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the civilization of Europe; a nation with a glorious past, a living faith
and language, an inspired Book, an undying hope, might be divided against
itself by European diplomacy but can never be subjugated by European
arms.... What Islam is losing on the borders of Europe it is gaining in
Africa and Central Asia through its modern propaganda, which is conducted
according to Christian methods. And this is one of the grand results of
'civilization by benevolent assimilation.' Europe drills the Moslem to be
a soldier who will ultimately turn his weapons against her; and she sends
her missionaries to awaken in the ulema the proselytizing evil."[38]

Typical of Mohammedan literature on this subject are the following
excerpts from a book published at Cairo in 1907 by an Egyptian, Yahya
Siddyk, significantly entitled "The Awakening of the Islamic Peoples in
the Fourteenth Century of the Hegira."[39] The book is doubly interesting
because the author has a thorough Western education, holding a law degree
from the French university of Toulouse, and is a judge on the Egyptian
bench. Although writing as far back as 1907, Yahya Siddyk clearly foresaw
the imminence of the European War. "Behold," he writes, "these Great
Powers ruining themselves in terrifying armaments; measuring each other's
strength with defiant glances; menacing each other; contracting alliances
which continually break and which presage those terrible shocks which
overturn the world and cover it with ruins, fire, and blood! The future is
God's, and nothing is lasting save His Will!"

He considers the white world degenerate. "Does this mean," he asks, "that
Europe, our 'enlightened guide,' has already reached the summit of its
evolution? Has it already exhausted its vital force by two or three
centuries of hyper-exertion? In other words: is it already stricken with
senility, and will it see itself soon obliged to yield its civilizing rôle
to other peoples less degenerate, less neurasthenic; that is to say,
younger, more robust, more healthy, than itself? In my opinion, the
present marks Europe's apogee, and its immoderate colonial expansion
means, not strength, but weakness. Despite the aureole of so much
grandeur, power, and glory, Europe is to-day more divided and more fragile
than ever, and ill conceals its malaise, its sufferings, and its anguish.
Its destiny is inexorably working out!...

"The contact of Europe on the East has caused us both much good and much
evil: good, in the material and intellectual sense; evil, from the moral
and political point of view. Exhausted by long struggles, enervated by a
brilliant civilization, the Moslem peoples inevitably fell into a malaise,
but they are not stricken, they are not dead! These peoples, conquered by
the force of cannon, have not in the least lost their unity, even under
the oppressive régimes to which the Europeans have long subjected them....
I have said that the European contact has been salutary to us from both
the material and the intellectual point of view. What reforming Moslem
Princes wished to impose by force on their Moslem subjects is to-day
realized a hundredfold. So great has been our progress in the last
twenty-five years in science, letters, and art that we may well hope to be
in all these things the equals of Europeans in less than half a

"A new era opens for us with the fourteenth century of the Hegira, and
this happy century will mark our renaissance and our great future! A new
breath animates the Mohammedan peoples of all races; all Moslems are
penetrated with the necessity of work and instruction! We all wish to
travel, do business, tempt fortune, brave dangers. There is in the East,
among the Mohammedans, a surprising activity, an animation, unknown
twenty-five years ago.... There is to-day a real public opinion throughout
the East."

The author concludes: "Let us hold firm, each for all, and let us hope,
hope, hope! We are fairly launched on the path of progress: let us profit
by it! It is Europe's very tyranny which has wrought our transformation!
It is our continued contact with Europe which favors our evolution and
inevitably hastens our revival! It is simply History repeating itself; the
Will of God fulfilling itself despite all opposition and all
resistance.... Europe's tutelage over Asiatics is becoming more and more
nominal - the gates of Asia are closing against the European! Surely we
glimpse before us a revolution without parallel in the world's annals. A
new age is at hand!"[40]

If this be indeed the present spirit of Islam it is a portentous fact, for
its numerical strength is very great. The total number of Mohammedans is
estimated at from 200,000,000 to 250,000,000, and they not only
predominate throughout the brown world with the exception of India, but
they also count 10,000,000 adherents in China and are gaining prodigiously
among the blacks of Africa.

The proselyting power of Islam is extraordinary, and its hold upon its
votaries is even more remarkable. Throughout history there has been no
single instance where a people, once become Moslem, has ever abandoned the
faith. Extirpated they may have been, like the Moors of Spain, but
extirpation is not apostasy. This extreme tenacity of Islam, this ability
to keep its hold, once it has got a footing, under all circumstances short
of downright extirpation, must be borne in mind when considering the
future of regions where Islam is to-day advancing.

And, save in eastern Europe, it is to-day advancing along all its
far-flung frontiers. Its most signal victories are being won among the
negro races of central Africa, and this phase will be discussed in the
next chapter, but elsewhere the same conditions, in lesser degree,
prevail. Every Moslem is a born missionary and instinctively propagates
his faith among his non-Moslem neighbors. The quality of this missionary
temper has been well analyzed by Meredith Townsend. "All the emotions
which impel a Christian to proselytize," he writes, "are in a Mussulman
strengthened by all the motives which impel a political leader and all the
motives which sway a recruiting sergeant, until proselytism has become a
passion, which, whenever success seems practicable, and especially success
on a large scale, develops in the quietest Mussulman a fury of ardor which
induces him to break down every obstacle, his own strongest prejudices
included, rather than stand for an instant in the neophyte's way. He
welcomes him as a son, and whatever his own lineage, and whether the
convert be negro, or Chinaman, or Indian, or even European, he will
without hesitation or scruple give him his own child in marriage, and
admit him fully, frankly, and finally into the most exclusive circle in
the world."[41]

Such is the vast and growing body of Islam, to-day seeking to weld its
forces into a higher unity for the combined objectives of spiritual
revival and political emancipation. This unitary movement is known as
"Pan-Islamism." Most Western observers seem to think that Pan-Islamism
centres in the "Caliphate," and European writers to-day hopefully discuss
whether the Caliphate's retention by the discredited Turkish Sultans, its
transferrence to the rulers of the new Arab Hedjaz Kingdom, or its total
suppression, will best clip Islam's wings.

This, however, is a very short-sighted and partial view. The Khalifa or
"Caliph" (to use the Europeanized form), the Prophet's representative on
earth, has played an important historic rôle, and the institution is still
venerated in Islam. But the Pan-Islamic leaders have long been working on
a much broader basis. Pan-Islamism's real driving power lies, not in the
Caliphate, but in institutions like the "Hajj" or pilgrimage to Mecca, the
propaganda of the "Habl-ul-Matin" or "Tie of True Believers," and the
great religious fraternities. The Meccan Hajj, where tens of thousands of
picked zealots gather every year from every quarter of the Moslem world,
is really an annual Pan-Islamic congress, where all the interests of the
faith are discussed at length, and where plans are elaborated for its
defense and propagation. Similarly ubiquitous is the Pan-Islamic
propaganda of the Habl-ul-Matin, which works tirelessly to compose
sectarian differences and traditional feuds. Lastly, the religious
brotherhoods cover the Islamic world with a network of far-flung
associations, quickening the zeal of their myriad members and
co-ordinating their energies for potential action.

The greatest of these brotherhoods (though there are others of importance)
is the famous Senussiyah, and its history well illustrates Islam's
evolution during the past hundred years. Its founder, Seyyid Mahommed ben
Senussi, was born in Algeria about the beginning of the nineteenth
century. He was of high Arab lineage, tracing his descent from Fatima, the
daughter of the Prophet. In early youth he went to Arabia and there came
under the influence of the Wahabee movement. In middle life he returned to
Africa, settling in the Sahara Desert, and there built up the fraternity
which bears his name. Before his death the order had spread to all parts
of the Mohammedan world, but it is in northern Africa that it has attained
its peculiar pre-eminence. The Senussi Order is divided into local
"Zawias" or lodges, all absolutely dependent upon the Grand Lodge, headed
by The Master, El Senussi. The Grand Mastership still remains in the
family, a grandson of the founder being the order's present head. The
Senussi stronghold is an oasis in the very heart of the Sahara. Only one
European eye has ever seen this mysterious spot. Surrounded by absolute
desert, with wells many leagues apart and the routes of approach known
only to experienced Senussi guides, every one of whom would suffer a
thousand deaths rather than betray him, El Senussi, The Master, sits
serenely apart, sending his orders throughout North Africa.

The Sahara itself is absolutely under Senussi control, while "Zawias"
abound in distant regions like Morocco, Lake Chad, and Somaliland. These
local Zawias are more than mere "lodges." Their spiritual and secular
heads, the "Mokaddem" or priest and the "Wekil" or civil governor, have
discretionary authority not merely over the Zawia members, but also over
the community at large - at least, so great is the awe inspired by the
Senussi throughout North Africa that a word from Wekil or Mokaddem is
always listened to and obeyed. Thus, beside the various European
authorities, British, French, or Italian as the case may be, there exists
an occult government with which the colonial authorities are careful not
to come into conflict.

On their part, the Senussi are equally careful to avoid a downright breach
with the European Powers. Their long-headed, cautious policy is truly
astonishing. For more than half a century the order has been a great
force, yet it has never risked the supreme adventure. In all the numerous
fanatic risings against Europeans which have occurred in various parts of
Africa, local Senussi have undoubtedly taken part, but the order has never
officially entered the lists.

These Fabian tactics as regards open warfare do not mean that the Senussi
are idle. Far from it. On the contrary, they are ceaselessly at work with
the spiritual arms of teaching, discipline, and conversion. The Senussi
programme is the welding, first of Moslem Africa, and later of the whole
Moslem world, into the revived "Imamat" of Islam's early days; into a
great theocracy, embracing all true believers - in other words,
Pan-Islamism. But they believe that the political liberation of Islam from
Christian domination must be preceded by a profound spiritual
regeneration, thereby engendering the moral forces necessary both for the
war of liberation and for the fruitful reconstruction which should follow
thereafter. This is the secret of the order's extraordinary
self-restraint. This is the reason why, year after year, and decade after
decade, the Senussi advance slowly, calmly, coldly, gathering great latent
power but avoiding the temptation to expend it one instant before the
proper time. Meanwhile they are covering Africa with their lodges and
schools, disciplining the people to the voice of their Mokaddems and
Wekils - and converting millions of pagan negroes to the faith of Islam.

And what is true of the Senussi holds equally for the other wise leaders
who guide the Pan-Islamic movement. They know both Europe's strength and
their own weakness. They know the peril of premature action. Feeling that
time is on their side, they are content to await the hour when internal
regeneration and external pressure shall have filled to overflowing the
cup of wrath. This is why Islam has offered only local resistance to the
unparalleled white aggressions of the last twenty years. This is the main
reason why there was no real "Holy War" in 1914. But the materials for a
Holy War have long been piling high, as a retrospective glance will show.

Europe's conquests of Africa and Central Asia toward the close of the last
century, and the subsequent Anglo-French agreement mutually appropriating
Egypt and Morocco, evoked murmurs of impotent fury from the Moslem world.
Under such circumstances the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 sent a feverish
tremor throughout Islam. The Japanese might be idolaters, but the
traditional Moslem loathing of idolaters as beings much lower than
Christians and Jews (recognized by Mohammed as "Peoples of The Book") was
quite effaced by the burning sense of subjugation to the Christian yoke.
Accordingly, the Japanese were hailed as heroes throughout Islam. Here we
see again that tendency toward an understanding between Asiatic and
African races and creeds (in other words, a "Pan-Colored" alliance against
white domination) which has been so patent in recent years. The way in
which Islamic peoples began looking to Japan is revealed by this editorial
in a Persian newspaper, written in the year 1906: "Desirous of becoming as
powerful as Japan and of safeguarding its national independence, Persia
should make common cause with it. An alliance becomes necessary. There
should be a Japanese ambassador at Teheran. Japanese instructors should be
chosen to reorganize the army. Commercial relations should also be
developed."[42] Indeed, some pious Moslems hoped to bring this heroic
people within the Islamic fold. Shortly after the Russo-Japanese War a
Chinese Mohammedan sheikh wrote: "If Japan thinks of becoming some day a
very great power and making Asia the dominator of the other continents, it
will be only by adopting the blessed religion of Islam."[43] And _Al
Mowwayad_, an Egyptian Nationalist journal, remarked: "England, with her
60,000,000 Indian Moslems, dreads this conversion. With a Mohammedan
Japan, Mussulman policy would change entirely."[44] As a matter of fact,
Mohammedan missionaries actually went to Japan, where they were smilingly
received. Of course the Japanese had not the faintest intention of turning
Moslems, but these spontaneous approaches from the brown world were quite
in line with their ambitious plans, which, as the reader will remember,
were just then taking concrete shape.

However, it soon became plain that Japan had no present intention of going
so far afield as Western Asia, and Islam presently had to mourn fresh
losses at Christian hands. In 1911 came Italy's barefaced raid on Turkey's
African dependency of Tripoli. So bitter was the anger in all Mohammedan
lands at this unprovoked aggression that many European observers became
seriously alarmed. "Why has Italy found 'defenseless' Tripoli such a
hornet's nest?" queried Gabriel Hanotaux, a former French minister of
foreign affairs. "It is because she has to do, not merely with Turkey, but
with Islam as well. Italy has set the ball rolling - so much the worse for
her - and for us all."[45] But the Tripoli expedition was only the
beginning of the Christian assault, for next year came the Balkan War,
which sheared away Turkey's European holdings to the walls of
Constantinople and left her crippled and discredited. At these disasters a
cry of wrathful anguish swept the world of Islam from end to end. Here is
how a leading Indian Moslem interpreted the Balkan conflict:

"The King of Greece orders a new crusade. From the London Chancelleries
rise calls to Christian fanaticism, and Saint Petersburg already speaks of
the planting of the cross on the dome of Sant' Sophia. To-day they speak
thus; to-morrow they will thus speak of Jerusalem and the Mosque of Omar.
Brothers! Be ye of one mind, that it is the duty of every true believer to
hasten beneath the Khalifa's banner and to sacrifice his life for the
safety of the faith."[46] And another Indian Moslem leader thus adjured
the British authorities: "I appeal to the present government to change its
anti-Turkish attitude before the fury of millions of Moslem fellow
subjects is kindled to a blaze and brings disaster."[47]

Still more significant were the appeals made by the Indian Moslems to
their Brahman fellow countrymen, the traditionally despised "Idolaters."
These appeals betokened a veritable revolution in outlook, as can be
gauged from the text of one of them, significantly entitled "The Message
of the East." "Spirit of the East," reads this noteworthy document, "arise
and repel the swelling flood of Western aggression! Children of Hindustan,
aid us with your wisdom, culture, and wealth; lend us your power, the
birthright and heritage of the Hindu! Let the Spirit Powers hidden in the
Himalayan mountain-peaks arise. Let prayers to the god of battles float
upward; prayers that right may triumph over might; and call to your myriad
gods to annihilate the armies of the foe!"[48] In China also the same
fraternizing spirit was visible. During the Republican Revolution the
Chinese Mohammedans, instead of holding jealously aloof, co-operated
whole-heartedly with their Buddhist and Confucian fellow citizens, and
Doctor Sun-Yat-Sen, the Republican leader, announced gratefully: "The
Chinese will never forget the assistance which their Moslem compatriots
have rendered in the interest of order and liberty."[49] The Great War
thus found Islam deeply stirred against European aggression, keenly
conscious of its own solidarity, and frankly reaching out for colored
allies in the projected struggle against white domination.

Under these circumstances it may at first sight appear strange that no
general Islamic explosion occurred when Turkey entered the lists at the
close of 1914 and the Sultan-Khalifa issued a formal summons to the Holy
War. Of course this summons was not the flat failure which Allied reports
led the West to believe at the time. As a matter of fact there was trouble
in practically every Mohammedan land under Allied control. To name only a
few of many instances: Egypt broke into a tumult smothered only by
overwhelming British reinforcements, Tripoli burst into a flame of
insurrection that drove the Italians headlong to the coast, Persia was
prevented from joining Turkey only by prompt Russian intervention, and the
Indian Northwest Frontier was the scene of fighting that required the
presence of a quarter of a million Anglo-Indian troops. The British
Government has officially admitted that during 1915 the Allies' Asiatic
and African possessions stood within a hand's breadth of a cataclysmic

That insurrection would certainly have taken place if Islam's leaders had
everywhere spoken the fateful word. But the word was not spoken. Instead,
influential Moslems outside of Turkey generally condemned the latter's
action and did all in their power to calm the passions of the fanatic
multitude. The attitude of these leaders does credit to their
discernment. They recognized that this was neither the time nor the
occasion for a decisive struggle with the West. They were not yet
materially prepared, and they had not perfected their understandings
either among themselves or with their prospective non-Moslem allies. Above
all, the moral urge was lacking. They knew that athwart the Khalifa's writ
was stencilled "Made in Germany." They knew that the "Young Turk" clique
which had engineered the coup was made up of Europeanized renegades, many
of them not even nominal Moslems, but atheistic Jews. Far-sighted Moslems
had no intention of pulling Germany's chestnuts out of the fire, nor did
they wish to further Prussian schemes of world-dominion which for
themselves would have meant a mere change of masters. Far better to let
the white world fight out its desperate feud, weaken itself, and reveal
fully its future intentions. Meanwhile Islam could bide its time, grow in
strength, and await the morrow.

The Versailles Peace Conference was just such a revelation of European
intentions as the Pan-Islamic leaders had been awaiting in order to
perfect their programmes and enlist the moral solidarity of their peoples.
At Versailles the European Powers showed unequivocally that they had no
intention of relaxing their hold upon the Near and Middle East. By a
number of secret treaties negotiated during the war the Ottoman Empire had
been virtually partitioned between the victorious Allies, and these secret
treaties formed the basis of the Versailles settlement. Furthermore,
Egypt had been declared a British protectorate at the very beginning of
the European struggle, while the Versailles Conference had scarcely
adjourned before England announced an "agreement" with Persia which made
that country another British protectorate, in fact, if not in name. The
upshot was, as already stated, that the Near and Middle East were
subjected to European political domination as never before.

But there was another side to the shield. During the war years the Allied
statesmen had officially proclaimed times without number that the war was
being fought to establish a new world-order based on such principles as
the rights of small nations and the liberty of all peoples. These
pronouncements had been treasured and memorized throughout the East. When,
therefore, the East saw a peace settlement based, not upon these high
professions, but upon the imperialistic secret treaties, it was fired with
a moral indignation and sense of outraged justice never known before. A
tide of impassioned determination began rising which has already set the
entire East in tumultuous ferment, and which seems merely the premonitory
ground-swell of a greater storm. Many European students of Eastern affairs
are gravely alarmed at the prospect. Here, for example, is the judgment of
Leone Caetani, Duke of Sermoneta, an Italian authority on Oriental and
Mohammedan questions. Speaking in the spring of 1919 on the war's effect
on the East, he said: "The convulsion has shaken Islamitic and Oriental
civilization to its foundations. The entire Oriental world, from China to
the Mediterranean, is in ferment. Everywhere the hidden fire of
anti-European hatred is burning. Riots in Morocco, risings in Algiers,
discontent in Tripoli, so-called Nationalist attempts in Egypt, Arabia,
and Lybia, are all different manifestations of the same deep sentiment,
and have as their object the rebellion of the Oriental world against
European civilization."[50]

The state of affairs in Egypt is a typical illustration of what has been
going on in the East ever since the close of the late war. Egypt was
occupied by England in 1882, and British rule has conferred immense
material benefits, raising the country from anarchic bankruptcy to ordered
prosperity. Yet British rule was never really popular, and as the years
passed a "Nationalist" movement steadily grew in strength, having for its
slogan the phrase "Egypt for the Egyptians," and demanding Britain's
complete evacuation of the country. This demand Great Britain refused even
to consider. Practically all Englishmen are agreed that Egypt with the
Suez Canal is the vital link between the eastern and western halves of the
British Empire, and they therefore consider the permanent occupation of
Egypt an absolute necessity. There is thus a clear deadlock between
British imperial and Egyptian national convictions.

Some years before the war Egypt became so unruly that England was obliged
to abandon all thoughts of conciliation and initiated a régime of frank
repression enforced by Lord Kitchener's heavy hand. The European War and
Turkey's adhesion to the Teutonic Powers caused fresh outbreaks in Egypt,
but these were quickly repressed and England took advantage of Ottoman
belligerency to abolish the fiction of Turkish overlordship and declare
Egypt a protectorate of the British Empire.

During the war Egypt, flooded with British troops, remained quiet, but the

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