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evidences of conspicuous competency for executing his task
in a highly creditable way. Another fact deserves to be
chronicled. When the author had completed his work, but
before he issued it to the public, he submitted its successive
chapters to distinguished Italian specialists, and thus secured
their examination and criticism of it in advance. Accord-

1 Vide supra, pp. 169, 175, 182, etc. ^ qj^ pp, x-xi.

^ Cf. Rivista storico-critica delle scienze teologiche, vol. i, pp. 845 f. Rome,
1905. [Ceased publication in 1910.]

* Cf. the similar, but maturer, undertakings of Professor Geden {vide
supra, pp. 181 f.). Professor Menzies {vide supra, pp. 187 f.). Professor
Moore {vide supra, pp. 188 f.), etc. * Cf. p. xiv.


ingly, while shouldering all the burden himself and accepting
full responsibility for his conclusions, he has obtained for his
readers the full benefit of timely and candid suggestions. In
as far as he was able to do so, Don Turchi has made use of
all available original sources. He writes : ' Quest o io ho
cercato di fare con la maggiore oculatezza, attingendo
sempre alia letteratura migliore e rifacendomi tutte le volte
che ho potuto, nel testo o nelle versioni, alle f onti ; ' ^ and the
necessary references to the various treatises cited are added.
In particular, this Manual is greatly to be commended
because of its Bibliographies. These are given at the end
of every chapter ; and they embrace, not only the standard
authorities, but others which are much less widely known.
Their value is greatly increased by the editorial comments
which accompany them. The writer drops a revealing
remark when he says that the list makes no attempt to in-
clude every relevant work, but embraces only those publica-
tions which ' per mia esperienza personale ' ^ seemed worthy
of mention. He adds that he has selected and named only
those volumes which possess sterling worth, since younger
scholars ought not to be troubled by an introduction to too
many books, nor indeed to any authorities save the very

The promise made by Don Turchi that he will follow
up this Manual by publishing the result of other extended
inquiries of a kindred character ^ has awakened eager
expectation in the minds of numerous readers.

RELIGION. An Outline for Personal and Class
Use, by William Fairfield Warren, Professor of Religions
and Religion in Boston University. New York : Eaton
and Mains, 1911. Pp. xiv., 103. $1.00.

This admirable little handbook, while rightly included in
the present list of Manuals, stands entirely apart from all

* CJ. p. XV. ■ CJ. p. xvii.

WAEREN, World Religions and the World-Religion 201

those which have thus far been mentioned. As its sub-title
suggests, it is intended chiefly for employment in the Class-
room. It provides no actual exposition of any of the reli-
gions which it enumerates, but indicates rather the way
in which, and the order in which, such expositions may best
be attempted. It is made up of a series of outlines — ^it is
a mere framework or skeleton of the subject — which instruc-
tors (influenced by different ideals) will doubtless utilize in
different ways. Nevertheless, it has been prepared by
a teacher whose annual courses of lectures in this field date
from as early as 1873. This book is emphatically prac-
tical, alike in its aim and scope. At the back of it, one finds
a number of blanks, prepared for the use of students ; and
candidates are invited to find answers to the questions
which there confront them, and then to pass on their fiUed-
up blanks (say once a fortnight) to their tutor or professor.
At the same time, the book is rigidly scientific in its
method. Its general treatment of the whole subject will
reward examination and study.

It must be added that the design of the writer is governed
throughout by a consideration of capital importance. The
formal ' Dedication ' of the volume reveals the fact that
Professor Warren — quite after the manner of the late Pro-
fessor von Orelli ^ — keeps ever in view the efficient equipment
of Christian missionaries ; for he there recalls, in so many
words, ' my beloved former pupils, now labouring on every
continent to transfigure the Religions of the World into the
one perfected and all-regnant World-Eeligion '.2 Again:
' The standpoint of the present work is frankly that of Chris-
tian theism.' ^ In accordance with this aspect of the author's
conception of his task, — indicated with abundant clearness
in the main title of his volume — the book ought perhaps to
have been added to those which have been placed under the
heading ' Apologetic Treatises '.^

Following upon a General Introduction (in which the

^ Vide supra, p. 192. * Cf. p. v.

3 Cf. p. xii. * Vide infra, pp. 369 f.


subject-matter of the study of religion, its auxiliary sciences,
its attractiveness and perils, etc., are duly indicated), the
book is divided into three principal sections. Part I deals
with the religious phenomena of the world historically con-
sidered, i.e. the History of Religions. Part II deals with
the religious phenomena of the world systematically con-
sidered, i. e. Comparative Religion. Part III deals with the
religious phenomena of the world philosophically considered,
i. e. the Philosophy of Religion. It will be seen, therefore,
that the scope of the book far exceeds the limits of a mere
' avenue of approach ' to Comparative Religion ; it embraces
indeed that latter science itself, and (in addition) those philo-
sophical discussions and criticisms which are essential to the
ultimately completed structure of the Science of Religion.
The abounding measure of its contents, however, only makes
the book more valuable for the general purposes of this
survey. Within its covers, the whole field of inquiry is
carefully mapped out, its main and subordinate boundaries
being clearly delineated.

Returning to Part I,^ which alone deals specifically with
the History of Religions, the material accumulated — pre-
sented purposely in the form of a series of sketches — is
subdivided under three headings, viz. (1) The History of
Particular Religions, (2) The History of Developments
common to several Particular Religions, and (3) The History
of Developments common to all Religions.

Under the first of these subdivisions are grouped (a) the
religions known to the Ancient World (viz. those of the
ancient Babylonians and Assyrians, of the ancient Egyptians,
of the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Canaanites, and pre-
Islamic Arabians, of the ancient Persians and Medo-Persians,
of the Pelasgians and Greeks, of the Etruscans and Romans,
of Judaism and Christianity) ; (b) the principal religions
known to the Mediaeval World (viz. Zoroastrianism, the
religion of the Celtic Tribes, the religion of the Teutonic
Tribes, the religion of the Slavic Tribes, the religion of the

^ Cf. pp. 21-43.

WAEREN, World Religions and the World- Religion 203

West Mongolians, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) ;
and (c) the principal religions brought to light in Modern
Times (viz. those of the West-Central and South African
Tribes, of the American Indians, of the Pacific Islanders, of
the East India Aborigines and Hindus, of the aboriginal and
present populations of Farther India and of the islands of the
Indian Ocean, of China, Japan, and Korea, and of the North
and Central Asiatic Nomads. Also Judaism, Christianity,
and Islam).

The particulars included by Dr. Warren under sub-
divisions (2) and (3) need not be stated here. Nevertheless,
the analyses he gives of these various ' Developments ' have
evidently been framed very carefully, and at an immense
expenditure of pains. The history of the rise and expansion
of numerous faiths, their gradual absorption of (or by) sundry
other faiths, the origin of multifarious rites and institutions,
and the rise and progress of various practical religious
tendencies, receive ample notice and examination in these

While each of these helpful chapters has been compressed
into the briefest possible space, — the Bibliographies might
with advantage have been considerably expanded — the book,
used with discrimination, will prove a real boon alike to
professors and students. The volume contains the quintes-
sence of wide experience, comprehensive knowledge, and
systematic arrangement. A privately-published ' first draft '
of this treatise appeared in 1900 ; one of its Appendices,
expository of ' A Quest of the Perfect Eeligion ', was pub-
lished as early as 1886 ; but it has been well worth while
to re-issue these papers in their present compendious form.
Many a course of lectures will no doubt be facilitated in
preparation, and considerably enriched in contents, by
suggestions obtained from this modest yet timely Manual.
Dr. Warren has made many his debtors, both directly and
indirectly, during his long career as academic ' guide, philo-
sopher and friend ' ; this little handbook will lead yet others
to hold him in similarly grateful regard.



mias. (Evangelisch-theologische Bibliothek.) Leipzig :
Quelle und Meyer, [1915 ?]. Pp. [not yet published]. M. 4.

Guglielmo Quadrotta, 1914- . In 'progress. Vol. i,
pp. xvi., 179 : L. 5. Vide infra, pp. 460 f.

ligionsvetenskapligt Bibliotek.) 3 vols. Stockholm : Hugo
Geber, 1914- . In progress. Vol. i, pp. 200. Kr. 4.


Besides those General Manuals which survey the entire
world of religions, another set of publications contributing
material most useful to students of Comparative Religion is
found in volumes which supply an exposition of three or jour
{or more) selected faiths. It may be that the religions thus
grouped together flourish side by side, and therefore to some
extent necessarily act and react upon one another. It may
be that they possess racial or philological or other historical
affinities. Be that as it may, it seems fitting and convenient
that these religions should be studied contemporaneously,
and that a sketch of their history should be presented within
the pages of a single volume.

We shall now, accordingly, direct attention to a series of
books of this type. Only a few selections are made from
a list of somewhat formidable dimensions, the volumes
named being characterized by qualities of a distinctively
scholarly order. Each religion, in a measure, is dealt with
separately ; from that point of view, it might equally well
have been included under ' Individual Religions '.^ But
each religion is here estimated, also, in its relation to some
other faith or faiths.

* Vide infra, pp. 224 f .

BLISS, Religions of Modern Syria and Palestine 205

TINE, by Frederick Jones Bliss, Dean for men in the
University of Kochester. (The Bross Lectures, 190S.)
New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912. Pp. xiv.,
354. 81.50.

The academic Foundation which has provided us with
this admirable course of lectures is admittedly somewhat
rigid in its theological outlook. It was created with the
express purpose of calUng forth ' the best efforts of the highest
talent, and the ripest scholarship of the world, to illustrate
from science or any department of know^ledge, and to demon-
strate, the divine origin and authority of the Christian
Scriptures '.^ It frankly aims at the establishment of the
unquestioned pre-eminence of the Christian religion.^ Never-
theless, it has already produced quite a little library of
broad-minded and helpful handbooks. The Christian faith
has been interpreted afresh from new points of view, and
certain aspects of its relationship to various other faiths
have carefully and accurately been delineated. This new
volume constitutes a real addition to a series which has
become distinguished for its conspicuous merits.

' The many religions of Syria and Palestine ', as they exist
to-day, is the subject which Dr. Bliss undertakes to expound.
The theme was one that stood in need of competent treat-
ment, and this volume was therefore emphatically called for.
The writer, moreover, was peculiarly well-equipped for his
task. He was born in Syria. He is an accomplished
archaeologist. He is a good linguist. Long and familiar
intercourse with the inhabitants of that special portion of the
Turkish Empire with which he is here concerned, coupled
with a scholar's eagerness to pursue and complete his quest,
has rendered his enterprise more than ordinarily fruitful.
He has collected most of his material at first-hand ; at the
same time, the unpublished note-books of the late Professor

* Cf. Trust Deed. Chicago, 1890. * Vide infra, pp. 369 f.


S. I. Curtiss were placed at his disposal, and have freely been
made use of, to the manifest advantage of author and reader

In one respect, it must be confessed, the result is a little
disappointing. A single volume — and it was within such
rigidly restrictive limits that the writer was confined — does
not afford sufficient room within which to survey a region
at once so wide and so diversified. Accordingly, the Jews,
the Druses, and two or three other important groups have
intentionally been reserved for a subsequent treatise.

Dr. Bliss concentrates attention, in his present book, upon
(a) the Eastern Churches and (b) Islam. A closing chapter
sketches with a rapid pen the changes which are gradually
being wrought under the influence of Christian missions.
Upon each of the foregoing main topics, the information
supplied is abundant, reliable, and not easily obtainable
elsewhere. Under the Eastern Churches, the writer deals
successively with (1) The Holy Orthodox or Greek Church,
(2) The Old Syrian Church, (3) The Uniates (being fragments
of various national Syrian Churches which recognize the
rule of the Pope), (4) The Marionite Church, and (5) The
Monasteries of Syria and Palestine. Under Islam, he has
much to say that is pertinent concerning (1) Religious
Observances, (2) Religious Orders, and (3) Social Customs.

As to the contact of modern Christian missionaries with
these varied earlier faiths, suffice it to say that the student
of Comparative Religion will find a great deal of serviceable
matter in this terse and timely treatise. Dr. Bliss thinks
that, in so far as Islam is concerned, no direct impression can
be said to have been made as yet by Christian teaching, —
* except on a very few individuals, converted at different
times and places, and having no coherence among them-
selves.' 1 Although ' the spirit of Islam as it appears in the
Koran might be said to be moderation \^ although ' forcible

^ Cf. p. 314. Professor Macdonald takes a more optimistic view : vide
infra, p. 272.

• Cf. David S. Margoliouth, The Early Development of Mohammedanism^
p. 62 : vide infra, pp. 274 f.

BLISS, Religions of Modern Syria and Palestine 207

conversions to Islam appear to be against the express orders
of the Prophet \^ and although the letter of the law which
the Sublime Porte has imposed upon itself seems to provide
ample protection for any one who gives up his former faith,
Moslems who become Christians are practically compelled to
take to flight .2 Otherwise, on some trumped-up charge, they
quickly find themselves behind prison doors. Even their
own relatives frequently turn against them, and make their
existence simply unendurable. Professor Margoliouth admits
that, when we get down to the actual facts, ' the thirst . . .
for infidel blood was [from the outset] encouraged rather than
suppressed. Tho^e who had to deal with the Prophet, or his
immediate successors in Medinah, had to deal with an armed
camp . . . and with physical force.' ^

ROMAIN, par Franz Cumont, formerly Conservateur
au Musee du Cinquantenaire, Bruxelles. (Conferences
faites au College de France en 1905-1906.) Paris :
Ernest Leroux, [2nd edition], 1909. Pp. xxii., 333.
Fr. 5.

These lectures were originally published so long ago as
1907 ; but the recent appearance of an English translation *
suggests the advisability of emphasizing afresh the impor-
tance of a work w^hich still retains the value and stimu-
lating qualities it revealed when the press first gave it to the

In the interval, a later volume has come to us from Dr.
Cumont's pen, and one which reveals in equal measure the
knowledge and skill of this distinguished and painstaking
scholar. 5 In it he exhibits a characteristic fullness and

' Cj. ibid., p. 132.

'^ Cj., on the other hand, Mr. Martin's opinion : vide infra, p. 216.

* Cf. The Early Development of Mohammedanism, pp. 58-9.

* Cf. The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism. Chicago, 1911.

^ Cf. Astrology and Religion among the Cheeks and Romans ; vide infra,
p. 224.


mastery of detail. He speaks with an easy confidence
and authority. The illustrative material, gathered from
widely separated quarters, is wonderfully rich and complete.
At once quickening our interest in an abstruse and sadly
neglected theme, he discloses in a series of vivid sketches how
the religions of Greece and Rome incurred a very considerable
debt to Oriental astrology, how the Greeks in particular
improved upon their Babylonian teachers, and how a new
astral religious cult was gradually built up in Egypt and
Syria. In this latter volume, however, — as in one of his
earlier books ^^ — the investigator concentrates attention for
the most part upon one particular phase, one dominant
factor, in the evolution of religious conceptions ; in the
volume about to be examined, on the other hand, the outlook
is immensely wider, and various centres of interest make
a different and combined appeal.

Dr. Cumont furnishes a broad interpretation of the way
in which various Oriental faiths were introduced into the
Roman Empire, how they gradually influenced the local
beliefs which they encountered, and how they ultimately
prepared the way for the advent of Christianity. The
narrative is unfolded in a rarely engaging manner. Hav-
ing shown how a welter of discredited religions had made
their home in the imperial capital, and how attempts had
vainly been made there to crush or reconcile various antago-
nistic elements in the resulting spiritual discord, he shows
how the conviction steadily grew that the East — which was
plainly able to teach Rome much in matters of law, science,
art, literature, etc. — had something also to impart touching
the domain and significance of religious institutions. In his
fascinating second chapter, he deals with the topic, ' Why did
the Oriental Religions so rapidly and successfully make their
way ? ' He takes occasion at this point to show wherein the
religions of the Orient differed, and differed essentially, from

^ Cf. hes Mysteres de Miihra. Paris, 1900. [3rd edition, completely re-
vised and brought up-to-date, 1913. The 2nd edition, 1902, was translated
into English : Chicago, 1903.]

CUMONT, Religions dans le Paganisme Romain 209

those of the Occident. They addressed themselves to the
senses, to the intelhgence, and to the conscience in a way
that was entirely foreign to the official religion with which
the Eoman populace were familiar. They enkindled the
hope of •a future life. They appealed to the worshipper's
individuality, and promised to meet and satisfy his personal
spiritual needs. The old Koman religion was cold and
formal, and it was observed chiefly in the interests of the
State ; ^ the newer cults were instinct with life and warmth
and sympathy. They were rich in ceremonial. The
Mysteries they revered and maintained made subtle and
continual appeal to the imagination, and to an innate
reverence for the realities of a world, vague and unseen, of
which but little was known. ' Compared with the ancient
creeds, they [the Oriental religions] appear to have offered
greater beauty of ritual, greater truth of doctrine, and a far
superior morality. . . . The emotions excited by these
religions, and the consolations offered, strongly attracted the
women, — who were the most fervent and generous followers,
and most passionate propagandists, of the religions of Isis
and Cybele.' 2

It was about 100 b. c. that these Oriental religions began
to make their influence felt within the Koman Empire.
A century later, Christianity was born. At first, it repre-
sented a movement so weak and despised that it secured
little notice, and awakened no concern. By and by, how-
ever, it incurred the enmity of many opponents. As it
increased in strength, its struggle with its surrounding
rivals became fiercer and fiercer, until the final overthrow of
Paganism (so-called) occurred at the end of the fourth cen-
tury. Chapter viii, dealing with ' The Transformation of
Koman Paganism ', is especially noteworthy. It is unques-
tionable that, as the strife progressed, Christianity did not
disdain to adopt and adapt many of the beliefs which were
rife among its opponents ; but Dr. Cumont is careful to
show that Christianity did not borrow so much as some

* Vide infra, p. 213. * Cf. p. 44.



mistakenly imagine. ' Des ressemblances ', he says, ' ne
supposent pas necessairement une imitation, et les simili-
tudes d'idees ou de pratiques doivent souvent s'expliquer,
en dehors de tout emprunt, par une communaute d'origine.
. . . Certaines similitudes, dont s'etonnaient et s'indignaient
les apologistes, cesseront de nous paraitre surprenantes
quand nous apercevrons la source lointaine dont sont derives
les canaux qui se reunissent a Rome '.^ In the end, however,
Christianity triumphed ; and it triumphed because it was
the superior faith. ' Christianity did not wake-into-being the
religious sense, but it afforded that sense the fullest oppor-
tunity of being satisfied ; and Paganism fell, not because
it was sunken in sin and vice, but because the less perfect
must give place to the more perfect. It had, by the expendi-
ture of its own strength, laid out the paths by which it
advanced until it lost itself amid the forces of Christianity ;
and to recognize this fact is not to minimize the significance
of Christianity. We are under no necessity of painting the
heathen world unduly black ; the light of the Evangel
streams into it brightly enough without this offset.' ^

It will be apparent, at a glance, that Dr. Cumont's book
is a veritable mine of wealth for the student of Comparative
Religion. The waxing and waning strength of various
faiths, Christianity included, is delineated with a knowledge
and sympathy of a very rare order. The amount of
material placed within reach, and framed in a popular
form, constitutes an invaluable possession. This volume
recalls at points the somewhat similar treatise written by
Dr. Glover ; ^ but the purely scientific attitude of the present
writer is the more marked and persistent of the two. The
notes which Dr. Cumont has added in the form of a substan-
tial Appendix to his book are admirable, and increase greatly
the debt of gratitude which all his readers owe him.

* Cf. pp. xiii and xviii. [In the English translation, pp. xvii, f.]

« Cf. Emil Aust, Die Religion der Romer, p. 116. Miinster i/W., 1899.

• Cf. Terrot R. Glover, The Conflict of Religions in the Early Roman
Empire. London, 1909.

DE GROOT, Religion in China 211

RELIGION IN CHINA, by Jan J. M. De Groot, Professor
of Sinology in the University of Berlin. (The American
Lectures on the History of Religions, 1910-1911.) New
York : G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1912. Pp. xv., 327.

To older scholars, the name of Dr. De Groot recalls very
pleasantly his long association with the University of Leiden,
and his diHgent labours there as Professor of Ethnography.
To-day, — and, until very recently, Professor Lehmann ^ and
Archbishop Soderblom ^ were associated with him in this
honour — his chair represents one of the fruits of that new
departure in connexion with which the study of the History
of Religions became incorporated in the official curriculum
of the German Universities. ^ At the University of Berlin,
he is now quite at home ; and a group of ardent and ambi-
tious researchers have already become enrolled among his
disciples. All his investigations are concentrated upon
a single theme. Of the rehgious instinct as it manifests
itself among the Chinese, he is recognized to be one of the

Online LibraryLouis Henry JordanComparative religion, its adjuncts and allies → online text (page 19 of 52)