Louis Henry Jordan.

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1909, and covered the ground represented by the topics
emerging between ' A to Deutschland '. Volumes ii and iii
followed shortly afterwards, — the one, allotted to the section
' Deutschmann to Hessen ', appearing in June 1910, and the
other, assigned to ' Hesshus to Lytton ', appearing in
February 1912. Volume iv, embracing ' Maassen to Rogge ',
appeared in July 1913 ; while Volume v — slightly antedated,

1 Cf. vol. iii, pp. 190-203.

2 Cf. George W. Gilmore, Index to the New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of
Religious Knowledge. New York, 1914.


and covering the section ' Eoh to Zypressen ' — was issued
from the press in January 1914. A comprehensive Begister-
hand is promised, and may be expected at the close of the
present year.

A high standard of achievement has been maintained
throughout, and this work will long hold its place as an
authoritative book of reference. The general topics relevant
to Eeligion secure a fuller and more satisfying treatment
than would have been accorded to them a decade ago. Be-
ligionsgeschichte and the religionsgeschichtliche Schule^ are
naturally much more in evidence than vergleichende Beligions-
geschicMe or Beligionsvergleichung. Individual religions are
briefly (yet very capably) handled ; it will su£&ce to state that
Professor Gunkel and Dr. Schiele undertook the editorial
responsibility for all articles expository of the non- Christian

This Encyclopaedia is concise and inviting. It is free from
all needless technicalities. Its successive papers are well pro-
portioned. Its Bibliographies are excellent. It is designed
especially for general and popular use, for it deliber-
ately makes its appeal to a very wide circle of readers ;
nevertheless its scholarship, sound and conspicuous, will not
be found lacking even among those who are no longer

OF THE History, Eeligion, Literature and Customs
OF THE Jewish People from the Earliest Times
TO THE Present Day, edited by Isidore Singer,
assisted by American and Foreign Boards of Consulting
Editors. 12 vols. New York : The Funk and Wag-
nails Company, 1901-1906. Pp. circa 700, each volume.

As in the case of The Encyclopcedia of Islam,^ one finds
here a depository of information bearing exclusively upon

* Vide supra, pp. 331 f. * Vide supra, pp. 438 f.

SINGEK, Jewish Encyclopedia 443

the development of a single religion. Within the scope of
a dozen portly volumes, opportunity is afforded for sum-
marizing in an adequate way all that is authoritatively
known concerning the Jewish race. The period of history
dealt with covers three thousand years. It is no small
achievement that so varied a mass of memoranda has been
brought together within a single treatise.

The conviction has rapidly been growing in Germany that
Encyclopaedias, abandoning the attempt to present an all-
comprehensive survey, should in future confine themselves
to selected and definitely circumscribed themes. This
custom is gaining many adherents in Great Britain and in
the United States, as may be illustrated by the existence of
some of the works of reference which have already been
specified.^ But the process of curtailment, thus recom-
mended, may with advantage be carried still further. We
need more and more, not Encyclopaedias of Mythology, but
an Encyclopaedia of Greek Mythology, ^ — or of Koman
Mythology, Indian Mythology, Egyptian Mythology, Teu-
tonic Mythology, etc., as the case may be. So with Philo-
logy, Archaeology,^ and each of the other sciences in its turn.
In this way, all the various sides of a subject may succes-
sively be studied, and each aspect of it examined under the
guidance of a specialist who has gained unrivalled eminence
in some given field of inquiry.

There was abundance of room, undoubtedly, for an
Encyclopaedia restricted to the history, hterature, and
reHgion of the Jews. The day is within sight when the
rehgion of the Hebrews will call for treatment in an Encyclo-
paedia reserved exclusively for that purpose.* Meanwhile,
the student of Comparative KeHgion will find in this
splendid treatise much prehminary information bearing upon
Judaism, — information not so easily obtained anywhere
else, yet of the highest utiUty in securing those ends which

1 Vide supra, pp. 434 f., 440 f., etc.

2 Vide infra, pp. 459 f . ' Vide infra, pp. 444 f.

* Cf. John P. Peters, The Religion of the Hebrews : vide supra, p. 299.


he must keep persistently before him. The historical develop-
ment of the doctrines distinctive of Judaism are carefully
traced ; the relation of Judaism to Christianity, Islam, and
other rehgions is clearly indicated ; while Jewish sects,
Jewish philosophy, Jewish ethics, etc., are portrayed with
skill, balance, and all the aids of a manifestly comprehensive

Georg Wissowa und Wilhelm Kroll. 12 vols. Stutt-
gart : J. B. Metzler, 1893- . In progress. Pp. circa
1000, each volume. M. 30, each volume.

This great treasury of knowledge — although it is more
contracted in range than some of the works already referred
to — is simply invaluable touching questions which emerge
in connexion with Greek and Eoman rehgion. At the same
time, it has much to say incidentally concerning several
other religions.

Under the skilful editorship of Professor Wissowa, who in
1910 was fortunate enough to enlist the co-operation of
Professor Kroll of Breslau, this standard work has entered
upon a new lease of life. Its contents cover six general
departments, viz. (1) Geographie und Topographie,
(2) Geschichte und Prosopographie, (3) Litteraturgeschichte,
(4) Sogenannte Antiquitaten, (5) Mythologie und Kultus,
and (6) Archaologie und Kunstgeschichte. On questions of
Greek and Eoman mythology, early cults, archaeology,
inscriptions, etc., it is doubtless the premier book of refer-
ence which has thus far been produced. Its Bibliographies
are almost perfect. It possesses an imposing hst of over
one hundred contributors, most of whom are experts in the
researches which it undertakes. Its aim, as the pubKshers
succinctly express it, is * a codification of the entire know-
ledge we possess of the classical age, and the presentation

WISSOWA UND KKOLL, Paulifs Real-Encyclopddie 445

of this knowledge, in lexicon form, in a strictly scientific
manner '.

Four /iaZ/-volumes ^ have been issued during the past four
years, viz. Volume vii (1 and 2) in 1910-1912, and Volume
viii (1 and 2) in 1912-1913. The successive sections have
now advanced as far as the letter ' H ',2 and the work is more
than half finished. In order, however, to keep it up-to-date
during its necessarily slow progress, various Supplements
have been arranged for ; the first one, covering the words
' Aba to Demokratia ', was issued in 1903. The staff of
contributors, moreover, has been enlarged ; and, with a view
of hastening the completion of their task, some of these
scholars have already made a beginning with the letter ' E '.
In this way, two or more portions of the work can in future
be kept advancing simultaneously, — a method which has
been adopted with great advantage by the editor of the
New English Dictionary, now being pubhshed at Oxford.^


The books belonging to this final group are necessarily of
a miscellaneous character. Some of them may seem at first
glance to possess only a remote bearing upon the problems
of Comparative Rehgion ; but, upon examination, it will be
found that they have a closer connexion with that science
than originally seemed probable, while all of them are (in
varying degrees) useful accessories for the prosecution of
researches pertaining to comparative studies.

Many additional publications might fitly have been
included in the following list. The selections made, how-
ever, are fairly representative of others of the same class.
The choicest books have been specified, and each of them
will repay the student's conscientious scrutiny.

^ The pagination runs from the beginning to the close of esichfull volume.
^ The first portion of Volume viii covers ' Helikon-Hestia ' (1912), while
the latter portion covers ' Hestiaia-Hyagnis ' (1913).
' Vide supra, footnote, p. 433.


THE WISDOM OF THE EAST, edited by Lancelot Cran-
mer-Byng and Shaporji Aspaniarji Kapadia. 47 vols.,
thus far. London : John Murray, 1905- . In
progress. Pp. circa 100, each volume. ls.-25., each

These valuable little books are liable to be missed —
or, at least, considerably underestimated — because of their
modest size and cost. They are, it is true, very uneven in
quality. They make no exaggerated pretences. Many of
them are at best merely translations ; some of them are
translations at second-hand, borrowed by permission of the
scholars who originally made them. The editors claim only
that ' these books shall be the ambassadors of goodwill and
understanding between East and West, — ^the old world of
Thought and the new world of Action. . . . They are
confident that a deeper knowledge of the great ideals and
lofty philosophy of Oriental thought may help towards a
revival of that true spirit of charity which neither despises
nor fears the nations of another creed and colour '.

The aim of the series, modest though it is, is an extremely
worthy one. The inexpensiveness of the volumes will ensure
for them an extended circulation ; several of them have
already had to comply with the demand for a second and
third impression. But something more must be said. A
number of the translations included in this series are quite
new, and have been made from difficult and not easily
accessible texts. The assistance of eminent speciaHsts has
been enhsted. Honest and thoroughgoing research has
been one of the objects continually kept in view. Brief —
yet, within their limits, valuable — Introductions have been
secured. And certainly no reader of a comparativist turn
of mind can miss, or fail to profit by, that contrast between
Eastern and Western modes of thought of which he is
constantly kept aware.

Among the more recent additions to this series, special

BYNG AND KAPADIA, The Wisdrnn of the East 447

attention is drawn to two books contributed by Mr. Giles ; ^
an attractive sketch of Early Egyptian religion ; ^ two com-
petent translations from Pali texts,^ and one from a French
text in exposition of Buddhism ; * and a summary of Sikh-
ism ^ that is Hkely to lead not a few to consult the pages of
Mr. Macauhffe's great work,^ upon which it is confessedly based.

WilHam Alexander Curtis. Professor of Systematic
Theology in the University of Aberdeen."^ Edinburgh :
T. and T. Clark, 1911. Pp. xx., 502. 10s. 6^.

It may cause surprise, at first, that this volume should
have been included in the present list ; but a perusal of the
book itself will speedily remove that impression. One finds
here, in point of fact, an admirable illustration of the wisdom
of those students of Comparative EeHgion who, when scru-
tinizing intently the floods of current scientific Hterature,
cast a capacious net.

In this treatise we possess the fruit of a courageous and
exacting undertaking. It is the product of historical and theo-
logical research — uncommonly well executed — which fully
entitled its author to the immediate University recognition
it secured for him. Concerned chiefly with the doctrinal
standards of Christendom,— the texts of whose multifarious
Creeds it reproduces in full — it reminds the reader at
once of a very able American work (devoted to the same

* Cf. Lionel Giles, Mtisings of a Chinese Mystic (1911), and Taoist Teachings

* Cf. Margaret A. Murray, Ancient Egyptian Legends (1913).

' Cf. W. D. C. Wagiswara and Kenneth J. Saunders, The Buddha's * Way
of Virtue' (1912) ; and Edward J. Thomas, Buddhist Scriptures (1913).

* Cf. Winifred Stephens, Legends of Indian Buddhism (1911).

5 Cf. Dorothy Field, The Religion of the Sikhs (1914) ; vide supra, p. 297.
® Cf. Max. A. Maeauliffe, The Sikh Religion : vide supra, pp. 260 f.
' Appointed in 1915 Professor of Biblical Criticism and Biblical Antiquities
in the University of Edinburgh.


subject ^) to which Dr. Curtis more than once acknowledges
his indebtedness. One portion of it, however, is allotted
to ' Creeds and Confessions outside Hebrew and Christian
Eeligion ',2 — Zoroastrian Creeds, Buddhist Creeds, Moham-
medan Creeds, etc. ; and into this brief space — all too cur-
tailed — the author has packed a wonderful amount of
material and suggestion. The volume, as its title affirms, is
contributory for the most part to the History of Religions.
It discloses the various stages through which given doctrinal
statements can be shown to have passed, in the course of
their gradual formulation. But, just as the History of
ReUgions is itself a stepping-stone to Comparative Religion,
so this acute and valuable treatise — not least significant in
its final chapter, where it discusses ' Subscription and its
Ethics : The Ideal Creed ' — prepares the way for the achieve-
ment of that ultimate unity (among the representatives of
all types of beHef) for which thoughtful men everywhere are
now earnestly pleading. ' The house we long to build is to
be vaster [than its predecessors], capable of accommodating
under its spreading roof, not individuals or families only, but
churches, peoples, even religions. . . . There are signs that
Christian missionary enterprise is stimulating other faiths
to formulate their characteristic tenets with a precision and
self-scrutiny hitherto unknown ; and it is probable that the
future will receive from them substantial additions to the
library of dogma. ^

From one point of view, this work might fitly be assigned
a place under Comparative ReHgion,* viz. within that
department of it which is commonly known as Comparative
Theology. It is better, however, on the whole, to put it
under ' Special Works ', seeing that it is really a compre-
hensive Source Book, invaluable for frequent reference. But
students of Comparative Rehgion, having gratefully perused
it, will eagerly scan all other books from the same pen.

^ Cf. Philip Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom. 3 vols. New York, 1877.
[5th edition, 1890.]

* Cf. Chapter ii. » Cf. pp. vii-viii. * Vide infra, pp. 507 f.

DURKHEIM, VAnnee Sociologique 449

L'ANNEE sociologique, publiee sous la direction de
Emile Durkheim, Professeur a la Faculte des Lettres de
rUniversite de Paris. 12 vols., thus far. Paris : Felix
Alcan, 1898- . In progress. Pp. circa 800, each
volume. Fr. 15.

Professor Durkheim, and the eminent group of scholars
who are collaborating with him in the production of this
valuable treatise, interpret * Sociology ' in an extraordinarily
comprehensive way. This department of study is made
wide enough to embrace, not only Sociology as generally
defined,^ but (with emphatic insistence) Rehgious Sociology
in particular, together with all its multifarious afl&Hations
with Anthropology, Ethnology, Mythology, Psychology, etc.
etc.2 Accordingly, under a great variety of headings, and in
harmony with a very thorough-going system of classifica-
tion, nearly all the best literature of practically all lands is
brought under systematic and critical survey, at least once
every three years.^

Occasion has already been taken to point out that M. Durk-
heim is incHned to carry his characteristic views to a very
questionable extreme.* All the books successively examined
and appraised in this pubHcation are brought to the touch-
stone of a somewhat arbitrary standard ; and they are
commended or condemned accordingly. But even where
a given volume may fail to come up to the requirements of
a test which in these pages is often much too rigidly appHed,.
it may still be possessed of qualities which entitle it to honour,,
and possibly to a measure of quite unusual distinction*
These incidental points of excellence are seldom overlooked
in the pages of VAnnee Sociologique, It is because a con-
spicuous degree of fairness, backed by a special knowledge
of the field which the criticized volume has undertaken ta

^ Vide supra, pp. 62 f . ' Vide supra, p. 63.

3 Prior to 1910 (vol. xi, 1906-1909) each volume covered the literature
of the two preceding years.

* Vide supra, pp. 64 f . and 66 f.



deal with, is easily distinguishable in the great majority of its
reviews, that weight and permanent value must be attached
to its well-considered deliverances. It is not surprising
therefore that, while the price of each volume has recently
been advanced from ten to fifteen francs, the number of
purchasers steadily increases. Every student of Comparative
Eeligion who is wise will make a point of ensuring that these
successive surveys shall regularly be added to his book-
shelves. They are a perfect mine of wealth, and cover
practically the whole domain of studies subsidiary to the one
to which he is especially devoted.

Goblet d'Alviella, Senateur, et Professeur de I'Histoire
des Eehgions a TUniversite de Bruxelles. 3 vols.
Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1911. Pp. xx., 386 + 412 + 389.
Fr. 22.50.

The writer of these portly volumes can look back over
B, pubHc career which very few academic leaders to-day
can match. For the space of a generation, he has been
ceaselessly active as a teacher and author ; while, during
more recent years, he has proved a valued and most highly
esteemed member of the Senate of his country.

Professor Goblet d'Alviella is one of the surviving founders
of the Science of Eehgion. Not a few still remember the
mingled suspicion and satisfaction with which his earliest
volume in this field was greeted, both in Belgium and else-
where.^ This treatise, which contains a synopsis of his
first course of lectures, delivered before the University of
Brussels in the winter of 1884-1885, is not included in the
volumes of Collected Writings to which we are now drawing
attention ; but, historically considered, it is a highly valu-
able and significant product. It includes, moreover, an
Appendix which contains matter not elsewhere reprinted,
^nd which is entitled ' Eeponse a quelques objections pro-

^ Cf. Introduction d Vhistoire giniraU des religions. Bruxelles, 1887.

GOBLET d'ALVIELLA, Croyances, Rites, Institutions 451

cluites contre mon cours \^ — a fact all the more piquant
inasmuch as his Legon d'ouverture, dealing with ' Des pre-
juges qui entravent I'etude scientifique des religions ' , is
reproduced in full.^ This earUer course of lectures, re-
delivered each year until 1889 when they were supplanted by
a course deahng with ' Les Principes generaux de revolution
rehgieuse ', produced a deep and far-reaching impression ;
indeed the mental and theological quickening they inspired,
while they were being offered annually in the University,
will never be forgotten by those who heard them.

The present elaborate compilation is a sort of epitome of
the life-work of its author. It includes all the most note-
worthy of his lesser pubhcationS; collected into a convenient
and attractive form. In no way could the varied interests
and investigations of this writer have been exhibited in
a more arresting manner. It is but the simple truth to say
that the production of the literary matter contained in these
three volumes constitutes a very remarkable performance.
All departments of the Science of Eehgion have been investi-
gated. Tome I is allotted to Hierographie, and covers
Archaeology and the History of Eehgions. Tome II is
assigned to Hierologie, and covers Questions of Method and
of Origins. Tome III is reserved for Hierosophie, and
covers Problems of the Present.

In this thesaurus of acute and courageous exposition,
exceedingly useful for reference, it is the second volume that
will chiefly interest the readers of this survey. In it, the
author deals with such topics as ' L'Histoire des Keligions
dans Fenseignement public ',^ ' De la methode comparative
dans I'Histoire des Eeligions ',* ' Les Sciences auxihaires de
I'Histoire Comparee des Eehgions ',^ ' Trois hmitations de la
methode comparative ',^ 'La Methode comparative et le
choix d'un etalon ','' etc. etc.

1 Cf. ibid., pp. 135-74.

' Cf. Croyances, rites, institutions, vol. ii, pp. 1-28.
^ Cf. pp. 46-72. * Cf. pp. 93-108. Vide supra, pp. 346 f.

* C/. pp. 192-210. « Cf. pp. 211-15. ' Cf. pp. 364-94.



Henry Melvill Gwatkin and James Pounder Whitney.
8 vols. Cambridge : The University Press, 1911-
In progress. Pp. circa 800, each volume. £1, each

The Cambridge Modern History, planned by the late Lord
Acton, has found a worthy successor in the present admirable
treatise. The University which has given us The Cambridge
History of English Literature, and which stands so closely
connected with the pubHcation of the latest edition of the
Encyclopcedia Britannica,^ has rendered a further and truly
magnificent service through its preparation and pubHcation
of its ' Modern ' and ' Medieval ' Histories.

The present work, it must be remembered, is not merely
a product of the choicest British scholarship ; it contains,
in addition, the best fruits of learning that Europe and
America are able to furnish. It is, in truth, an inter-
national thesaurus of tested historical information. Scholars
in the United States, France, Italy, and Russia — besides
those of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Spain, etc. —
have cheerfully undertaken the tasks severally entrusted to
them. At the same time, the successive volumes, though
learned, are never laboured. They are intended, ' partly
for the general reader, as a clear and (as far as possible)
interesting narrative ; partly for the student, as a summary
of ascertained facts, with indications (not discussions) of
disputed points ; and partly as a book of reference, contain-
ing all that can reasonably be required in a comprehensive
work of general history '.^

Two volumes of this great undertaking have already
appeared. One is devoted to ' The Christian Roman Empire,
and the Foundation of the Teutonic Kingdoms ' (1911),
while the other deals with ' The Rise of the Saracens, and
the Foundation of the Western Empire ' (1913). It will at

* Vide supra, pp. 433 f . ' Cf. vol. i, p. v.

GWATKIN AND WHITNEY, Cambridge Medieval History 453

once recur to the student of the History of EeHgions that
the period covered is one in which many of the faiths of
mankind underwent an epoch-making transition. It was
an era of syncretism and the interminghng of divergent
spiritual interests. One recalls instantly those books by
Professor Cumont ^ and Professor Toutain ^ — not to mention
others — to which attention has already been directed.

Among the more important sections to which the com-
parativist will be certain to turn, in volume i, are those
written by the late Principal Lindsay on ' The Triumph
of Christianity ' (chap, iv, pp. 87-117), by Dr. M. Manitius
on * The Teutonic Migrations ' (chap, ix, pp. 250-76),
and by Dr. T. Peisker on ' The Asiatic Background '
(chap, xii, pp. 323-66). In the second volume, Pro-
fessor Anthony A. Bevan interprets with extraordinary
compactness and grasp ' Mahomet and Islam ' (chap, x,
pp. 302-28), Professor Carl H. Becker deals very com-
petently with ' The Expansion of the Saracens ' (chaps, xi,
pp. 329-64, and xii, pp. 365-90), Professor Camille
Julhan expounds ' Keltic Heathenism in Gaul ' (chap, xv,
pp. 460-71), the late Sir Edward Anwyl renders the same
service touching ' Keltic Heathenism in the British Isles *
(chap. XV, pp. 472-9), Miss Phillpotts discourses on ' Germanic
Heathenism ' (chap, xv, pp. 480-95), while Kev. Frederick E.
Warren sketches the ' Conversion of the Kelts ' (chap, xvi,
pp. 496-513), and Professor Whitney outhnes the ' Conversion
of the Teutons ' (chap, xvi, pp. 514-42).

The student of Comparative Eehgion might easily suppose,
at first sight, that this work had no very special interest for
him. His * fach ' is not so much as dreamed of by the great
majority of its contributors ; possibly, by some of them, it is
a subject held in conscious and insistent abeyance. Never-
theless, as a ' subsidiary ' to the study of Comparative

* Cf. Franz Cumont, Les Religions orientales dans le Paganisme romain :

Online LibraryLouis Henry JordanComparative religion, its adjuncts and allies → online text (page 39 of 52)