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the port of Valparaiso, he is "struck by signs of English influence. On
the commercial streets every third man suggests the Briton, while a large
proportion of the business people look as if they have their daily tub.
The cleanliness of the streets, the freshness of the parks and squares,
the dressing of the shop-windows, and the style of the mounted police
remind one of England."[60] As to the Nordic affinities of the upper
classes: "One sees it in stature, eye color, and ruddy complexion....
Among the pupils of Santiago College there are as many blonds as
brunets."[61] Even among the peon or "roto" class, despite considerable
Indian crossing, Professor Ross noted the strong Nordic strain, for he met
Chilean peasants "whose stature, broad shoulders, big faces, and tawny
mustaches proclaimed them as genuine Norsemen as the Icelanders in our
Red River Valley."[62]

Chile is thus the prime example of social stability and progress attained
through white oligarchic rule. Other, though less successful, instances
are to be noted in Peru, Colombia, and Costa Rica. Peru and Colombia,
though geographically within the tropics, have extensive temperate
plateaux. Here numerous whites settled during the colonial period, forming
an upper caste over a large Indian population. Unlike Chile, few Nordics
came to leaven society with those qualities of constructive genius and
racial self-respect which are the special birthright of Nordic man. Unlike
Chile again, not only were there dense Indian masses, but there was also
an appreciable negro element. Lastly, the number of mixed-bloods was very
large. It is thus not surprising that for both Peru and Colombia the
revolution ushered in a period of turmoil from which neither have even yet
emerged. The whites have consistently fought among themselves, invoking
the half-castes as auxiliaries and using Indians and negroes as their
pawns. The whites are still the dominant element, but only the first
families retain their pure blood, and miscegenation creeps upward with
every successive generation. As for Costa Rica, it is a tiny bit of cool
hill-country, settled by whites in colonial times, and to-day rises an
oasis of civilization, above the tropic jungle of degenerate, mongrel
Central America.

The second method of social stabilization in Latin America - Aryanization
through wholesale European immigration - is exemplified by Argentina and
Uruguay. Neither of these lands had very promising beginnings. Their
populations, at the revolution, contained strong Indian infusions and
traces of negro blood, while after the revolution both fell under the sway
of tyrannical dictators who persecuted the white aristocrats and favored
miscegenation. However, Argentina and Uruguay possessed two notable
advantages: they were climatically white man's country, and they at first
contained a very small population. Since they produced neither gold nor
tropical luxuries, Spain had neglected them, so that at the revolution
they consisted of little more than the port-towns of Buenos Aires and
Montevideo with a few dependent river-settlements. Their vast hinterlands
of fertile prairie then harbored only wandering tribes of nomad savages.

During the last half of the nineteenth century, however, the development
of ocean transport gave these antipodean prairies value as stock-raising
and grain-growing sources for congested Europe, and Europe promptly sent
immigrants to supply her needs. This immigrant stream gradually swelled to
a veritable deluge. The human tide was, on the whole, of sound stock,
mostly Spaniards and north Italians, with some Nordic elements from
northern Europe in the upper strata. Thus Europe locked antipodean America
securely to the white world. As for the colonial stock, it merged easily
into the newer, kindred flood. Here and there signs of former
miscegenation still show, the Argentino being sometimes, as Madison Grant
well puts it, "suspiciously swarthy."[63] Nevertheless, these are but
vestigial traces which the ceaseless European inflow will ultimately
eradicate. The large impending German immigration to Argentina and Uruguay
should bring valuable Nordic elements.

This same tide of European immigration has likewise pretty well Aryanized
the southern provinces of Brazil, adjacent to the Uruguayan border. Those
provinces were neglected by Portugal as Argentina and Uruguay were by
Spain, and half a century ago they had a very sparse population. To-day
they support millions of European immigrants, mostly Italians and European
Portuguese, but with the further addition of nearly half a million
Germans. Brazil is, in fact, evolving into two racially distinct
communities. The southern provinces are white man's country, with little
Indian or negro blood, and with a distinct "color line." The tropical
north is saturated with Indian and negro strains, and the whites are
rapidly disappearing in a universal mongrelization. Ultimately this must
produce momentous political consequences.

Bearing in mind the exceptions above noted, let us now observe the vast
tropical and semi-tropical bulk of Latin America. Here we find notable
changes since colonial days. White predominance is substantially a thing
of the past. Persons of unmixed Spanish or Portuguese descent are
relatively few, most of the so-called "whites" being really _near_-whites,
more or less deeply tinged with colored bloods. It is a striking token of
white race-prestige that these near-whites, despite their degeneracy and
inefficiency, are yet the dominant element; occupying, in fact, much the
same status as the aristocratic Creoles immediately after the War of
Independence. Nevertheless, the near-whites' supremacy is now threatened.
Every decade of chronic anarchy favors the darker half-breeds, while below
these, in turn, the Indian and negro full-bloods are beginning to stir, as
in Mexico to-day.

Most informed observers agree that the mixed-bloods of Latin America are
distinctly inferior to the whites. This applies to both mestizos and
mulattoes, albeit the mestizo (the cross between white and Indian) seems
less inferior than the mulatto - the cross between white and black. As for
the zambo, the Indian-negro cross, everybody is agreed that it is a very
bad one. Analyses of these hybrid stocks show remarkable similarities to
the mongrel chaos of the declining Roman Empire. Here is the judgment of
Garcia-Calderon, a Peruvian scholar and generally considered the most
authoritative writer on Latin America. "The racial question," he writes,
"is a very serious problem in American history. It explains the progress
of certain peoples and the decadence of others, and it is the key to the
incurable disorder which divides America. Upon it depend a great number
of secondary phenomena; the public wealth, the industrial system, the
stability of governments, the solidity of patriotism.... This complication
of castes, this admixture of diverse bloods, has created many problems.
For example, is the formation of a national consciousness possible with
such disparate elements? Would such heterogeneous democracies be able to
resist the invasion of superior races? Finally, is the South American
half-caste absolutely incapable of organization and culture?"[64] While
qualifying his answers to these queries, Garcia-Calderon yet deplores the
half-caste's "decadence."[65] "In the Iberian democracies," he says, "an
inferior Latinity, a Latinity of the decadence, prevails; verbal
abundance, inflated rhetoric, oratorical exaggeration, just as in Roman
Spain.... The half-caste loves grace, verbal elegance, quibbles even, and
artistic form; great passions and desires do not move him. In religion he
is sceptical, indifferent, and in politics he disputes in the Byzantine
manner. No one could discover in him a trace of his Spanish forefather,
stoical and adventurous."[66] Garcia-Calderon therefore concludes: "The
mixture of rival castes, Iberians, Indians, and negroes, has generally had
disastrous consequences.... None of the conditions established by the
French psychologists are realized by the Latin American democracies, and
their populations are therefore degenerate. The lower castes struggle
successfully against the traditional rules: the order which formerly
existed is followed by moral anarchy; solid conviction by a superficial
scepticism; and the Castilian tenacity by indecision. The black race is
doing its work, and the continent is returning to its primitive
barbarism."[67] This melancholy fate can, according to Garcia-Calderon, be
averted only by wholesale white immigration: "In South America
civilization is dependent upon the numerical predominance of the
victorious Spaniard, on the triumph of the white man over the mulatto, the
negro, and the Indian. Only a plentiful European immigration can
re-establish the shattered equilibrium of the American races."[68]

Garcia-Calderon's pronouncements are echoed by foreign observers. During
his South American travels Professor Ross noted the same melancholy
symptoms and pointed out the same unique remedy. Speaking of Ecuador, he
says: "I found no foreigners who have faith in the future of this people.
They point out that while this was a Spanish colony there was a continual
flow of immigrants from Spain, many of whom, no doubt, were men of force.
Political separation interrupted this current, and since then the country
has really gone back. Spain had provided a ruling, organizing element,
and, with the cessation of the flow of Spaniards, the mixed-bloods took
charge of things, for the pure-white element is so small as to be
negligible. No one suggests that the mestizos equal the white stock either
in intellect or in character.... Among the rougher foreigners and
Peruvians the pet name for these people is 'monkeys.' The thoughtful often
liken them to Eurasians, clever enough, but lacking in solidity of
character. Natives and foreigners alike declare that a large white
immigration is the only hope for Ecuador."[69]

Concerning Bolivia, Professor Ross writes: "The wisest sociologist in
Bolivia told me that the zambo, resulting from the union of Indian with
negro, is inferior to both the parent races, and that likewise the mestizo
is inferior to both white and Indian in physical strength, resistance to
disease, longevity, and brains. The failure of the South American
republics has been due, he declares, to mestizo domination. Through the
colonial period there was a flow of Spaniards to the colonies, and all the
offices down to _corregidor_ and _cura_ were filled by white men. With
independence, the whites ceased coming, and the lower offices of state and
church were filled with mestizos. Then, too, the first crossing of white
with Indian gave a better result than the union between mestizos, so that
the stock has undergone progressive degeneration. The only thing, then,
that can make these countries progress is a large white immigration,
something much talked about by statesmen in all these countries, but which
has never materialized."[70]

These judgments refer particularly to Spanish America. Regarding
Portuguese Brazil, however, the verdict seems to be the same. Many years
ago Professor Agassiz wrote: "Let any one who doubts the evil of this
mixture of races, and is inclined from mistaken philanthropy to break down
all barriers between them, come to Brazil. He cannot deny the
deterioration consequent upon the amalgamation of races, more wide-spread
here than in any country in the world, and which is rapidly effacing the
best qualities of the white man, the negro, and the Indian, leaving a
mongrel, nondescript type, deficient in physical and mental energy."[71]

The mongrel's political ascendancy produces precisely the results which
might have been expected. These unhappy beings, every cell of whose bodies
is a battle-ground of jarring heredities, express their souls in acts of
hectic violence and aimless instability. The normal state of tropical
America is anarchy, restrained only by domestic tyrants or foreign
masters. Garcia-Calderon exactly describes its psychology when he writes:
"Precocious, sensual, impressionable, the Americans of these vast
territories devote their energies to local politics. Industry, commerce,
and agriculture are in a state of decay, and the unruly imagination of the
Creole expends itself in constitutions, programmes, and lyrical
discourses; in these regions anarchy is sovereign mistress."[72] The
tropical republics display, indeed, a tendency toward "atomic
disintegration.... Given to dreaming, they are led by presidents suffering
from neurosis."[73]

The stock feature of the mongrel tropics is, of course, the "revolution."
These senseless and perennial outbursts are often ridiculed in the United
States as comic opera, but the grim truth of the matter is that few Latin
American revolutions are laughing matters. The numbers of men engaged may
not be very large according to our standards, but measured by the scanty
populations of the countries concerned, they lay a heavy blood-tax on the
suffering peoples. The tatterdemalion "armies" may excite our mirth, but
the battles are real enough, often fought out to the death with
razor-edged machetes and rusty bayonets, and there is no more ghastly
sight than a Latin American battle-field. The commandeerings, burnings,
rapings, and assassinations inflicted upon the hapless civilian population
cry to heaven. There is always wholesale destruction of property,
frequently appalling loss of life, and a general paralysis of economic and
social activity. These wretched lands have now been scourged by the
revolutionary plague for a hundred years, and W. B. Hale does not
overstate the consequences when he says: "Most of the countries clustering
about the Caribbean have sunk into deeper and deeper mires of misrule,
unmatched for profligacy and violence anywhere on earth. Revolution
follows revolution; one band of brigands succeeds another; atrocities
revenge atrocities; the plundered people grow more and more abject in
poverty and slavishness; vast natural resources lie neglected, while
populations decrease, civilization recedes, and the jungle advances."[74]
Of course, under these frightful circumstances, the national character,
weak enough at best, degenerates at an ever-quickening pace. Peaceful
effort of any sort appears vain and ridiculous, and men are taught that
wealth is procurable only by violence and extortion.

Another important point should be noted. I have said that Latin American
anarchy was restrained by dictatorship. But the reader must not infer that
dictatorships are halcyon times - for the dictated. On the contrary, they
are usually only a trifle less wretched and demoralizing than times of
revolution. The "caudillos" are nearly always very sinister figures. Often
they are ignorant brutes; oftener they are blood-thirsty, lecherous
monsters; oftenest they are human spiders who suck the land dry of all
fluid wealth, banking it abroad against the day when they shall fly before
the revolutionary blast to the safe haven of Paris and the congenial
debaucheries of Montmartre. The millions amassed by tyrants like Castro of
Venezuela and Zelaya of Nicaragua are almost beyond belief, considering
the backward, bankrupt lands they have "administered."

Yet how can it be otherwise? Consider Critchfield's incisive account of a
caudillo's accession to power: "When an ignorant and brutal man, whose
entire knowledge of the world is confined to a few Indian villages, and
whose total experience has been gained in the raising of cattle, doffs his
_alpagartes_, and, machete in hand, cuts his way to power in a few weeks,
with a savage horde at his back who know nothing of the amenities of
civilization and care less than they know - when such a man comes to
power, evil and evil only can result. Even if the new dictator were
well-intentioned, his entire ignorance of law and constitutional forms, of
commercial processes and manufacturing arts, and of the fundamental and
necessary principles underlying all stable and free governments, would
render a successful administration by him extremely difficult, if not
impossible. But he is surrounded by all the elements of vice and flattery,
and he is imbued with that vain and absurd egotism which makes men of
small caliber imagine themselves to be Napoleons or Cæsars. Thus do petty
despotisms, unrestrained by constitutional provisions or by anything like
a virile public opinion, lead from absurdity to outrage and crime."[75]

Such is the situation in mongrel-ruled America: revolution breeding
revolution, tyranny breeding tyranny, and the twain combining to ruin
their victims and force them ever deeper into the slough of degenerate
barbarism. The whites have lost their grip and are rapidly disappearing.
The mixed-breeds have had their chance and have grotesquely failed. The
oft-quoted panacea - white immigration - is under present conditions a vain
dream, for white immigrants will not expose themselves (and still less
their women) to the horrors of mongrel rule. So far, their, as internal
factors are concerned, anarchy seems destined to continue unchecked.

In fact, new conflicts loom on the horizon. The Indian masses, so docile
to the genuine white man, begin to stir. The aureole of white prestige has
been besmirched by the near-whites and half-castes who have traded so
recklessly upon its sanctions. Strong in the poise of normal heredity, the
Indian full-blood commences to despise these chaotic masters who turn his
homelands into bear-gardens and witches' sabbaths. An "Indianista"
movement is to-day on foot throughout mongrel-ruled America. It is most
pronounced in Mexico, whose interminable agony becomes more and more a war
of Indian resurgence, but it is also starting along the west coast of
South America. Long ago, wise old Professor Pearson saw how the wind was
blowing. Noting how whites and near-whites were "everywhere fighting and
intriguing for the spoils of office," he also noted that the Indian
masses, though relatively passive and "seemingly unobservant," were yet
"conquering a place for themselves in other ways than by increasing and
multiplying," and he concluded: "the general level of the autochthonous
race is being raised; it is acquiring riches and self-respect, and must
sooner or later get the country back into its hands."[76] Recent visitors
to the South American west coast note the signs of Indian unrest. Some
years ago Lord Bryce remarked of Bolivia: "There have been Indian risings,
and firearms are more largely in their hands than formerly. They so
preponderate in numbers that any movement which united them against the
upper class might, could they find a leader, have serious
consequences."[77] Still more recently Professor Ross wrote concerning
Peru: "In Cuzco I met a gentleman of education and travel who is said to
be the only living lineal descendant of the Incas. He has great influence
with the native element and voices their bitterness and their aspirations.
He declares that the politics of Peru is a struggle between the Spanish
mestizos of Lima and the coast and the natives of Cuzco and the interior,
and predicts an uprising unless Cuzco is made the capital of the nation.
He even dreams of a Kechua republic, with Cuzco as its capital and the
United States its guarantor, as she is guarantor of the Cuban
republic."[78] And of Bolivia, Professor Ross writes: "Lately there has
been a general movement of the Bolivian Indians for the recovery of the
lands of which they have been robbed piecemeal. Conflicts have broken out
and, although the government has punished the ringleaders, there is a
feeling that, so long as the exploiting of the Indian goes on, Bolivians
are living 'in the crater of a slumbering volcano.'"[79]

Since the white man has gone and the Indian is preparing to wrest the
sceptre of authority from the mongrel's worthless hands, let us examine
this Indian race, to see what potentiality it possesses of restoring order
and initiating progress.

To begin with, there can be no doubt that the Indian is superior to the
negro. The negro, even when quickened by foreign influences, never built
up anything approaching a real civilization; whereas the Indian, though
entirely sundered from the rest of mankind, evolved genuine polities and
cultures like the Aztec of Mexico, the Inca of Peru, and the Maya of
Yucatan. The Indian thus possesses creative capacity to an appreciable
degree. However, that degree seems strictly limited. The researches of
archæologists have sadly discounted the glowing tales of the
Conquistadores, and the "Empires" of Mexico and Peru, though far from
contemptible, certainly rank well below the achievements of European and
Asiatic races in mediæval and even in classic times.

The Indian possesses notable stability and poise, but the very intensity
of these qualities fetters his progress and renders questionable his
ability to rise to the modern plane. His conservatism is immense. With
incredible tenacity he clings to his ancestral ways and exhibits a dull
indifference to alien innovation. Of course the Indian sub-races differ
considerably among themselves, but the same fundamental tendencies are
visible in all of them. Says Professor Ellsworth Huntington: "The Indians
are very backward. They are dull of mind and slow to adopt new ideas.
Perhaps in the future they will change, but the fact that they have been
influenced so little by four hundred years of contact with the white man
does not afford much ground for hope. Judging from the past, there is no
reason to think that their character is likely to change for many
generations.... Those who dwell permanently in the white man's cities are
influenced somewhat, but here as in other cases the general tendency seems
to be to revert to the original condition as soon as the special impetus
of immediate contact with the white man is removed."[80] And Lord Bryce
writes in similar vein: "With plenty of stability, they lack initiative.
They make steady soldiers, and fight well under white or mestizo leaders,
but one seldom hears of a pure Indian accomplishing anything or rising
either through war or politics, or in any profession, above the level of
his class...."[81]

The truth about the Indian seems to be substantially this: Left alone, he
would probably have continued to progress, albeit much more slowly than
either white or Asiatic peoples. But the Indian was not left alone. On the
contrary, he was suddenly felled by brutal and fanatical conquerors, who
uprooted his native culture and plunged him into abject servitude. The
Indian's spiritual past was shorn away and his evolution was perverted.
Prevented from developing along his own lines, and constitutionally
incapable of adapting himself to the ways of his Spanish conquerors, the
Indian vegetated, learning nothing and forgetting much that he knew. This
has continued for four hundred years. Is it not likely that his ancestral
aptitudes have atrophied or decayed? Slavery and mental sloth have indeed
scarred him with their fell stigmata. Says Garcia-Calderon: "Without
sufficient food, without hygiene, a distracted and laborious beast, he
decays and perishes; to forget the misery of his daily lot he drinks,
becomes an alcoholic, and his numerous progeny present the characteristics
of degeneracy."[82]

Furthermore, the Indian degenerates from another cause - mongrelization.
Miscegenation is a dual process. It works upward and downward at one and
the same time. In Latin America hybridization has been prodigious, the
hybrids to-day numbering millions. In some regions, as in Venezuela and
parts of Central America, there are very few full-blooded Indians left,
hybrids forming practically the entire population. Now, on the whole, the
white or "mestizo" crossing seems hurtful to the Indian, for what he gains
in intelligence he more than loses in character. But the mestizo crossing
is not the worst. There is another, much graver, racial danger. The hot
coastlands swarm with negroes, and the zambo or negro-Indian is
universally adjudged the worst of matings. Thus, for the Indian, white
blood appears harmful, while black blood is absolutely fatal. Yet the
mongrelizing tide sweeps steadily on. The Indian draws no "color line,"
and continually impairs the purity of his blood and the poise of his
heredity.

Bearing all the above facts in mind, can we believe the Indian capable of
drawing mongrel-ruled America from its slough of despond? Can he set it on
the path of orderly progress? It does not seem possible. Assuming for the
sake of argument complete freedom from foreign intervention, the Indian


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