
days when its pristine fervor bore the Fiery Crescent from France to
China. But with the passing cycles this fervor waned, and a century ago
Islam seemed plunged in the stupor of senile decay. The life appeared to
have gone out of it, leaving naught but the dry husks of empty formalism
and soulless ritual. Yet at this darkest hour a voice came crying from out
the vast Arabian desert, the cradle of Islam, calling the Faithful to
better things. This puritan reformer was the famous Abd-el-Wahab, and his
followers, known as Wahabees, soon spread over the length and breadth of
the Mohammedan world, purging Islam of its sloth and rekindling the fervor
of olden days. Thus began the great Mohammedan Revival.

That revival, like all truly regenerative movements, had its political as
well as its spiritual side. One of the first things which struck the
reformers was the political weakness of the Moslem world and its
increasing subjection to the Christian West. It was during the early
decades of the nineteenth century that the revival spread through Islam.
But this was the very time when Europe, recovering from the losses of the
Napoleonic Wars, began its unparalleled aggressions upon the Moslem East.
The result in Islam was a fusing of religion and patriotism into a "sacred
union" for the combined spiritual regeneration and political emancipation
of the Moslem world.

Of course Europe's material and military superiority were then so great
that speedy success was recognized to be a vain hope. Nevertheless, with
true Oriental patience, the reformers were content to work for distant
goals, and the results of their labors, though hidden from most Europeans,
was soon discernible to a few keen-sighted white observers. Half a century
ago the learned Orientalist Palgrave wrote these prophetic lines: "Islam
is even now an enormous power, full of self-sustaining vitality, with a
surplus for aggression; and a struggle with its combined energies would be
deadly indeed.... The Mohammedan peoples of the East have awakened to the
manifold strength and skill of their Western Christian rivals; and this
awakening, at first productive of respect and fear, not unmixed with
admiration, now wears the type of antagonistic dislike, and even of
intelligent hate. No more zealous Moslems are to be found in all the ranks
of Islam than they who have sojourned longest in Europe and acquired the
most intimate knowledge of its sciences and ways.... Mohammedans are
keenly alive to the ever-shifting uncertainties and divisions that
distract the Christianity of to-day, and to the woful instability of
modern European institutions. From their own point of view, Moslems are as
men standing on a secure rock, and they contrast the quiet fixity of their
own position with the unsettled and insecure restlessness of all
else."[34]

This stability to which Palgrave alludes must not be confused with dead
rigidity. Too many of us still think of the Moslem East as hopelessly
petrified. But those Westerners best acquainted with the Islamic world
assert that nothing could be farther from the truth; emphasizing, on the
contrary, Islam's present plasticity and rapid assimilation of Western
ideas and methods. "The alleged rigidity of Islam is a European myth,"[35]
says Theodore Morison, late principal of the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental
College at Aligarh, India; and another Orientalist, Marmaduke Pickthall,
writes: "There is nothing in Islam, any more than in Christianity, which
should halt progress. The fact is that Christianity found, some time ago,
a _modus vivendi_ with modern life, while Islam has not yet arrived
thither. But this process is even now being worked out."[36]

The way in which the Mohammedan world has availed itself of white
institutions such as the newspaper in forging its new solidarity is well
portrayed by Bernard Temple. "It all comes to this, then," he writes.
"World-politics, as viewed by Mohammedanism's political leaders, resolve
themselves into a struggle - not necessarily a bloody struggle, but still
an intense and vital struggle - for place and power between the three great
divisions of mankind. The Moslem mind is deeply stirred by the prospect.
Every Moslem country is in communication with every other Moslem country:
directly, by means of special emissaries, pilgrims, travellers, traders,
and postal exchanges; indirectly, by means of Mohammedan newspapers,
books, pamphlets, leaflets, and periodicals. I have met with Cairo
newspapers in Bagdad, Teheran, and Peshawar; Constantinople newspapers in
Basra and Bombay; Calcutta newspapers in Mohammerah, Kerbela, and Port
Said."[37]

These European judgments are confirmed by what Asiatics say themselves.
For example, a Syrian Christian, Ameen Rihani, thus characterizes the
present strength and vitality of the Moslem world: "A nation of
250,000,000 souls, more than one-half under Christian rule, struggling to
shake off its fetters; to consolidate its opposing forces; replenishing
itself in the south and in the east from the inexhaustible sources of the
life primitive; assimilating in the north, but not without discrimination,


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