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opinions, but never will they change their principles. Now the
firmer and more immovable their principles are, the more easily they
may come to change their opinions; for they seek for instruments to
carry out their principles; they profit to-day by the cervices of a
tool which seems to them sufficiently sharp to perform its task, and
they cast it aside to-morrow because it has become blunt, and must
be replaced by another. This is what happens to the nations and to
myself at this juncture. The nations are bitterly opposed to France;
the whole German people, both north and south, is unanimous in its
intense hatred against Napoleon. The nations do not allow him to
deceive them; they see through the Caesarean mask, and perceive the
face of the tyrant, despot, and intriguer, lurking behind it. They
do not believe a word of his pacific protestations and promises of
freedom and liberal reforms; for they see that he always means war
when he prates about peace, that he means tyranny when he promises
liberty, and that he gives Draconic laws instead of establishing
liberal institutions. The nations hate Napoleon and abhor his
despotic system. They seek for means to annihilate him and deliver
at length the bloody and trembling world from him. If the princes
were as unanimous in their hatred as the nations are, Germany would
stand as one man, sword in hand; and this sublime and imposing
spectacle would cause Napoleon to retreat with his host beyond the
Rhine, the German Rhine, whose banks would be guarded by the united
people of Germany." "You speak like a Utopian, my dear count," said
the emperor, with a shrug. "If the united people of Germany are
alone able to defeat and expel Bonaparte, he will never he defeated
and expelled, for Germany will never be united; she will never stand
up as one man, but always resemble a number of rats grown together
by their tails, and striving to move in opposite directions. Let us
speak no more of a united Germany; it was the phantom that ruined my
uncle, the Emperor Joseph, whom enthusiasts call the Great Joseph.
But I do not want to be ruined, and therefore I do not want to hear
any thing of a united Germany. Thank God, since 1806, I am no longer
Emperor of Germany, but only Emperor of Austria, and that is enough
for me. I do not care what the princes of the Confederation of the
Rhine are doing, nor what intrigues Prussia is entering into in
order to rise from its humiliating prostration; I fix my eyes only
on Austria, and think only whether Austria will be able to cope with
Bonaparte, or whether she may not ultimately fare as badly as
Prussia did. We have unfortunately experienced already one
Austerlitz; if we should suffer another defeat like it, we would be
lost; hence we must be cautious, and I ask you, therefore, why you
do not want me now to accept the resignation of the generalissimo,
when, only a fortnight ago, you advocated his removal from the
command-in-chief of the army?"

"Your majesty, because a fortnight ago he had been repeatedly
defeated, and because he has now gained a brilliant victory. This
shows your majesty again the difference between opinions and
principles. Opinions change and are influenced by success. After the
battle of Ratisbon, the generalissimo was looked upon with distrust
and anxiety by his army, nay, by the whole people of Austria, who
turned their eyes to the Archduke John, the victor of Sacile and St.
Boniface, and wanted to see at the head of the army a victorious
general, instead of the defeated Archduke Charles; but the latter
has acted the hero, and been victorious at Aspern, and the love and
confidence of the army and people are restored to him; all look upon
him as the liberator of the fatherland, and will stand by him until-

"Until he loses another battle," interrupted the emperor,
sneeringly. "My dear count, one swallow does not make a summer, and-
-Well, what is it, Leonard?" said the emperor, turning quickly to
his footman, who entered the room at this moment.

"Your majesty, his imperial highness the Archduke John has just
arrived, and requests an audience."

"Let the archduke come in," said the emperor; and when the footman
had withdrawn, Francis turned again to the minister. "He is the
second swallow in which the childish people here are hoping," he
said. "But two swallows do not make a summer either; there may still
be a frost under which John's young laurels of Sacile and St.
Boniface will wither. - Ah, here is my brother."

The emperor advanced a few steps to meet the Archduke John, who had
just crossed the threshold, and stood still at the door to bow
deeply and reverentially to his imperial brother.

"No ceremonies, brother, no ceremonies," said the emperor, smiling;
"we are here not in the imperial palace, but in the camp; my crown
is in Vienna, and my head is therefore bare, while yours is wreathed
with laurels."

The emperor said this in so sarcastic a tone that the archduke gave
a start, and his cheeks crimsoned with indignation. But he
restrained his anger, and fixed his eyes calmly on the sneering face
of the emperor.

"Your majesty condescends to jest," he said, composedly, "and I am
glad to see from this that my brother, the victor of Aspern, has
gladdened your majesty's heart."

"Your majesty," said Count Stadion, in a low, pressing tone, "will
you not graciously permit me to withdraw?"

"Ah, you think your presence would be inconvenient during our
interview, and might hinder the free exchange of our confidential
communications? But I do not believe that I and my brother have any
special secrets to communicate to each other, so that the presence
of my minister would be inconvenient to us. However, let the
archduke decide this point. Tell me therefore, brother, is it
necessary that you should see me alone and without witnesses?"

"On the contrary, your majesty," said John, calmly, "it will be
agreeable to me if the minister of foreign affairs is present at our
interview; for, as your majesty deigned to observe, we never have
confidential communications to make to each other, and as we shall
speak only of business affairs, the minister may take part in the

"Stay, then, count. And now, my esteemed brother, may I take the
liberty of asking what induced the commanding-general of my army of
Upper Austria, now stationed at Comorn, to leave his post and pay me
a friendly visit here at Wolkersdorf?"

"Your majesty, I come to implore my sovereign to graciously fulfil
the promise which your majesty vouchsafed to me at Vienna. Your
majesty promised me that I should succor with the forces intrusted
to me the Tyrolese in their heroic struggle for deliverance from the
foreign yoke, and that I might devote all my efforts to aiding this
noble and heroic people, which has risen as one man in order to be
incorporated again with Austria. It was I who organized the
insurrection of the Tyrol, who appointed the leaders of the
peasants, and fixed the day and hour when the insurrection was to
break out."

"Yes, yes, it is true," interrupted the emperor; "you proved that
you were a skilful and shrewd revolutionist, and it was really
fortunate for me that you availed yourself of your revolutionary
talents, not AGAINST me, but FOR me. If I shall ever recover full
possession of the Tyrol, I shall be indebted for it only to the
revolutionary skill of my brother John; and I shall always look upon
it as an act of great disinterestedness on your part to leave me the
Tyrol, and not keep it for yourself; for it is in your hands, and it
is you whom the Tyrolese in their hearts call their real emperor."

"Your majesty is distrustful of the love of the faithful Tyrolese,"
said John, mournfully, "and yet they have sealed it with their blood
since the insurrection broke out; it was always the name of their
Emperor Francis with which they went into battle, the name of the
Emperor Francis with which they exulted triumphantly when God and
their intrepidity made them victorious."

"No, archduke, I know better!" exclaimed the Emperor, vehemently.
"They did not confine themselves to rendering homage to me, but when
the peasants had taken Innspruck, they placed the Archduke John's
picture on the triumphal arch by the side of my own portrait,
surrounded it with candles, and rendered the same homage to it as to
that of the emperor."

"It is true, the honest peasants know nothing of etiquette," said
John, sadly." They believed in their simplicity that they might love
a little their emperor's brother, who had been sent to their
assistance by his majesty, and that they might place his picture
without further ceremony by the side of that of the emperor. But
that they nevertheless knew very well how to distinguish the emperor
from the archduke, and that they granted to the emperor the first
place in their hearts, and deemed him the sole object of their
loyalty, is proved by the song which the Tyrolese sang with
enthusiastic unanimity on fastening the Austrian eagle to the
imperial palace at Innspruck. As such full particulars of the events
in the Tyrol were sent to your majesty, I am sure this beautiful
song was likewise communicated to you."

"No, it was not," said the emperor, carelessly. "What song is it?"

"Your majesty, it is a hymn of joy and triumph which, ever since
that day, is sung by all Tyrolese, not only by the men, but also by
the women and children, and which resounds now as the spring-hymn of
the new era both in the valleys and on the summits of the mountains.
I am sorry that I do not know the words by hearts, but I shall have
the honor of sending them to your majesty. I remember only the
refrain of every verse, which is as follows:"

"'Ueberall lebt'st seh treu und bieder, Wo der Adler uns angeschaut,
Und nu' haben wir unsern Franzel wieder, Weil wir halt auf Gott and
ihn vertraut.'" [Footnote: "Far reaching as the eagle's view, Are
beating loyal hearts and true; Once more our Francis can we claim,
Because we trust in God's great name!"]

"That is quite pretty," said the emperor, smiling. "And is that the
song they are singing now in the Tyrol?"

"Your majesty, they not only sing it, but they believe in it too.
Yes, the Tyrolese confide in your majesty; they believe implicitly
in the promises which your majesty has made to them, and they would
punish as a traitor any one who should dare to tell them that these
promises would not be fulfilled."

"And who asserts that they will not be fulfilled?" asked the

"Your majesty, the facts will unfortunately soon convince the
Tyrolese that they must not look for the fulfilment of these
promises," said the archduke, sighing. "At the very moment when the
Tyrol is being threatened by two hostile armies, those of the
Viceroy of Italy and the Duke of Dantzic, and when the Tyrol,
therefore, if it is not to succumb again to such enormous odds,
urgently needs assistance and succor, I receive orders to leave the
Tyrol and march to Hungary. That is to say, I am to give up
Salzburg, which is occupied by the French; I am not to succor
Innspruck, which is menaced by Baraguay d'Hilliers. Not only am I
not to lend any assistance to the Tyrolese, but I am to break their
moral courage and paralyze their energy, by showing to them by my
retreat that the emperor's promises will not be fulfilled, and that
the army of Upper Austria abandons the Tyrol to succor Hungary."

"Well, the Tyrol is not yet abandoned, even though the Archduke John
is no longer there," said the emperor, shrugging his shoulders. "We
have two generals with corps there, have we not? Are not the Marquis
of Chasteler and Count Buol there?"

"They are, your majesty; but the Marquis of Chasteler is morally
paralyzed by the sentence of outlawry which Napoleon has issued
against him, and Count Buol has too few troops to oppose the enemy's
operations, which are not checked by any corps outside the Tyrol."

"Ah, you wish to give me another proof of the fraternal love
reigning between you and the Archduke Charles?" asked the emperor
sarcastically. "You wish to oppose the orders of your

"I wish to ask the emperor, my sovereign, whether I am to give up
the Tyrol or not; I wish to ask him if he orders me to march my army
to Presburg, unite with the insurgent forces, and operate there
against the enemy."

"Are these the generalissimo's orders?"

"They are, your majesty."

"And what else does he command?"

"He commands me, further, to make myself master of the two islands
of Schutt in front of Presburg, take Altenburg by a coup de main,
and garrison, supply, and provision the two fortresses of Raab and
Comorn for six months."

A sarcastic expression overspread the emperor's face.

"Well, these are excellent and most energetic orders," he said.
"Carry them out, therefore."

"But, your majesty, it is not in my power to do so. These orders
look very fine on paper, but they cannot be carried into effect. I
have neither troops nor supplies enough to garrison, supply, and
provision Raab and Comorn, and hold Presburg, even after effecting a
junction with the troops of the Archduke Palatine and the Hungarian
volunteers. And the generalissimo is well aware of it, for I have
always acquainted him with what occurred in my army; he knows that
my forces and those of the Archduke Palatine together are scarcely
twenty-five thousand strong, and that one-half of these troops
consists of undisciplined recruits. He knows that the enemy is
threatening us on all sides with forty thousand veteran troops. The
generalissimo is so well aware of this, that he spoke of the
weakness of the remnants of my army in the dispatches which he
addressed to me only a few days ago. But the victory of Aspern seems
suddenly to have made the generalissimo believe that, inasmuch as he
himself has performed extraordinary things, he may demand of me what
is impossible."

"What is impossible?" said the emperor, with mischievous joy. "So
brave and heroic a soldier as you, archduke, will not deem
impossible what his chief orders him to do. The Archduke Charles is
your chief, and you have to obey him. He orders you to hold Raab and
Presburg. Go, then, and carry out the orders of your commander-in-

"As your majesty commands me to do so, I shall obey," said John,
calmly; "only I call your majesty's attention to the fact that, if
the enemy accelerates his operations and compels me soon to give
battle, I shall be unable to hold Raab, for which so little hag been
done hitherto, and that I shall lose the battle unless the
generalissimo sends a strong corps to my assistance."

"It is your business to come to an understanding with the
generalissimo as to that point. He possesses my full confidence, for
he showed excellent generalship at Aspern. There is no reason why I
should distrust him."

"And God forbid that I should wish to render you distrustful of
him!" exclaimed John, vehemently. "I hope my brother Charles will
remain yet a long while at the head of the army, and give many
successors to the victory of Aspern."

"But you doubt if he will, do you not?" asked the emperor, fixing
his small light-blue eyes with a searching expression on John's
face. "You do not rejoice much at the brilliant victory of Aspern?
You do not think that Bonaparte is entirely crushed and will hasten
to offer us peace?"

"Your majesty, you yourself do not believe it," said John, with a
smile. "Napoleon is not the man to be deterred by a defeat from
following up his plans; he will pursue them only the more
energetically, and he will attain his ends, though, perhaps,
somewhat less rapidly, unless we adopt more decisive measures."

"Look, Stadion," exclaimed the emperor, smiling, "I am glad that the
Archduke John agrees with me. He repeats only what I said to you
about Bonaparte."

"But, your majesty, the archduke added something to it," said Count
Stadion, quickly; "he said Austria ought to adopt more decisive

"Ah, and now you hope that the archduke will say to me what you have
already said so often, and that he will make the same proposals in
regard to more decisive measures as you did, minister?"

"Yes, I do hope it, your majesty."

"Well, let us see," exclaimed the emperor, with great vivacity.
"Tell me, therefore, archduke, what more decisive measures you
referred to."

"Your majesty," replied John, quickly, "I meant that we should
strive to get rid of our isolated position, and look around for
allies who will aid us not only with money, as England does, but
also with troops."

"And what allies would be most desirable for Austria, according to
your opinion, archduke?"

The archduke cast a rapid, searching glance on the face of the
minister, who responded to it by a scarcely perceptible nod of his

"Your majesty," said Archduke John, quickly, "Prussia would be the
most desirable ally for Austria."

The emperor started back, and then turned almost angrily to Stadion.
"In truth," he said, "it is just as I thought; the archduke repeats
your own proposals. It seems, then, that the formerly so courageous
war-party at my court suddenly droops its wings, and thinks no
longer that we are able to cope single-handed with Bonaparte. Hence,
its members have agreed to urge me to conclude an alliance with
Prussia, and now come the besieging forces which are to overcome my
repugnance. The minister himself was the first to break the subject
to me; now he calls the Archduke John to his assistance, and takes
pains to be present at the very hour when the archduke arrives here
to second his efforts in attacking me. Half an hour later, and the
empress will make her appearance to assist you, and convince me that
we ought to secure, above all things, the alliance of Prussia."

"Pardon me, your majesty," said Count Stadion, earnestly; "I have,
unfortunately, not the honor of being one of the archduke's
confidants, and I pledge you my word of honor that I did not know at
all that his royal highness was coming hither."

"And I pledge your majesty my word of honor that neither the empress
nor Count Stadion ever intimated to me, directly or indirectly, that
they share my views, and have advocated them already before your

"Then you have come quite independently, and of your own accord, to
the conclusion that we ought to form an alliance with Prussia?"

"Yes, your majesty; I believe that this has now become a necessity
for us."

"But Prussia is a humiliated and exhausted state, which exists only
by Bonaparte's grace and the intercession of the Emperor of Russia."

"Your majesty speaks of Prussia as it was in 1807," said Count
Stadion, "after the defeats of Jena, Eylau, and Friedland. But since
then two years have elapsed, and Prussia has risen again from her
prostration; she has armed secretly, rendered her resources
available, and found sagacious and energetic men, who are at work
silently, but with unflagging zeal, upon the reorganization of the
army, and preparing every thing for the day of vengeance."

"Let us ally ourselves with regenerated Prussia, which is longing
for vengeance!" cried John, ardently; "let us unite with her in the
struggle against our common foe. Prussia and Austria should be
harmonious, and jointly protect Germany."

"No," said the emperor, almost angrily, "Prussia and Austria are
natural enemies; they have been enemies ever since Prussia existed,
for Prussia, instead of contenting herself with her inferior
position, dared to be Austria's rival; and, moreover, Austria can
never forgive her the rapacious conquest of Silesia."

"Oh, your majesty," exclaimed John, impetuously, "let us forget the
past, and fix our eyes on the present and future France is the
common enemy of all Europe; all Europe ought to unite in subduing
her, and we will not even solicit the cooperation of our neighbor!
But an alliance between Austria and Prussia will render all Germany
united, and Germany will then be, as it were, a threatening rock,
and France will shrink from her impregnable bulwarks, and retire
within her natural borders."

"Words, words!" said the emperor, shrugging his shoulders. "You
enthusiasts always talk of a united Germany, but in reality it has
never existed yet."

"But it will exist when Prussia and Austria are allied; only this
alliance must be concluded soon, for we have no time to lose. and
every delay is fraught with great danger. France is intent on
establishing a universal monarchy; Napoleon does not conceal it any
longer. If France really succeeds in keeping the German powers at
variance and enmity, and uniting with Russia against them, our last
hour will strike; for these two powers, if united, will easily come
to an understanding as to the division of Europe; and even though
Russia did not entertain such an intention, France would communicate
it to her. [Footnote: The archduke's own words. - See "Letters from
the Archduke John to Johannes von Mueller," p. 81.] Hence, Russia.
should likewise be gained, and its alliance, by Russia's
intercession, be secured, so that Germany, in days of adversity,
might count upon her."

"You believe then, archduke, that days of adversity are yet in store
for us?" asked the emperor.

"Your majesty, I am afraid they are, if we stand alone. All is at
stake now, and all must be risked. We are no longer fighting for
provinces, but for our future existence. We shall fight well; but
even the best strength is exhausted in the long run, and he who
holds out longest remains victorious. Which side has better chances?
Austria, so long as she opposes France single-handed, has not; but
Austria and Prussia, if united, assuredly have. If Austria falls
now, the best adversary of France falls, and with her falls Prussia,
and Germany is lost."

"And what would you do, archduke, if Austria, as you say, were

"Your majesty, if Austria should sink into ruin, I should know how
to die!"

"You would, like Brutus of old, throw yourself upon your sword,
would you not? Well, I hope we shall not fare so badly as that, for
you have pointed out to me a way of saving the country. You have
proved to me that Austria can be saved by an alliance with Prussia.
Fortunately, I have sometimes ideas of my own, and even a head of my
own. I had this morning a long interview with the Prince of Orange,
who has just arrived from Koenigsberg, where he saw the King of
Prussia. He laid before me a detailed report of what he had seen
there, and I made up my mind before I had heard your advice. - Count
Stadion, be so kind as to take the paper lying on the desk. Do you
know the handwriting?"

"I believe it is your majesty's handwriting," said Count Stadion,
who, in accordance with the emperor's order, had taken the paper
from the desk.

"Yes, it is my handwriting; for, though not as learned as my brother
John, I am at least able, if need be, to write a letter. Be so kind,
minister, as to read my letter aloud."

Count Stadion bowed, and read as follows:

"To his majesty, King Frederick William of Prussia: "Headquarters,
Wolkersdorf, June 8, 1809.

"SIR, MY BROTHER: The Prince of Orange, who has arrived at my
headquarters here, has told me unreservedly, and with full
confidence, of the repeated conversations he had with your majesty
during his recent sojourn at Koenigsberg. You left no doubt in his
mind as to your firm conviction that the existence of our two
monarchies can be protected from the rapacious system of the Emperor
Napoleon only by an active and cordial alliance. For a long time
past, aware of the opinions and wisdom of your majesty, I could
foresee that your majesty would not refuse to take a step, justified
not less by the logic of events than the loyalty of the nations
which Providence has confided to our care."

"The bearer, Colonel Baron Steigentesch, a distinguished staff-
officer of my army, will confer with your majesty's government as to
the questions which may arise in regard to an alliance between the
two countries: he is authorized to regulate the proportions of the
forces to be employed on both sides, and the other arrangements not
less salutary than indispensable for the security of the two states.
For the same reasons I shall speedily send instructions to my
ambassador at Berlin in conformity with the overtures made by Count
von der Goltz."

"Your majesty will permit me to assure you that I remain as ever,
Your most obedient, FRANCIS, Emperor of Austria." [Footnote:
"Lebensbilder," vol, iii., p. 266.]

While Count Stadion was reading the letter, the emperor closely
watched the effect it produced upon the archduke. He saw that John

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