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afterwards issued as a single volume,^ and has since been
revised, enlarged, and published in an English version.^ More
recently, many have greatly enjoyed reading a popular
account of some of his experiences in the East ; his bright
and impressionable record is lit up continually by the com-
ments of a keen and observant traveller.* This book, like-
wise, has found its way into the libraries of many readers in
England, where, in a somewhat abbreviated form, it has been
issued in an admirable translation.^ An earlier travel-
volume, containing a wonderful report of what happened to
this daring explorer in portions of China, Tibet, and Burma,
has had a wide circulation in Germany.^

As a student of the History of EeHgions, Dr. Hackmann
concentrated his attention at the outset upon Buddhism.
But the journeys undertaken in this interest naturally
broadened the investigator's purpose ; and, to-day, every
Oriental faith makes irresistible appeal to him.

The discussion of ' Kehgions and their Bibles *, contained
in the present pamphlet, is full of insight and movement.
The influences which an authorized Sacred Book is bound to
exert upon the peoples who possess and revere it are very
effectively sketched. The eager inquisitiveness of the writer
is infectious ; the poise of his judgements is admirably pre-
served ; his conclusions are sane and reliable. Both he and

* Vide infra, p. 462. « Cf. Der Buddhismus. Halle, 1906.

^ Cf. BvMhism as a Religion. Its Historical Development and its Present
Conditions. London, 1910.

* Cf. WeU des Ostens. Berlin, 1912.

^ Cf, A German Scholar in the East. Travel Scenes and Heflections.
London, 1914.

* Cf. Vom Omi his Bhamo. Halle, 1905. [2nd edition, 1907.]



his students are to be congratulated upon the wide vista of
research which now stretches out before them, and upon the
resources of that opulent domain over which they are to be
permitted to roam at will together.

Hubert et Marcel Mauss, Direct eurs-Adjoints a I'Ecole
des Hautes-Etudes. Paris : Felix Alcan, 1909. Pp.xlii.,
236. Fr. 5.

This volume is made up of three reprinted essays. The
first, in which the authors collaborated, is entitled ' Essai
sur la nature et la fonction du sacrifice ', a careful and
exhaustive study covering 130 pages. The second paper,
written by M. Mauss, deals with ' L'Origine des pouvoirs
magiques dans les societes australiennes ', an analytic and
critical study of one particular phase of magic, based upon
ethnographical documents and extending to nearly 90 pages.
The final essay, written by M. Hubert, presents an ' Etude
sommaire de la representation du temps dans la religion et
la magie '. It is the briefest of the three, being compressed
within 40 pages ; but it is not less distinctive and charac-
teristic than the others.

A very valuable part of this book is found in its extended
Introduction, pp. i-xlii. This section, entitled ' De quelques
resultats de la sociologie rehgieuse \^ — full of weighty con-
siderations bearing upon our knowledge of sacrifice and
magic — makes clear how the three discussions which follow
it are related to one another. The opportunity to make reply
to certain objections which greeted the original publication
of these papers is also adroitly improved.

Throughout the volume the relevant authorities are
copiously quoted, while the references supphed are of a most
comprehensive character.

^ It speedily becomes manifest that these writers are enthusiastic ad-
herents of the Durkheim school : vide supra, pp. 64-5.

LOISY, Histoire des Religions 309

Loisy, Professeur d'Histoire des Religions au College de
France. Paris: Emile Nourry, 1911. Pp.326. Fr. 3.

' Les cinq articles que Ton reunit dans ce petit volume
sont des essais critiques, occasionnes par de recentes publica-
tions. L'on voit une certaine utilite a les rassembler, parce
qu'ils se trouvent, sans qu'on y ait vise, former un groupe
assez homogene, et une fa^on d'esquisse, tres generale,
d'une methode qui paraitra sans doute a plusieurs man-
quer terriblement de nouveaute, mais qui n'en est peut-
etre pas plus mauvaise a suivre dans les etudes d'histoire
religieuse '.^

It is with these words, frank and to the point, that Pro-
fessor Loisy introduces this handy little volume. The titles
of the successive essays are as follows : (1) Remarques sur
une definition de la religion, (2) De la vulgarisation et de
I'enseignement de I'Histoire des Religions, (3) Magie, science
et religion, (4) Jesus ou Christ ?, and (5) Le Mythe du Christ.
The first, third, and fifth papers are of special value, — not
merely as specimens of brilhantly written exposition, but
because of the penetrative criticism they contain. In the
first and third essays, some of the positions taken up by
M. Salomon Reinach in his Orpheus are successfully turned ;
while the summary of the writer's argument in his fifth paper
is succinctly expressed in the following words : ' Tout bien
considere, I'origine purement mythique du christianisme est
un roman, I'existence historique de Jesus est un fait '.^

This book contains a pithy and elaborate Preface,^ in
which the origin of the five successive articles is briefly
explained. The theological attitude of the author will not
always commend itself to his readers. At the same time,
that attitude is broader, saner, and more profoundly con-
scientious than that of many of his critics. Professor Loisy 's
selection for the post which he so honourably fills in the
College de France has already been abundantly justified.

1 Cf. p. 5. 2 Cf. p. 316. . =» Cf. pp. 5-48.


Gordon Lyon and George Foot Moore, Professors in
Harvard University. (A Commemorative Volume, pre-
sented to Professor Crawford HoweU Toy in honour
of his Seventy-fifth Birthday.) New York : The Mac-
millan Company, 1912. Pp. viii., 373. S2.50.

Quite apart from the high personal tribute which this
portly volume conveys, it contains a number of studies of
genuine and conspicuous merit. The successive papers are
exceedingly varied as regards their subject-matter ; indeed,
save for the personal link which unites them all together,
they would inevitably drop asunder, and the question would
arise : Why have topics, so remote from one another, been
brought within the covers of a single volume ?

From the standpoint of the student of Comparative
Religion, the essays which are most important are the
following : Buddhist and Christian Parallels, by Principal J.
Estlin Carpenter, Oxford ; The Liver as the Seat of the Soul}
by Professor Morris Jastrow, Pennsylvania ; The Sikh
Beligion,^ by Professor Maurice Bloomfield, Johns Hopkins ;
Jahweh before Moses, by Professor George A. Barton, Bryn
Mawr ; The Sacred Bivers of India, by Professor Edward W.
Hopkins, Yale ; Asianic Influence in Greek Mythology,^ by
Mr. WilHam H. Ward, New York ; Oriental Cults in Spain, by
Professor Clifford H. Moore, Harvard ; and The Consecrated
Women of the Hammurabi Code, by Professor David G. Lyon.

RELIGIONSGESCHICHTE, von Nathan Soderblom,
Professor der Religionsgeschichte an der Universitat
Leipzig. (Beitrage zur Religionswissenschaft.) Leip-
zig : J. C. Hinrichs, 1913. Pp. x., 112. M. 6.

The perusal of this most interesting tractate, the first of
a new series of official publications issued by the Religions-

* Vide supra, p. 256. ' Vide suprttf pp. 260 f.

' Vide supra, pp. 96 f .

SODERBLOM, Theologie und Religionsgeschichte 311

vetenskapliga Sallskapet i Stockholm,^ makes one regret
more keenly than ever that Dr. Soderblom has now finally
been separated from active academic pursuits.^ As the
result of long and diligent application, he had secured
magnificent equipment for the tasks successively committed
to his hands, and he performed them with marked and grow-
ing efficiency. But another call has reached him of late ; and,
finally, he decided to accept it.^

The Swedish Society for the Science of Religion was
founded at Stockholm in 1906.^ An event which contri-
buted directly to its inauguration was the assembly in that
city, nine years previously, of the first ' Congress ' for the study
of the History of Religions.^ The idea, thus embodied, was
not wholly independent of that great initial Parliament of
Rehgions which was held in Chicago in 1893; it has blos-
somed out, more recently, into those International Congresses
which have been held successively in Paris (1900), Basel
(1904), Oxford (1908), and Leiden (1912). The Beitrdge zur
Religionswissenschaft will for the most part be restricted to
contributions that may be made to the Science of ReHgion
by representative Swedish scholars. Honorary members of
the Society (irrespective of their nationality) and other
foreign experts of outstanding eminence, will however, from
time to time, be invited to contribute papers and suggestions
bearing upon relevant topics of high scientific interest.

The Religionswissenschaftliche Gesellschaft (Religions-
vetenskapliga Sallskapet), recalling with just pride the
fruitful labours of men like the late Fredrik Fehrs and Viktor

^ Cf. Nathan Soderblom, Nafurlig Religion och Eeligionshistoria. En
Historik och ett Program. Stockholm, 1914. Vide infra, p. 318.

^ Vide supra, footnote, p. 193.

' Happily Dr. Soderblom's pen is not idle, even in the midst of exacting
ecclesiastical duties. Last year he published a suggestive volume entitled
Chtdatrons uppkomst. Studier. Stockholm, 1914. At the present moment
he is associated with Professor Lehmann in editing a 'Science of Religion'
Library : vide supra, p. 204.

^ Vide infra, pp. 431-2.

'" Cf. the record of its transactions, entitled Religionsvetenskapliga Kan-
gressen i Stockholm, 1897. Stockholm, 1898. Vide infra, pp. 418 f.


Rydberg, could not have made better choice of a prominent
local and international scholar than when it asked Dr. Soder-
blom to become its first spokesman, and thus to launch for
it its latest literary venture. And immediately, in his very
opening sentence, the writer leads us into the heart of his
subject : * die sogenannte natiirliche Theologie hat im
Christentum vier Perioden erlebt '. ^

During the first of these periods, down (say) till the Middle
Ages, no definite conception of Natural Theology (Natural
BeHgion) seems to have been formulated. The subject is
often incidentally referred to, — by St. Paul, by the Church
Fathers, etc., — but apparently it did not make much appeal
to the thinkers of that age. Where it did manage to rise
into the position of a Hving issue in the minds of individual
scholars, no comprehensive theory defining its boundaries
was framed and elaborated. In other words, this initial
chronological stage represents a time of transition and
assimilation; it bore little or no fruit in the way of a
permanent theological product.

The second period extends to the revival of learning, —
followed, as all remember, by a wondrous new-birth of
philosophy, science, art and religion, a Renaissance whose
force is still unspent. During this age, a definite theory of
Natural Theology was advanced and courageously defended,
viz. that Natural Religion was intended to serve man as
a preparation for Revealed Religion.

The motto of the third period, which began in the seven-
teenth century, may be said to have been : ' Alle Religion
ist natiirliche Religion '. Dr. Soderblom has no doubt that
* mit der Epoche des Deismus und der Aufklarung beginnt
fiir den Begriff natiirliche Religion eine neue Zeit. Die
alte Distinktion zwischen natiirlicher und geoffenbarter
Religion wurde in der Tat auch weiterhin inne gehalten.
Aber die Grenze zwischen Vernunft und Offenbarung ver-
schob sich zu Guns ten der menschlichen Vernunft '.^

The fourth period, beginning with the close of the
^ Cf. p. 1. == CJ. p. 33.

SODERBLOM, Theologie und Religionsgeschichte 313

eighteenth century,is aptly characterized in the chapter-head-
ing : ' Es giebt keine natiirhche Rehgion '. x\t this juncture,
the imposing personaUty of Schleiermacher looms into view,
with all that his epoch-making teaching suggested and
ensured. For him, the only religion worth arguing about
was Positive Eeligion. Those who are familiar with his
Beden uber die Beligion will appreciate the force with which
he drove his conclusions home. ' Das Wesen der Religion
musste tiefer begriindet werden . . . Religion muss ihrem
Wesen nach immer positiv sein.' ^ Accordingly, this fourth
period was marked by an intensive study of the ' positive '

In two closing chapters, entitled respectively An Stelle der
naturlichen Theologie tritt die allgemeine BeligionsgeschicMe
and Allgemeine und hesondere BeligionsgeschicMe , Dr. Soder-
blom gives a wonderfully satisfying outline of the various
stages discernible in the historical unfolding of the chief
religions of the world. Moreover, he enters a vigorous plea
on behalf of the study of the History of Religions, whose
utility and necessity he fully appreciates, and of whose fitness
to occupy the place hitherto assigned to Natural Theology
he is absolutely assured. This step, if taken, would inaugu-
rate the beginning of a ' fifth ' period in the successive stages
of an unbroken advance. But Dr. Soderblom goes further.
While the yearning of man for God is a universal instinct,
traceable ultimately to a secret Divine impulse, another
fact must be accorded due emphasis. Over and above that
universal summons which is uttered within the soul, God has
revealed Himself to man in other, and more particular, and
more objective ways. In short, students of the History of
Religions must devote themselves with redoubled earnestness
to a patient and scientific study of Christianity. * Das
Christentum ist das nachste und wichtigste Gebiet fiir das
Studium der Religion.' 2 Proceeding to deal with the ques-
tion : Besteht zwischen der allgemeinen Religionsgeschichte
und der bibUschen Religionsgeschichte irgend ein Unter-
* Cf, p. 43. * Cf. p. 80.


sehied, gewissermassen analog zu dem, den die friiheren
Darstellungen der Religion zwischen natiirlicher und geoffen-
barter Religion machten ?, Dr. Soderblom finds in the
Christian reHgion a fuller and richer divine revelation than
is elsewhere accessible to man ; and he holds that it is the
function of the History of Religions, not less than the ap-
pointed task of Christian Theology, to make this fact more
clear, and to aid in separating from the Christian faith those
unfortunate but inevitable accretions which tend to obscure
its unrivalled and inherent excellences.

This booklet is of quite unusual merit, and is fully worthy
of the dignity of that high ecclesiastical rank to which its
author has recently been promoted. It has since been
followed by another * Heft ' containing valuable papers by
Professor Goldziher, Dr. Fries, Dr. Wetter, etc. ^

KLEINE SCHRIFTEN, von Hermann Usener, Professor
an der Universitat Bonn. (Band iv, herausgegeben von
Richard Wiinsch.) 4 vols. Leipzig : B. G. Teubner,
1913. Pp. vii., 516. M. 15.

The concluding volume in a series which will always be
prized, not only as a fitting memorial of a fondly-remembered
friend but as a depository of extremely valuable material,
has recently been published. It bears the sub-title Arheiten
zuT Beligionsgeschichte,^ and contains twenty-two essays.
These sketches represent the literary activity of the writer
during a strenuously productive period of nearly forty years,
and deal with a great variety of themes.

As one scans these scholarly and suggestive papers, the
regret steadily grows that Professor Usener followed so
closely the example of the late Lord Acton, who too long

* Vide infra, pp. 431-2.

* Its predecessors dealt respectively with Arheiten zur griecMschen Philo-
Sophie und Rhetorik (1912) and Arheiten zur lateinischen Sprache und
Literatur (1913). Literargeschichtliches, Epigraphisches, Chronologischea
appeared in 1914.

USENER, Kleine Schnften 315

postponed the embodiment of his mature thinking in care-
fully planned and elaborate treatises. To be sure, this
author has given us several books which all would be loath to
part with ; ^ but these volumes merely whet the appetite for
detailed expositions which, unfortunately, were never penned.
This investigator's range of learning was so wide, and withal
so minute and accurate, that he might easily have served
his generation in a larger and more permanent way.

The work of Professor Usener suggests at many points the
kindred investigations of his younger contemporary. Pro-
fessor Wissowa.2 Both are past masters in the domain of
classical scholarship. Both have applied themselves to the
elucidation of some of the most knotty problems associated
with primitive rehgion. Both have shown themselves con-
scientious and painstaking to the very highest degree. Yet
on some questions — as in regard to the Sondergotter ^ —
these two interpreters failed to agree ! Here one finds an
additional proof of the extreme complexity of some of the
enigmas which the student of the History of Eeligions
must set himself to solve. Notwithstanding instances of
defective judgement here and there. Professor Usener must
be accounted an unusually competent pioneer in work of
this kind. If he is followed uncritically, — as Usener
often is followed by Professor Murray ^ and Miss Harrison ^ —
he is capable of suggesting quite erroneous clues, and may
thus prove himself to be a dangerous and misleading guide.
Nevertheless his death, and the subsequent decease of his
brilliant son-in-law, the late Albrecht Dieterich, mark the
disappearance of two of the most stimulating co-workers
whom students of Comparative Eehgion have thus far been
privileged to know.

^ Cf. Das Weihnachtsfest (in which the dependence of Christianity on
earlier non-Christian beliefs is strikingly brought out), Bonn, 1889, [2nd
edition, 1911]; SbndDie Gotternamen, Bonn, 1896. Cf. also his Religions'
geschichtlicJie Untersuchungen, Bonn, 1889, and Vortriige und Aufsdtze,
Leipzig, 1907.

- Vide supra, pp. 294 f., and infra, pp. 444 f., etc.

^ Cf. the closing essay, entitled ' Keraunos ', pp. 471-97.

* Vide supra, pp. 278 f. = Vide supra, pp. 247 f.


VORARBEITEN, herausgegeben von Richard Wiinsch
und Ludwig Deubner. 15 vols. Giessen : Alfred
Topelmann, 1903- . In progress. Sizes vary. M. 1
(or less), up to M. 17.

This admirable Series, made up of experimental and pre-
liminary studies in the History of Religions, will always
recall' grateful memories of Dr. Albrecht Dieterich. One of
the founders of this important literary undertaking, he and
Dr. Wiinsch co-operated in the editing of volumes i to iv.
Since 1908, his surviving colleague — who promptly called
to his aid a competent and industrious helper — has carried
forward this enterprise with unabated vigour. Dr. Wiinsch,
as most readers of German theological literature are aware,
is an indefatigable explorer whose ardour has led him to
enter many fields of inquiry. One of the numerous literary
schemes with which he is associated as collaborator and
director is the Beligionswissenschaflliche Bihliothek,'^ which
has furnished us with one of the most outstanding volumes
mentioned in this survey .^ He is also a valued con-
tributor to the Kleine Texte,^ and to many journals and

It is to the present series that we are indebted for several
valuable little books bearing upon the Mystery Religions.
One of these studies is a penetrative exposition to which
special attention may well be drawn ; ^ another, also deserv-
ing of special mention, appeared two years earlier.^

Among other suggestive discussions, embraced within these

* Vide infra, p. 319.

* Cf. Ignaz Goldziher, Vorlesungen iiher den Islam : vide supra, pp. 241 f .
^ Cf. Kleine Texte fur Vorlesungen und Uebungen. Bonn, 1903- . Jn


* Cf. Carl Clemen, Der Einfluss der Mysterienreligionen auf das i'dteste
Christentum. Giessen, 1913.

^ Cf. Richard Perdelwitz, Die Mysterienreligion und das Problem des I.
Petrusbriefes. Giessen, 1911.


Versuche und Vorarheiten and belonging to the purview of
this survey, one is particularly noteworthy.^


Thomas Kelly Cheyne. London : A. and C. Black, 1914.
Pp. XX., 216. 6s.

THE STUDY OF RELIGIONS, by Stanley Arthur Cook.
London : A. and C. Black, 1914. Pp. xxiv., 439. 75. U.

London : The Council of the Jews' College, 1913. Pp. 42.

2s. 6d.

RELIGIONE E ARTE FIGURATA, di Alessandro Delia Seta.
Roma : M. Danesi, 1912. (Translated, Religion and Art,
London, 1914.) Illustrated. Pp. 288. L. 16.



ANTIKEN Weltbildes, vou Robert Eisler. 2 vols. Miin-
chen : C. H. Beck, 1912. Pp. xxxii., 318 + 493. M. 40.
Akademiska Bokhandeln, 1912. Pp. iv., 191. Kr. 4.50.

CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE, by Morris Jastrow. (Re-
ligionsgeschichtliche Versuche und Vorarheiten.) Giessen :
Alfred Topelmann, 1914. Pp. vi., 86. M. 3.20.

RELIGION, von Erich Kiister. (ReHgionsgeschichthche
Versuche und Vorarheiten.) Giessen : Alfred Topelmann,
1913. Pp. X., 172. M. 6.50.

TAMMUZ AND ISHTAR. A Monograph upon Babylonian
Religion and Theology, by Stephen Langdon. London :
The Clarendon Press, 1914. Pp. x., 196. 10s. 6d.

^ Cf. Ferdinand Kutsch, Attische HeilgoUer und Heilheroen. Giessen,



morstein. Skotsclian (0. ScWesien) : A. Marmorstein, 1910.
Partslandll, pp. 83 + 125. M. 7.25.

DER EID BEI DEN SEMITEN, von Johannes Pedersen.

(Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des islamisclien

Orients.) Strassburg : Karl J. Triibner, 1914. Pp. viii.,
242. M. 14.

INDIAN HISTORICAL STUDIES, by Hugh George Rawlinson.
London : Longmans, Green and Company, 1913. Pp. xiii.,
229. 4s. U.

BARUNGEN GOTTES, von Wilhelm Schmidt. Kempten :
J. Kosel, 1913. Pp. vii., 159. M. 1.50.

WER WAR MOSE ? Eine religionsgeschichtliche Untee-
sucHUNG, von Daniel Volter. Leiden : E. J. Brill, 1913.
Pp.iii., 31. M. 1.

Methods : Their Advantages and Disadvantages, by
Duren J. H. Ward. Chicago : The Open Court Publishing
Company, 1909. Pp. v., 75. 35 c.


von Karl Wyss. (Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche und
Vorarbeiten.) Giessen : Alfred Topelmann, 1915. Pp. iv.,
67. M. 2.50.

geben von der Religionswissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft in
Stockholm. Leipzig : J. C. Hinrichs, 1914- , In fro-
gress. Vol. i., pp. 270. M. 10. Vide supra, pp. 310 f., and
infra, pp. 431-2.


gegeben von Wilhelm Streitberg und Ricliard Wiinsch.
5 vols. Heidelberg : Carl Winter, 1910- . In progress.
Pp. circa 300, each volume. M. 4 to M. 8, each volume.

Philipson, David Neumark, and Julian Morgenstern. (A
Festschrift issued in honour of the Seventieth Birthday of
Professor Kaufmann Kohler of Cincinnati, Ohio.) Berlin :
Georg Reimer, 1913. Pp. vi., 301. M. 6.

MISCHEN ORIENTS, herausgegeben von Carl H. Becker.
3 vols. Strassburg: Karl J. Triibner, 1912- . In
progress. Pp. circa 300, each volume. Prices vary. Vide
supra, Johannes Pedersen, p. 318.

RELIGIONSGESCHICHTE. [Julius Wellhausen zum


Herausgegeben von Karl Marti. Giessen : Alfred Topelmann,
1914. Pp.xi., 388. M. 18.


In no way, perhaps, can one get a clearer impression of the
many-sidedness of religion — ever an intensely human product,
revealing itself in different forms in harmony with man's
varying ethnic and geographical environment, disclosed in
man's domestic and social institutions, exhibited in tangible
or furtive survivals which testify to the existence of beliefs

Online LibraryLouis Henry JordanComparative religion, its adjuncts and allies → online text (page 28 of 52)