Louis Henry Jordan.

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guished group of scholars are akeady affording help to
students of the History of ReUgions. Those who are most
active in promoting the advancement of Comparative
Rehgion have good reason for believing that Gottingen
University and the Gottingen Royal Society of Sciences will
yet render them a like special service. This step, if taken,
would be one whose influence would speedily react, and
react most effectively, upon several other centres in Ger-
many, — centres which, thus far, have exhibited only a very
moderate interest in this study.


Although this Society (founded in 1892) was estabhshed
more particularly for ' the encouragement of the study of
Japanese Language, Literature, History, Folklore, Art,

^ Cf. Archives auisses d' Aiitkropologie generak, vol. i, p. 6. Geneve, 1914.
* Vide supra, pp. 405 f. Vide supra, also, p. 402.


Science, Industries and Social Life ', one has only to glance
through its Transactions ^ to become aware that a student
of the History of Religions — quite apart from the light he is
bound to acquire touching an important branch of Ethno-
logy, and apart from the copious and artistic illustrations
which these successive volumes contain — may gather
abundance of material proper to his own particular province.
A compact Index to the Transactions, recently published, ^
proves a very convenient guide to those papers which will
especially interest investigators of this school.

Informative interpretations of temple architecture (' How
the Nikko Temples were Built ' : cf, vol. vii, pp. 160-77),
sacred paintings (' Illustrations of Buddhism from Japanese
Pictures ' : c/. vol. viii, pp. 210-27, and vol. xii, pp. 178-
203), the national conception of loyalty (' Japanese Patriot-
ism ' : cf. vol. vii, pp. 180-207), and many kindred subjects,
deserve to be specially mentioned ; but numerous contribu-
tions deal even yet more directly with the subject of rehgion
in Japan. Various aspects of Shinto {cf. vol. vii, pp. 340-
51), Buddhism (c/. vol. vii, pp. 264-79), the influence
wielded respectively by Shinto and Buddhism, etc. etc., are
very competently expounded, yet always with conspicuous
tact and in a way befitting the attention of a cosmopolitan

What has just been said concerning the Transactions of
the Japan Society applies of course with equal truth to the
printed Proceedings of the Chinese Society of London,^ and
of many another national Learned Society whi6h has found
a home for itself in one or more of the capitals of Europe.
' A word to the wise is sufficient.'

^ Cf. Transactions and Proceedings of the Japan Society, London. 12 vols.
London, 1893- . In progress.

* Cf. The Japan Society, London. Analytic Index to Volumes I to X.
London, 1913.

^ Cf., also, The Chinese Review. London, 1914. Begun in April, the
European war soon led to its temporary suspension. For the expression
pf opinion formed from the Chinese point of view, it promises to prove
helpful to Occidentals in no ordinary degree.

The Royal Asiatic Society 431


The range of topics coming within the purview of this
Society is so wide, and the mixed character of its member-
ship compels so constantly the exercise of a fitting and
discreet reserve, that strictly ' religious ' questions can be
given only an incidental and subordinate place in its pro-
grammes. Nevertheless, its Journal ^ and other official
publications will not be overlooked by any keen student of
religious life and movement in the East. Since the creation
of the Society in 1823, it has (through its ' Oriental Trans-
lation Fund ' 2 and in countless other ways) famiharized
Western scholars with some of the most valuable literary
resources of the inhabitants of the other side of the globe.


Students of Anthropology, as a rule, need no one to counsel
them to keep under view the Bulletins of this vigorous
Association.^ The sixth series of this pubhcation has now
reached its fifth volume. Those who have let slip the
opportunity of utilizing these records should seek to make
amends for such remissness, and with the least possible delay.


Attention has already been directed to the Beitrdge zur
Beligionswissenschaft, edited by this Society, and to which
Dr. Soderblom contributed the introductory ' Heft \* The
first volume (1913-1914) has now been completed, its addi-
tional sections having been furnished by Professor Ignaz

^ Published quarterly. London, 1834- . In progress.

* Volume xxiii, in the New Series, was issued in 1914. Thus quite a little
library has already been created.

^ Cf. Bulletins et Memoir es de la Societe d* Anthropologie de Paris. Paris,
1860- . In progress. * Vide supra, ^ip. ZIO i.


Goldziher of Budapest on ' Katholische Tendenz und Par-
tikularismus im Islam ', Dr. Samuel A. Fries (a leading
Lutheran minister in Stockholm) on ' Jahvetempel ausserhalb
Palastinas *, and Docent Gillis P : son Wetter of Upsala on
* Ich bin das Licht der Welt : Eine Studie zur Formelsprache
des Johannesevangehums '. Various literary notes, a
chronicle, etc., have been added. These successive series of
papers promise to yield students' of the history, comparison,
and philosophy of religions a most welcome accession of


It has frequently been levelled as a reproach against the
scholarship of particular times and particular countries that
it has devoted itself too much to ' the preparation of mere
Encyclopaedias '. This charge has been unusually rife during
the last twenty years ; and, if the publication of such de-
positories of information is to be accounted a crime, the
complaint is abundantly justified.

That the editing of some Encyclopaedias — sadly lacking
in knowledge, in comprehensiveness, in proportion, and in
maturity of judgement — is blameworthy, few will venture to
dispute. On the other hand, it is the glory of the present
generation that, in almost every department, standard books
of reference of this type have been supplied in copious
measure. Never has the general level of such treatises been
so high, and so insistently progressive. The value of such
work, when well executed, is entirely beyond estimate. It
supplies an epitome of human knowledge, brought con-
veniently up to date.

In no department of study have recent Encyclopaedias
been more in demand, and in no department have they
shown themselves more adequate to meet the require-
ments of that demand, than in the domain occupied
by modern students of religion. A glance through the
pages which immediately follow will amply vindicate this

CHISHOLM, Encyclopcedia Britannica 433

Chisholm, aided by a large staff of Advisers and Assis-
tants. 29 vols. Cambridge ; The University Press,
[11th edition], 1910-1911. Pp. circa 1000, each volume.
£32 125. 6^.

One of the chief literary achievements of the past four
years has been the preparation and publication of a new
edition of this standard national Encyclopaedia. One annual
Supplement — issued under the same editorial management,
and bringing its review of our * additions to knowledge '
down to the end of 1912 — ^has already been printed.^ It was
proposed, in this way, to keep the contents of the Encyclo-
paedia constantly up-to-date ; but no Supplement covering
the years 1913 or 1914 has thus far been announced.

This vast undertaking, though very greatly to be com-
mended from most points of view, yields some startling sur-
prises. It is still chargeable with singular and persistent
omissions. To mention one which users of this survey are
likely to account foremost and most regrettable, no article
on Comparative Keligion has been provided ! Such an
oversight, under any circumstances, would have been sure
to evoke unfavourable comment ; but in an Encyclopaedia
which has passed through two editions within ten years, and
whose rota of articles has been again and again revised,
this omission simply passes comprehension.^ Other books of
reference, of a like standard, have a good deal to say upon
the topic in question ^ ; surely it is time that this great
national publication — responsible and representative in no
ordinary degree, and entitled to speak unequivocally in the

^ Cf. The Britannica Year Book, 1913. London, 1913.

* It ought to be added that the latest edition of The Century Dictionary
(12 vols. New York, 1914) has also overlooked this subject.

^ Cf. A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. 10 vols. Oxford,
1888- . In progress. The New International Encychpoedia. 17 vols.
New York, 1903-190 1. [2nd edition, 24 vols. 1914-1916.] The New Schaff-
Herzog Encyclopedia. 12 vols. New York, 1908-1912 : vide infra, pp. 440 f.
Other Encyclopsedias might be added to this honourable list, but the
foregoing will suffice.



name of British scholarship — should no longer maintain its
obstinate and inexcusable silence.

It may be replied that, in the Index (Vol. xxix, p. 193),
the title ' Comparative Eeligion ' appears, and that the
inquirer is there referred to the topic * Eeligion '. But when
(following instructions) one turns to the subject named, it is
only to discover that Comparative Eeligion is not mentioned
even under that heading ! On the History of Eeligions, the
student will find in the Encyclopcedia Britannica a score of
splendid individual expositions ; but, as bearing upon Com-
parative Eeligion, he will discover only brief incidental para-
graphs — not always in harmony with one another — intro-
duced in connexion with the treatment of various kindred
topics. The inclusion of Comparative Eeligion in the Index
seems to have been an after- thought. It certainly was
omitted from the Editor's final programme, as it would
appear to have been omitted from his initial general
survey of the titles of such articles as were deemed imperative
and timely.

by James Hastings. 12 vols. Edinburgh : T. and T.
Clark, 1908- . In progress. Pp. circa 900, each
volume. £1 85. each volume.

During the past four years, four volumes have been added
to those previously published.^ As this great undertaking
moves forward at a steady and untiring pace, those who have
possessed themselves of its successive instalments come to
value them more and more. Besides, they have now learned
to utiHze the contents of these volumes in a countless variety
of ways.

An estimate of the prospective resources of this work, else-
where expressed,^ continues to hold good ; for the student

^ Cf. Volumes iv to vii, inclusive, covering articles from * Confirmation '
to 'Liberty'.

* Cf. Jordan, Comparative Religion : A Survey of its Recent Literature,.
1906-1909, pp. 63-4. Edinburgh, 1910.

HASTINGS, Encyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics 435

of Comparative Eeligion, the Hastings's Encyclopcedia is
simply indispensable. It is true that it busies itself, almost
exclusively, with providing a permanent historical founda-
tion for Comparative Eeligion ; the subsequent critical ' con-
struction ' remains unexecuted. The bricks and the mortar
are here assembled in immense quantities. They are placed
conveniently at hand, and one is supplied with numerous
architectural designs of a more or less elaborate character.
The work of actual building, however, is left undone. The
comparativist must proceed to uprear — as best he can —
a substantial and stable structure of his own.

Perhaps it is too soon to expect in a work of this sort the
realization of an ideal which many had hoped to find em-
bodied in the present treatise. Yet how is it that, in an
Encyclopaedia of Eeligion, ' Comparative Eeligion ' is practi-
cally ignored ! As a Dictionary of the History of Beligions,
Dr. Hastings's undertaking could not easily be surpassed,^
It certainly has had no rival thus far. It is a library in itself,
combining remarkable unity with remarkable breadth of
view. It constitutes ' the most masterly, the most compre-
hensive, and the most reliable collection of data relevant
to Comparative Eeligion that has ever been projected.' ^
Students in that field, accordingly, could not wrong them-
selves more profoundly, or more needlessly, than by neglect-
ing to utilize the help which this Encyclopaedia would be
certain to yield them. Nevertheless, a great task — a con-
siderably greater task — remains practically untouched.
Without undue delay, comparativists must prepare and
publish a deliberate, exhaustive, and carefully- balanced
comparison of the religious beliefs, rites and institutions of
mankind. Something more— and something much more —
than the mere juxtaposition of multifarious religious tenets
and practices is called for ; these sacred beliefs and acts

^ Cf. many additional and notable articles on individual religions, found
in Dr. Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible, vol. v. Edinburgh, 1905.

* Cf. Jordan, Comparative Eeligion : A Survey of its Recent Literature,
1906-1909, p. 54.

Ff 2


must be brought into organic relationships with one another,
if man's religious history is to be rightly interpreted.^

It is impossible to call attention separately to the long
succession of articles which make up the contents of the
latest four volumes. ^ Further, it must needs be that, in
a work framed on such comprehensive lines, readers will
detect occasionally some very unexpected omissions. Eefer-
ence has just been made to the absence of any article on
' Comparative Keligion ' ; it is to be hoped that this over-
sight may be remedied in the volume which shall give us an
adequate exposition of ' Keligion '. It is surprising, too,
that ' Cultural Areas ' (Kulturkreise),^ and the modern
theories which stand associated with this new method of
appraising certain ethnological problems, have been passed
over in silence. It must be added that some of the positive
statements which are made, and made with great confidence,
— e. g. in the article on ' Deicide ' — are open to serious

THEOLOGIE UND KIKCHE, herausgegeben von
Albert Hauck. 24 vols. Leipzig : J. C. Hinrichs,
[3rd edition, revised and enlarged], 1896-1913. Pp.
circa 800, each volume. M. 236.

As a Supplement to the third revised edition of this
splendid contribution to scholarship, two volumes (Vol. xxiii,
A-K, and Vol. xxiv, L-Z) appeared during 1913. In the
second of them, the article on ' Keligionsgeschichte ' * will
be found to have been entrusted to Professor Edvard

^ Cf. Jordan, Comparative Religion : Its Method and Scope, pp. 12-13.
London, 1908. Vide infra, pp. 518 f.

" In vol. vi, the expositions of ' God ' (pp. 243-306) and ' Human Sacrifice '
(pp. 840-67) will be especially welcomed by every comparativist. In
vol. vii, the articles on ' Incarnation ' (pp. 186-201), ' Israel ' (pp. 439-56),
' Jainisra ' (pp. 465-74), ' Jesus Christ ' (pp. 505-53), ' Judaism ' (pp. 581-
609), and ' Lamaism ' (pp. 784-89) deserve special mention.

» Vide supra, pp. 47, 330, 360 f., etc. * Cf. pp. 393-411.

HAUCK, Realencyklopddie 437

Lehmann, who has discharged his commission with com-
mendable thoroughness. As a friend and promoter of
Comparative EeHgion, strictly so called, this writer has
incorporated in his survey a good deal of matter which
students of that science will specially value. The articles on
' Jesus Christus ' (by H. Windisch) and ' Eeligionspsycho-
logie ' (by G. Wobbermin) are also to be commended, being
studies preparatory to a better understanding of the function
which Comparative Eeligion is seeking to fulfil.

George Herbermann, Professor of Latin Language and
Literature, College of the City of New York. 16 vols.
New York : The Eobert Appleton Company, 1907-1914.
Pp. circa 800, each volume. Original [and Standard ^]
edition, $96.00.

In accordance with the demands of the scheme originally
drafted, this important work was completed in 1912. It
then consisted of fifteen volumes. As its articles were
arranged in alphabetical order, it was not intended at the
outset that a separate index-volume should be published.
However, in view of the desirability of providing cross-
references to the huge mass of material which the Encyclo-
pedia contained, a sixteenth volume was subsequently
prepared ^ ; it will not only prove immensely serviceable in
itself, but it embodies a piece of work which has been ex-
ceedingly well executed. A number of articles, supplemen-
tary to those embraced within the preceding volumes, have
very wisely been added.

The point of view of this Encyclopedia, as regards its
statements on all questions of dogma, is necessarily that of
the Eoman Catholic Church.^ Yet it is ' Catholic ' in another

^ Another edition, printed on less expensive paper and omitting many
colour-plates and half-tones, may. be purchased for $48.00.
2 Published by the Encyclopedia Press. New York, 1914.
* Vide supra, footnote, pp. 384, 423, etc.


sense, at the same time. Speaking generally, its articles are
distinguished by a timeliness and thoroughness which do
infinite credit to those who have supplied them. Although
this work deals professedly with ' the constitution, doctrine,
discipline, and history of the Catholic Church,' and although
it fulfils its appointed mission in a way that has secured
for it the imprimatur of the Archbishop of New York, it
can also fairly claim to be an Encyclopedia of considerably
wider scope. Its contributors, who number more than a
thousand, represent Great Britain, Ireland, the Continent,
and (as a matter of course) some of the foremost scholars
of the United States.

No special article has been allotted to * Comparative
Beligion ', but the subject is not ignored. It is dealt with,
in a very condensed way, under the heading ' Eeligion '.^
Yet this brevity is not accompanied by any evidence that
Comparative Eeligion as a theological discipline is dis-
countenanced, or its importance underestimated. As Mr.
Martindale has shown, this modern science — under certain
restrictions 2 — is to-day being deliberately cultivated by
scholars representative of the Koman Catholic Church, with
a view of turning its evident capabiHties to good account in
the very near future.^ Buddhism, Confucianism, Hinduism,
Jainism, Mohammedanism, and many other faiths, are passed
under competent review.

THE Geography, Ethnography and Biography of
THE MuHAMMEDAN PEOPLES, edited by Martyn Theodor
Houtsma. 3 [?] vols. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1908- .
In progress. Pp. circa 1000, each volume. £3 5s. each

This great work — courageously projected, and then (in the
form of separate fasciculi) carried forward for several years

^ Cf. vol. xii, p. 747. ^ Vide supra, p. 384. ^ Vide supra, p. 373.

HOUTSMA, EncyclopcBdia of Islam 439

under seriously embarrassing conditions — saw its first
volume completed in 1913.

For a long time, the need of such an Encyclopaedia has been
keenly felt. It is much wider in range, and much more exact
in scholarship, than the late Dr. Hughes's well-known book.^
The latter work is a compilation made by a single hand.
It is a mine of rich treasure for all who wish to master the
intricacies of Mohammedanism, as exhibited in the life and
thought of various Moslem peoples ; but it has long been
out of print, and it is costly and hard to procure.^ The
present undertaking, on the other hand, is likely to run into
at least four bulky tomes ; volume i covers only such articles
as emerge between A-D inclusive. Dr. Houtsma has been
supported in his exacting labours by three associate editors
of international standing, viz. Dr. Thomas W. Arnold,
Professor Kene Basset, and Dr. Kichard Hartmann.^ The
entire work is being printed simultaneously in EngHsh,
French, and German. Yet, further: while this Encyclo-
paedia confines itself — like The Jewish Encyclopedia* — to a
single faith, it deals not only with every topic which concerns
the religion and civilization of the different nations which
profess Islam, but it includes a discussion of many questions
of geography, biography, etc., which throw much hght upon
the career of a very influential and widespread religious
movement. For the student of the History of Keligions,
this work will prove to be an indispensable help ; for the
student of Comparative Keligion, it will be found to embody
an immense array of facts which he must take into account.
Indeed, just as the possession of a General Encyclopaedia is
essential to the equipment of every ordinary household, so

» Cf. Thomas Patrick Hughes, A Dictionary of Islam. A Cyclopcedia of the
Doctrines, Rites, Ceremonies, and Customs, etc., of the Muhammadan Religion.
New York, 1885.

= Happily an edition of 500 copies has recently been issued (1914) by
Messrs. H. HefEer and Sons, Cambridge.

* The sub-editors change with unusual frequency. Already Volume ii,
in course of preparation, has had to secure a substitute for Br. Hartmann.

* Vide infra, pp. 442 f.


this Special Encyclopaedia — all the more because of its
definitely restricted yet comprehensive range — is essential to
the equipment of every serious student of Mohammedanism.
The Bibliographies, unusually copious and discriminative,
are a special feature of this work.

Macauley Jackson, assisted by various Department
Editors. 12 vols. New York : The Funk and Wagnalls
Company, 1908-1912. Pp. circa 500, each volume.

The Editor-in-Chief of this exceedingly useful work was
happily permitted to see it brought to completion before he
was taken from us. He was also editor of one of the leading
departments in a similar publication, issued a few years

As most are aware, the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia was
based by the late Professor Schaff upon the second edition of
Dr. Herzog's BealencyUopddie filr protestantische Theologie
und Kirche,^ — a work comprised within eighteen volumes,
and completed in 1888.^ In Dr. Schaff 's own words, it was
* not a translation but a condensed reproduction and adapta-
tion of all the important German articles, with necessary
additions (especially in the literature), and with a large
number of new articles by the editors and special contributors.
More than one-third of the work is original.' * This entirely
reconstructed treatise appeared, in three volumes, in 1882-
1884. In 1886-1887 a revised edition was issued, and
a fourth volume was added. A subsequent revision took
place in 1891, two years before Dr. Schaff 's death.

The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia is based, however,

* Cf. The New International Encyclopcedia. Vide supra, footnote,
p. 433. * Vide supra, p. 436.

' The first edition, begun in 1854, was completed in twenty-two volumes
in 1868. * Cf. Preface, p. iv.

JACKSON, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia 441

upon the third edition of the German work, for which Pro-
fessor Hauck has acted as sole editor. In the present EngHsh
version of it, the principle of making ' necessary additions '
has continuously been followed ; and, accordingly, an im-
portant article on ' Comparative Eeligion ' has been intro-
duced.^ It is unfortunate that the writer undertakes,
in reality, an exposition of the Science of Religion ; for it is
plain that he has confused two departments of research which
ought to be kept scrupulously apart. Still, since the greater
includes the less, he has much to say concerning the field in
which the comparativist is daily at work. A good deal of the
article is devoted to topics which, to a greater or less extent,
are subsidiary to the study of Comparative Religion ; it will
be found peculiarly timely, therefore, by readers of the
present survey.

Of the general excellencies of this Encyclopedia it is quite
unnecessary to speak. It is one of the very best books of
reference — compact, up-to-date, and reliable — purchasable
in English to-day. A brief working-index, of great value,
has since been prepared, and is now offered for sale.^

herausgegeben von Friedrich Michael Schiele und Leo-
pold Zscharnack. 5 vols. Tubingen : J. C. B. Mohr,
1909-1913. Pp. circa 1000, each volume. M. 130.

The first volume of this notable work appeared in October

Online LibraryLouis Henry JordanComparative religion, its adjuncts and allies → online text (page 38 of 52)