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author has rightly decided that the time has come when he
must divide his work into two independent volumes.

Professor Sayce's exposition is already well known.
Suffice it to say here that he has now put into our hands one
of the very best accounts of the early religion of Egypt
accessible to students to-day. The book is full of learning,
and yet it is never heavy or burdened with technical and
critical details. It is the production of an expert, who
nevertheless adroitly conceals all evidence of the toil by
which the information he supplies has slowly and diligently
been gleaned. Egypt has become a sort of second ' home '
to the writer, who knows the country well and has thoroughly
mastered its lore.

As already stated,^ Professor Sayce is an investigator

^ Cf. Myron H. Phelps, Abbas E^endi : His Life and Teachings. A Study
of the Religion of the Babis or Bahais. New York, 1903. [2nd edition, 1912. ]
^ Cf. William A. Shedd, Bahaism and its Claims. Philadelphia, 1912.
^ Cf. The Moslem Worlds vol. ii, pp. 243-4 : vide infra, p. 485.
* Cf. The Religions of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia. Edinburgh, 1902.
^ Vide supra, p. 133.



294 THE HISTOEY OF EELIGIONS

whose studies in the History of Keligions designedly throw
light upon the tasks undertaken by the student of Com-
parative Eeligion. ' His central idea ', as Professor Wiede-
mann has succinctly expressed it, 'is that the Divine light
lightens all men who come into the world, and that the
religions of Egypt and Babylon form the background and
preparation for Judaism and Christianity. The Christian
faith, in his view, is not only the fulfilment of the law, but
of the truest and best in the religions of the ancient world, —
which, in it, have been interpreted and consummated '.^



EELIGION UND KULTUS DEE EOMEE, von Georg
Wissowa, Professor an der Universitat Halle. (Hand-
biicher der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft.) Miin-
chen : C. H. Beck, [2nd edition], 1912. Pp. xii., 612.
M. 12.

The first edition of this splendid exposition appeared in
1902.2 jn its present form — enlarged by nearly one hundred
pages in order that all the later bibliography might be
included and estimated, but otherwise little changed — this
handbook is now more valuable than ever. It is, in truth,
an indispensable aid. The Index, absolutely essential in
a work of this complex character, has fortunately been
compiled with scrupulous care.

This book is already familiar to the great majority of
students ; it is mentioned solely that one's gratitude for this
later and fuller edition of it may be recorded. Those who
have not employed it hitherto have a happy surprise in store
for them.

For the student of Comparative EeHgion, this thoroughly
reliable manual is a veritable Godsend. It makes no ambi-

1 Cf. Alfred Wiedemann in the Theologische Literaturzeitung, p. 226.
Leipzig, April, 1914, Vide infra, p. 490.

* A Supplementary Volume, entitled Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur
romiscJien Religions- %ind Stadtgeschichte, was issued two years later.



WISSOWA, Religion und Kultus der Rmier 295

tious claims to be more than it is ; it presents to us the
fruits of an exclusively historical survey. Within its own
sphere, however, it is absolutely without a rival. It con-
fines itself strictly to ascertaining the facts of Koman rehgion ;
the utiHzation and application of those facts, it willingly
leaves to specialists who work in sundry kindred depart-
ments.

In one particular. Dr. Wissowa has completely abandoned
his earher line of teaching. His conception of Juno as the
companion-goddess of Jupiter has practically been trans-
formed. He now holds that the introduction of the Juno-
cult was an event of considerably later origin than has
generally been supposed. The building in Eome of a temple
to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva seems to mark the beginning
of a new epoch in Koman religion. Thenceforward, Juno
assumes a new rank ; she becomes in fact a goddess, ever
more and more widely accredited and worshipped. This
theory is ingenious, and it can be defended by a plausible
array of arguments ; but it cannot yet be regarded as fuUy
established. On the contrary, it has provoked — and is
bound still further to provoke — a somewhat heated contro-
versy. This hypothesis is interesting, incidentally, because
it raises anew the demand for a fuller study of the origin
and status of female deities in all the ancient religions.^



SUPPLEMENTAEY VOLUMES

LIGHT FKOM THE EAST. Studies in Japanese Confu-
cianism, by Kobert Cornell Armstrong. Toronto : The
University Press, 1914. Pp. 326. $1.50.

THE HISTORY AND LITERATURE OF JAINISM, by U. D.

Barodia. Bombay : Meghjee Hirjee and Company, 1909.
Pp. 135. Re. 1.

* Cf. Lucian, De Dea Syria : vide supra, p. 87.



296 THE HISTORY OF RELIGIONS

THE BUDDHA AND HIS RELIGION, by Jules Barthelemy
Saint-Hilaire. (A new edition of the translation of Le
Bauddha et sa religion. Paris, 1859. [3rd edition, 1866.] )
New York : E. P. Dutton and Company, 1914. Pp. 384.
$1.25.

DIE EIGENART DER ALTTESTAMENTLICHEN RELIGION.

EiNE AKADEMiscHE Antrittsrede, von Alfred Bertholet.
Tubingen : J. C. B. Mohr, 1913. Pp. 32. Pf. 80.

THEOSOPHY, by Annie Besant. (The People's Books.)
London : T. C. and E. C. Jack, 1912. Pp. 94. U.

STOICS AND SCEPTICS, by Edwyn Bevan. Oxford: The
Clarendon Press, 1913. Pp. 152. 4s. Qd.

KYRIOS CHRISTOS. Geschichte des Christusglaubens
VON den Anfangen des Christentums bis Irenaus, von
Wilhelm Bousset. Gottingen : Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht,

1913. Pp. xxiv., 475. M. 12.

A SHORT HISTORY OF THE EGYPTIAN PEOPLE, by
Ernest A. T. Wallis Budge. London : J. M. Dent and Sons,

1914. Pp. 292. 3s. U.

XL CRISTIANESIMO MEDIOEVALE, di Ernesto Buonaiuti.
CasteUo : S. Lapi, 1914. Pp. 400. L. 4.

THE EVOLUTION OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY. A Genetic
Study of First Century Christianity in relation to its
Religious Environment, by Shirley Jackson Case. Chi-
cago : The University of Chicago Press, 1914. Pp. ix., 385.
$2.00.

THE RECONCILIATION OF RACES AND RELIGIONS, by

Thomas Kelly Cheyne. London : A. and C. Black, 1914.
Pp XX., 216. 6s.

THE CULTURE OF ANCIENT ISRAEL, by Carl Heinrich
Cornill. Chicago : The Open Court Publishing Company,
1914. Pp. iv., 180. $1.50.

THE FAITH OF ANCIENT EGYPT, by Sidney G. P. Coryn.
London : Luzac and Company, 1913. Pp. 60. 4s.



SUPPLEMENTARY VOLUMES 297

LIGHT OF THE AVESTA AND THE GATHAS, by Faredun
K. Dadachanji. Bombay, 1913. Pp. 365. Rs. 4.

BUDDHISMUS ALS RELIGION UND MORAL, von Paul
DaUke. Leipzig : W. Markgraf, 1914. Pp. 457. M. 8.

RELIGIONE E ARTE EIGURATA, di Alessandro Delia Seta.
Roma : M. Danesi, 1912. (Translated, Religion and Art,
London, 1914.) Freely illustrated. Pp. 288. L. 16.

ZOROASTRIAN THEOLOGY. From the Earliest Times to
THE Present Day, by Maneckji Nusservanji Dhalla. New
York, 1914. Pp. xxxii., 384. $2.00.

SPANISH ISLAM. A History of the Moslems in Spain, by
Reinhart Dozy. (A translation of Histoire des Musulmans
d'Espagne. 4 vols. Leyde, 1861.) London: Chatto and
Windus, 1913. Pp. 806. £1 Is.

THE CROWN OF HINDUISM, by John Nicol Farquhar. Lon-
don : The Oxford University Press, 1913. Pp. 469. 75. Qd,

MODERN RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN INDIA, by John
Nicol Farquhar. (The Hartford-Lamson Lectures, 1913.)
New York : The Macmillan Company, 1915. Pp. xvi., 471.
$2.50.

THE RELIGION OF THE SIKHS, by Dorothy Field. (The
Wisdom of the East Series.) London : John Murray, 1914,
Pp. 114. 2s.

THE JAIN PHILOSOPHY, by Virchand R. Gandhi. (Collected
Speeches and Writings. Vol. I.) Bombay : N. M. Tripathi
and Company, 1911. Pp. xvi., 247. Rs. 2.8.

THE GODS OF NORTHERN BUDDHISM. Their History,
Iconography and Progressive Evolution through the
Northern Buddhist Countries, by Alice Getty. London :
The Oxford University Press, 1914. Copiously illustrated
in colour, and in black and white. Pp. 246. £3 3^.

CONFUCIANISM AND ITS RIVALS, by Herbert Allen Giles.
(The Hibbert Lectures. Second Series. 1914.) London :
Williams and Norgate, 1915. Pp. ix., 271. 6s.



298 THE HISTORY OF RELIGIONS

RELIGION UND KULTUS DER CHINESEN, von Wilhelm
Grube. Leipzig : R. Haupt, 1910. Pp. vii., 220. M. 3.

BUDDHA. Sein Evangelium und seine Auslegung, von
Hans Ludwig Held. 2 vols. Miinchen : Hans Sachs Verlag,
1912- . In progress. Vol. i, pp. xvi., 360. M. 13.50.

SURVIVALS IN BELIEF AMONG THE CELTS, by George
Henderson. Glasgow : James Maclehose and Sons, 1911.
Pp. xii., 346. 105. 6d.

STOIC AND EPICUREAN, by Robert Drew Hicks. (Epochs of
Philosophy.) London : Longmans, Green and Company,
1910. Pp. xix., 412. 75. Qd.

THE STORY OF MOHAMMED, by Edith Holland. (Heroes of
all Time.) London : George G. Harrap and Company, 1914.
Pp. 192. Is. 6d.

BUDDHIST CHINA, by Reginald Fleming Johnston. London :
John Murray, 1913. Pp. xvi., 403. 155.

THE RELIGION OF OUR NORTHERN ANCESTORS, by

Ernest Edward Kellett (Manuals for Christian Thinkers.)
London : Charles H. Kelly, 1914. Pp. 141. I5.

THE MAKERS AND TEACHERS OF JUDAISM. Fkom the
Fall op Jerusalem to the Death of Herod the Great,
by Charles Foster Kent. (The Historical Bible.) New
York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1911. Pp. xiv., 323. $1.25.

LE BERCEAU DE L'ISLAM. L'Arabie occidentale a la
veille DE l'H^gire, par Henri Lammens, S.J. 8 vols.
Rome : Max Bretschneider, 1914- . In progress. Vol. i,
pp. xvii., 371. Fr. 6.50.

DER BUDDHISMUS ALS INDISCHE SEKTE UND ALS
WELTRELIGION, von Edvard Lehmann. Tiibingen :
J. C. B. Mohr, 1911. Pp. vii., 274. M. 5.

JUDAISM, by Ephraim Levine. (The People's Books.) London :
T. C. and E. C. Jack, 1913. Pp. 94. Qd.

OUR OWN RELIGION IN ANCIENT PERSIA, by Lawrence
Heyworth Mills. Chicago : The Open Court Publishing
Company, 1913. Pp. x., 193. $3.00.



SUPPLEMENTAKY VOLUMES 299

IL PANTEON. Origini del Cristianesimo, di Salvatore
Minocchi. Firenze : Successor! B. Seeber, 1914. Pp. 408.
L. 6.

DE L'ETAT PRESENT ET DE L'AVENIR DE L'ISLAM, par
J^douard Montet. (Conferences faites au College de France en
1910.) Paris : Paul Geuthner, 1911. Pp. v., 159. Fr. 4.

THE OLD EGYPTIAN RELIGION, by J^douard Naville. (A
translation of La Religion des anciens Egyptiens. Paris,
1906.) London: Williams and Norgate, 1909. Pp. 342.
45. 6d.

BUDDHA. Sein Leben, seine Lehre, seine Gemeinde, von
Hermann Oldenberg. Stuttgart : J. C. G. Cotta, [Sechste
Ausgabe], 1913. Pp. 448. M. 9.

DER ISLAM, von Conrad von Orelli. (Reprinted from the
second edition of Allgemeine Beligionsgeschichte, vol. i,
pp. 323-412 : vide supra, pp. 191 f.) Bonn : Marcus und
Weber, 1911. Pp. 90. M. 2.

ISLAM. Den muhammedanske Religion og dens Historiska
Udvikling, av Johannes Elith Ostrup. Kobenhavn :
G. E. C. Gad, 1914. Pp. 170. Kr. 1.75.

THE RELIGION OF THE HEBREWS, by John Punnett Peters.
(Handbooks of the History of Religions.) Boston': Ginn
and Company, 1914. Pp. xiv., 502. $2.60.

DIE KLASSIKER DER RELIGION UND DIE RELIGION
DER KLASSIKER, herausgegeben von Gustav Pfann-
miiller. Circa 100 vols. Berlin : Protestantischer Schiif-
tenvertrieb, 1912- . In progress. (Part III, comprising
a dozen volumes, will offer a Darstellung der ausserchrist-
lichen Klassiker und Religionen.) Pp. circa 200, each
volume. M. 1.50, each volume.

THE ARYA SAMAJ. An Account of its Origin, Doctrines,
and Activities, by Lajpat Rai. London : Longmans,
Green and Company, 1915. Pp. xxvi., 305. 55.

THE ORIGINAL RELIGION OF CHINA, by John Ross.
Edinburgh : Oliphant, Anderson and Ferrier, 1909. Pp*
327. 55.



300 THE HISTORY OF RELIGIONS

DIE RELIGION DER GRIECHEN, von Ernst Sainter. (Aus
Natur- und Geisteswelt.) Leipzig : B. G. Teubner, 1914.
Pp. 86. M. 1.25.

THE HISTORY OF THE HEBREWS, by Frank Knight
Sanders. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1914. Pp.
xiii., 376. $1.00.

HISTORY OF THE BRAHMO SAMAJ, by Sivanath Sastri.
2 vols. Calcutta : R. Chatterji, 1911-1912. Pp. xix., 398 +
viii., 566. Rs. 6.

THE BEGINNINGS OF THE CHURCH, by Ernest Findlay
Scott. (The Ely Lectures, 1914.) New York: Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1914. Pp. ix., 282. $1.25.

THE LIFE OF MUHAMMAD, by Edward Sell. London : The
Christian Literature Society for India, 1913. Pp. xiv., 236. 3s.

BUDDHA AND HIS SAYINGS, by Shyama Shankar. London ;
Francis Griffiths, 1914. Pp. 100. 3s.

HINDUISM, ANCIENT AND MODERN, by John Alfred Shar-
rock. London : The Society for the Propagation of the
Gospel in Foreign Parts, 1913. Pp. x., 237. 2s. 6d.

THE PROGRESS AND ARREST OF ISLAM IN SUMATRA,

by Gottfried Simon. (A translation of Islam und Chris-
tentum : Im Kampf um die Eroherung der animistischen
Heidenwelt. Berlin, 1910.) London : Marshall Brothers,
1912. Pp. xxiv., 328. 65.

THE RELIGION OF ISRAEL. An Historical Study, by
Henry Preserved Smith. New York : Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1914. Pp. X., 370. $2.50.

THE HEART OF JAINISM, by Margaret Stevenson. (The
Religious Quest of India Series.) London : The Oxford
University Press, 1915. Pp. xxiv., 336. 7s. 6d.

AN ACCOUNT OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF MAHO-
METANISM, by Henry Stubbe. London: Luzac and
Company, 1911. Pp xxi. 248. 6s.



SUPPLEMENTARY VOLUMES 301

LAO-TSE. Seine Personlichkeit und seine Lehre, von
Rudolf Stiibe. (Religionsgeschichtliche Volksbiicher.) Tii-
bingen : J. C. B. Mohr, 1912. Pp. 32. Pf. 50.

CONFUCIUS, von Rudolf Stiibe. (Religionsgeschicbtliclie Volks-
biicber.) Tubingen : J. C. B. Mohr, 1913. Pp. 40. Pf. 50.

DAS ZEITALTER DES CONFUCIUS, von Rudolf Stiibe.
(Sammlung gemeinverstandlicher Vortrage und Schriften
aus dem Gebiet der Theologie und Religionsgeschiclite.)
Tiibingen : J. C. B. Mohr, 1913. Pp. vii., 54. M. 1.50.

LA RELIGION DE L' ANCIENNE EGYPTE, par PhiHppe Virey.
Paris : Gabriel Beauchesne, 1910. Pp. viii., 325. Fr. 4.

THE MESSAGE OF ZOROASTER, by Ardaser Sorabjee N.
Wadia. London : J. M. Dent and Sons, 1912. Pp. 226. Ss.

CONFUCIUS AND CONFUCIANISM, by William Gilbert Walshe.
(The James Long Lectures, 1906-1907.) Shanghai : Kelly
and Walsh, 1911. Pp. vi., 50. 2s.

JAINISM, by Herbert Warren. Madras : The Minerva Press,
1912. Pp. xii., 129. Annas 12.

THE RELIGION OF ISRAEL UNDER THE KINGDOM, by

Adam Cleghorn Welch. (The Kerr Lectures, 1911-1912.)
Edinburgh : T. and T. Clark, 1912. Pp. xv., 305. 7s. Qd.

DIE BUDDHISTISCHE LITTERATUR, von Moriz Winternitz.
(Geschichte der indischen Litteratur. Zweiter Band.) Leip-
zig : Amelangs, 1913. Pp. vi., 288. M. 7.

GESAMMELTE ABHANDLUNGEN ZUR ROMISCHEN RE-
LIGIONS- UND STADTGESCHICHTE, von Georg Wis-
sowa. Miinchen : C. H. Beck, 1904. Pp. vii., 329. M. 8.

THE GOD JUGGERNAUT AND HINDUISM IN INDIA, by

Jeremiah Zimmerman. New York : The Fleming H. Revell
Company, 1914. Pp. 319. $1.50.

*

AMERICAN LECTURE*S ON THE HISTORY OF RELIGIONS.

Vide supra, pp. 211, 224, 254, etc.

HARTFORD-LAMSON LECTURES ON THE RELIGIONS OF
THE WORLD. Vide supra, pp. 244, 270, 297, etc.



302 THE HISTORY OF RELIGIONS

HIBBERT LECTURES. Second Series. Vide swpra, pp. 235,
274, 275, and 297.

BIBLIOTHECA BUDDHICA, publiee sous la direction de

TAcademie imperiale de Petrograd. 14 vols. Petrograd :

L'Academie, 1897- . In progress. The sizes and cost of
volumes vary.

(d) DETACHED PROBLEMS

One further group of volumes — miscellaneous in their
character and contents, yet throwing a good deal of light upon
the subject-matter of the History of Religions — must be
included in our selected and representative list. The student
of Comparative Religion must by no means overlook books
of this class ; for, if he be wise and alert, he will soon discover
that they are able to render him simply invaluable help.
Such volumes, to be sure, deal with many topics entirely
irrelevant to comparative and critical studies. Yet, amongst
much that is quite remote from the inquiry at present in
hand, the competent investigator will find here a surprising
amount of material, of the very highest importance, lying
ready to his hand.

It is not proposed to furnish formal reviews of any of the
books which are about to be named. It will sufi&ce if atten-
tion be specially drawn to those chapters, or even briefer
sections of them, whose data, germane to the Cistory of
Religions, seems worthy of closer inspection, — and, it may
be, of deliberate and repeated consideration.



STUDI DI STORIA ORIENTALE, di Leone Caetani
(Principe Leone di Teano), Deputato al Parlamento.
Milano : Ulrico HoepH, 1911- . In progress. Pp.
circa 400, each volume. L. 8, each volume.

This work, of which three tomi are now ready, will
constitute eventually a very valuable group of Studies.
Volume i bears the triple title, Islam, e Cristianesimo ;



CAETANI, Studi di Storia Orientale 303

U Arabia preislamica ; Gli Arahi antichi. Volume iii deals
with La Biografia di Maometto, prof eta ed uomo di Stato ;
II Principio del Galiffato ; La Conquista d' Arabia. This
new undertaking is wholly different in character from that
erudite treatise which has made its author famous, and
which is destined to become an international work of refer-
ence.i There, the whole literature of the subject, Arabic
and European alike, is laid under tribute, and the sources
and history of Islam are dealt with in a remarkably full and
competent way. The Studi, which will also extend through
several volumes, make their appeal to a wider and less exact-
ing constituency. A number of maps have been included.
This undertaking exhibits all the learning and skill which are
manifest in its bulkier predecessor, for it consists really
of a selection from the essays published in that earlier work ;
but all the elaborate critical apparatus has been omitted,
together with everything that might render these studies
less welcome to ordinary readers.

The first topic discussed ^ is directly relevant to the purpose
of the present survey ; the entire handling of it deserves
very cordial commendation. The second is not a whit less
important. It deals courageously with a sheaf of problems
which modern research has brought into prominence ; and,
although some of the author's conclusions can be accepted
only with reserve, the gradual elaboration of his theme must
be pronounced a piece of remarkably able historical criticism.
Did the prehistoric migrations of the Arabs begin in Baby-
lonia (as Guidi and Hommel maintain), or in Arabia (as
Winckler and Noldeke affirm) ? The author thinks that the
latter view can be estabUshed by proofs already in hand.
The third essay presents us with a penetrative interpretation
of the rapid growth of Islam, after it had definitely been
launched upon its career.

Vol. ii contains an unusually valuable series of Studies.

^ Cf. Annali deW Islam. Milano, 1905- . In progress. [Vol. vii ap-
peared in 1915. 20 additional volumes are contemplated.]
'^ Vide supra, p. 302.



304 THE HISTOKY OF RELIGIONS

It furnishes a critical examination of the reUgious beHefs of
pre-Islamic times, together with a careful estimate of Mo-
hammed, viewed as the founder of a religion that puts forth
very lofty claims.

The Prince of Teano has begun to publish an additional
work, which will cover the same ground in a somewhat
different way.^ Three volumes have already been issued.
This treatise, like the Annali, will provide a comprehensive
chronology of Islam ; it embraces a period of 900 years,
viz. from a. d. 622 to a.d. 517. It is called * an epitome '.
Even so, it will extend probably to ten volumes ; for the
record it suppHes is to be amply documented, — not only for
purposes of reference, but also as a proof of its complete
reliability. The cost of producing this work will be some-
what high, and the pubHsher is compelled to ask twenty-five
lire for each volume.

Italian scholars — i signori Luigi SalvatoreUi, Salvatore
Minocchi, Aldo Vannuzzi, and others — are beginning to take
an unwonted interest in the critical study of religions.
Amongst such studies, the history and modern develop-
ments of Islam are bound to .occupy a place of steadily
increasing prominence, inasmuch as Italy has recently
become ruler over a not inconsiderable portion of the
Mohammedan world.



DIE PHILOSOPHIE DEE BIBEL, von Paul Deussen,
Professor an der Universitat Kiel. (Allgemeine Ge-
schichte der Philosophie.) Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus,
1913. Pp. xii., 304. M. 4.

Let it be admitted at once that this volume, as its title
implies, ought hardly to be included under the heading * The
History of Religions '. It belongs really to a study of the
Philosophy of Religion, and constitutes an important volume

* Cf. Cronografia Islamica. Paris, 1913- . In progress.



DEUSSEN, Die Philosophie der Bihel 305

in that great work upon which, for many years, Dr. Deussen
has lavished unmeasured thought and pains .^

The lines upon which this elaborate exposition proceeds
may best be understood if one take a glance at the following
scheme :

Part I (Erster Band). Vol, i, Die Philosophie des Veda his auf

die Upanishad's. 1894. [2nd
edition, 1906.] M. 7.

Vol. ii, Die Philosophie der Upanishad^s
1899. [2nd edition, 1907.]
M. 9.

Vol. iii. Die nachvedische Philosophie
der Inder. 1908. M. 16.
Part II (Zweiter Band). Vol. iv, Die Philosophie der Griechen.

1911. M. 6.

Vol. V, Die Philosophie der Bihel. 1913.
M. 4.

Vol. vi, Die hiblisch-mittelalterliche Phi-
losophie.^

Vol. vii. Die neuere Philosophie.

The central purpose of the author is to show how all philo-
sophy — ^whether modern, mediaeval, biblical, or Greek —
rests ultimately upon a basis of refined » Indian thought,
and how all rehgions are coloured by the philosophical
thinking of the ages to which they belong. In particular,
as regards the Christian reHgion, Dr. Deussen undertakes —
having carefully traced the origin and development of that
faith — to demonstrate its close relationship to various other
faiths. In the course of a wondrously comprehensive survey,
he takes us first to Egypt, thence to Babylonia, and then to
Persia, — pointing out at every stage the way in which the
reUgious thinking of all these lands had some part in laying
the foundations of the subsequent Christian structure. We

^ CJ. Paul Deussen, Allgemeine Geschichte der Philosophie, mit hesonderer
BerUcksichtigung der JReligionen. 7 vols. Leipzig, 1894- . In progress.

2 Volume vi (which is supplementary to volume v), and volume vii, have
not yet been published.

X



306 THE HISTORY OF RELIGIONS

are invited, next, to view the Hebrew transformation,
effected under the pressure of exile in Babylon. The religion
of the ancient Jews, the life and teaching of Jesus, the teach-
ing of St. Paul and the other evangelists, are topics succes-
sively dealt with in a style, and with a mastery of fact and
diction, which prove simply fascinating to every serious
reader.

The student of the History of Religions might easily over-
look this volume, inasmuch as it confessedly makes its appeal
to researchers who labour in a field different from his own ;
but he who studies this book will not grudge the time and
thought it is certain to exact of him, nor will he feel ungrate-
ful to the reviewer who now directs his attention to its
timely and stimulating contents. The author may not
always convince his readers that he is guiding them aright,
but he will never fail to quicken and feed the spirit of intel-
ligent inquiry. The resolve to revise and verify and (if
necessary) restate one's conclusions, whatever be the ulti-
mate issue, is perhaps the most precious of all impulses that
any man can receive from acquaintance with the researches in
which other students are engaged.

RELIGIONEN UND HEILIGE SCHRIFTEN, von Hein-
rich Friedrich Hackmann, Professor flir AUgemeine
Religionsgeschichte und Geschichte der israelitischen
Religion an der Universitat Amsterdam. Berlin : Karl
Curtius, 1914. Pp. 46. M. 1.

On December 15, 1913, Professor Hackmann entered upon
his new duties at Amsterdam. The present booklet contains
the Inaugural Lecture delivered by him at the University
on that very interesting occasion.

It is noteworthy that Dr. Hackmann came to his task with
high natural qualifications, and with an unusually compre-
hensive equipment. Always an ardent student, and asso-
ciated closely at Gottingen and elsewhere with student
communities for whose instruction and oversight he was



HACKMANN, Religionen und Heilige Schriften 307

responsible, Professor Hackmann has filled the post of
German pastor in cities so far removed from each other as
Shanghai and London. He has travelled widely in the East,
and many valuable books have come to us from his pen.
His exposition 'of Buddhism is well known. Prepared in the
first instance to serve as three successive volumes in the
popular BeligionsgescJiichtliche Volkshucher series,^ it was



Online LibraryLouis Henry JordanComparative religion, its adjuncts and allies → online text (page 27 of 52)