Lucius L. (Lucius Lee) Hubbard.

Contributions toward a bibliography of Gulliver's travels to establish the number and order of issue of the Motte editions of 1726 and 1727, their relative accuracy and the source of the changes made in the Faulkner editions of 1735, with a list of editions in a private online

. (page 2 of 13)
Online LibraryLucius L. (Lucius Lee) HubbardContributions toward a bibliography of Gulliver's travels to establish the number and order of issue of the Motte editions of 1726 and 1727, their relative accuracy and the source of the changes made in the Faulkner editions of 1735, with a list of editions in a private → online text (page 2 of 13)
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plified in the editions above tabulated as first and second
respectively. Volume I and a part of Volume II of the
first edition are singularly free from errors of spelling —
which are the errors that the more readily catch the eye —
while the second edition contains many. Two prominent
errors of this kind have just been cited. A few of the many
others are:

?The words "Pilate" and "Pilot" in the 1st ed. of Robinson
Crusoe furnish an instance in point. Where, under the old process
of hand-inking, type were pulled out and put back, they might be
misplaced and show an error in the later printing, but this cannot
apply to an error like that from Robinson Crusoe nor to those about
to be cited.

8 This argument was advanced and ably defended by the late
Luther S. Livingston, in an article in the New York Post of De-
cember 23, 1905, in which he strongly differed from some conclu-
sions in the Hoe catalogue.




second Edition













to and fro

two and fro






























Languxge, &c. &c.

The compositor of a new edition might correct some errors
in the first if any there were, and overlook others. He
would even make new ones, as is apparent as late as the
editions of 1727. Witness the following examples from the
4th (8vo.) edition:




impossile (for "impossible")




hurlling (for "hulling")




tryed (for "tyed" and "tied")


course (for "Cause")


think (for "thin")


omission of "found"




expostuled (for "expostulated")


greet (for "great")


himself (for "myself")


Actvity (for Activity")


Smilies (for "Similies")

All of which are given correctly in each of the earlier edi-

Part III of the 4th (8vo) edition is singularly free from
errors of spelling. One error common to all four editions
is the misnumbering of Chap. VII, Vol. II, Part III, 94,
which is printed "Chap. V." While this error may have
occurred in the manuscript, it must have been copied subse-



quently from the printed sheets. 9 A similar error, due rath-
er to Swift's oversight, is "Lilliput" for "Blefuscu" (Pt. I,
145.8) which is first corrected in the 4th edition, and is
found uncorrected in some modern editions. This correc-
tion points to an unusual amount of care taken in the prep-
aration of the 4th (8vo.) edition, and yet we have seen
some errors in that edition, that occur in none of the pre-

Of the copies used for this investigation nearly all were
in contemporaneous bindings, the prevailing style being
panelled calf. A few "hybrids," in which the text of one
edition is joined with the title page of another, are found
in circulation, but all that were noted by the writer were in
new bindings. Possibly a commercial spirit has prompted
some of these combinations, for in this way a "rare" edi-
tion could be made that would tempt the uninformed col-
lector, or a second edition palmed off as a first.

Some unusual combinations probably originated during
the period of the early issues. One such is the combination
already noted of the preliminary leaves and text of "The
Second Edition," Vol. II, with the first title page of the 3rd
edition (edition not noted on title page). At least one copy
like this is known in contemporaneous binding and was
probably the work of the publisher; rebound copies are
common ; the supply of the proper title page may have been
exhausted. This combination has given rise to the belief
that there were two issues of the 2nd edition, and further
ground for this belief lies in some minor variations in the
text that will be considered duly. Note well, that the mates
(Vol. I) of these two varieties of Vol. II are in all respects

The first edition, as already noted, has xvi preliminary
pages at the front of Vol. I while each of the later editions
has but xii. The printed matter is the same in each case,

9 The same error appears in the 24mo. ed. of 1727, by the same
publisher, and in the 8vo. (but not in the 12mo.) Dublin ed. of 1735.


but in the first edition there are four blank pages, in the
third, two, and in the second and fourth there is one. In
these the printed matter has been moved towards the front to
fill one or more of the blank pages. To the pages thus
gained in the C. P. edition a fourth was added by condens-
ing the three pages of the Contents into two, as already
noted. The resulting xii pages of preliminary matter
united with the first four pages of text form signature A,
leaving 144 pages of text in Part I for the next nine full
signatures. This change was in the interest of economy, and
of the two editions the one that is the more economically
arranged should seem to be the later.

In Part II there are no differences in the signature divi-
sions, between the 1st and 2nd editions — 3 preliminary
leaves, 10 full signatures and two leaves of signature M.
In the third edition, however, two full pages are gained in
Chapters VI and VII.

In Part III the second edition gains one page over the
first edition, in Chapter XL The third edition is like the

In Part IV the first two editions are alike in their signa-
tures, and the third, although slightly different from them,
occupies the same number of pages. This difference is due
to several slight enlargements of the text.

The order of issue of the first three editions as shown in
the table is thus also on economical grounds apparently
justified. 10


Each of the octavo editions has, as frontispiece to Vol. I,
an oval medallion portrait of "Captain Lemuel Gulliver."
This portrait occurs in three states. The earliest print has

10 W. Spencer Jackson, in Vol. XII, p. 144, of The Prose Works of
Jonathan Swift, D.D., edited by Temple Scott, rightly designates
the first edition of Gulliver's Travels (Cf. Vol. VIII of the same


the name of Gulliver in a tablet below the medallion, while
a group of ten concentric lines in an oval surrounds the oval
that forms the border of the medallion (PI. I). The second
state has the name of Gulliver in or on the ten-lined oval
around the portrait and a Latin quotation from Persius in
the tablet where the name stood formerly. The third is a
retouch of the second, as is particularly evident in the four
corners outside the outer oval, and in the additional shading
on the inner oval (Pis. IX and X). That this is the sequence
of these portraits is apparent from the absolute identity, in
all copies, of the ten oval lines in the first two states. These
could not possibly have been totally erased with the name,
and re-engraved without some differences. Moreover there
are in some copies visible traces of erasures made of lines
and letters in the tablet, when Gulliver's name was trans-
posed and the Latin quotation engraved in its place. In the
third state these lines are restored. The portrait in the first
state occurs rarely, and then only in the first edition, both
large paper and standard size. The portrait in the third
state first occurs in the fourth (8vo.) edition, but not always.
The other plates in these editions are two maps for Part
III, and one for each of the other Parts, and a plate of
symbols in Part III.

The consideration of the C. P. edition was taken up out
of its apparently logical order, with the object of establish-
ing a fixed datum point, to which different lines of evidence
might be tied. This edition appears, on satisfactory con-
temporaneous evidence, to have been issued later than De-
cember 7, 1726, and to have been the last edition of that

It is important next to show that there were only two
other editions or issues in 1726, and this can best be done by
describing and classifying the other copies, in the order of
their issue, that were printed in that year.



Some details on this edition have already been given with
the opinion that great care would naturally be taken in the
preparation of the first issue of a book whose claims to
public favor might in part depend upon its typographical
excellence, especially if the author were unknown. This
opinion is found justified for Vol. I and for the first half
of Parts III and IV respectively.

In Vol. I few or no cases of misspelling occur unless
some of those below be such.

There are cases of the use of "y" for "i" such as "coyns,"
"carryes" ; tyed, ty'd, tied ; Traytor, Traitor ; Pyrate, Pirate ;
of the shorter form of the past participle, such as "fastned"
and "stript." No uniformity seems to have been practised ;
different spellings of the same word occur on adjacent pages,
or even on the same page; we find Governour, Governor;
Gardener, Gardiner; Shoar, Shore; extream, extreme;
Shooes, Shoos, Shoes; Cloaths, Cloths, Clothes; Wast,
Waste, Waist; Gooss, Goose; Floud, Flood; Scituation, Sit-
uation ; and others. No arguments for sequence of editions
have been based on these differences.

Two words are omitted without impairing the sense;
"grave (and) decent" (Pt. II, 55.8) and "as fast (as) he
could" (Part II, 61.12). There are errors of punctuation and
a want of uniformity in the capitalization of nouns and
numerals, but these have not been critically considered be-
because they are not needed for the purpose in hand, and
because no fast rule in their use seems to have been followed
in any of the editions.

The text of Vol. I is printed uniformly from the same
font; that of Vol. II is also uniform throughout but the
type is larger than that of Vol. I. In the former the printed
page of 25 lines is 5}4 inches high; in the latter, 5 T /> inches
(second ed. 5 T % in. and 5 T V in.) or less. Page 74 of Part
III is wrongly numbered "44."



The usual size of the leaf in the standard 8vo. editions is
about 7\^ x 4% inches. Of the first edition some copies
were printed on large paper, about 9y% x 5^4 inches. So
far as known, these large paper copies are found with the
portrait in the first state only.

There were seven text variations noticed in this edition,
which point to changes that occurred during the press work.
Three corrected words appear in only the large paper copies
— all on one page; the fourth was found in only one of the
standard copies consulted. The former are "Conspiricies"
and "turbulancy" (Pt. Ill, 90.11, 90.12 and 90.13), so
spelled in the standard copies, and the catchword "sufficient"
(Pt. IV, 64.26) which in this edition appears to have been
changed only in the large paper copies to "frequent," to
correspond with the first word of the next page. 11

The fourth case is "Guiuea" (Pt. Ill, 155.1) which was
found correct in only one copy, and that of standard size.
It may be noted, however, that the italic "n" inverted is not
distinguishable from "u," and if this be a case of "pulled"
type, the correct form may have preceded the incorrect. In
any event the above evidence should seem to indicate that
the large paper copies represent an intermediate if not the
final printing of the first edition. 12

From and after page 90 in Part III there are many errors
in the first edition, and signatures I to K, pp. 113-144, in all

11 The word "frequent" at the head of the next page is mis-
spelled "frequant" in some copies of the second edition.

12 The errors on page 50, Pt. IV, in the large paper copies, "trea-
sted" for "treated," "old" for "sold," and "ill" for "till," evidently
originated during the press-work. These words severally begin or
end a line. In the standard copies the "s" of "sold" is already out
of alignment. It finally worked out and was re-inserted three lines
further up before the second syllable of "trea-ted," as is evident
from the fact that the "s" in that syllable is of the single type, and
not of the usual "st" combination. The "t" of "till" seems to have
disappeared from the page. These errors were noted by Ford,
but have not been found thus far in copies of standard size.


copies examined appear, with some minor exceptions (see p.
33), to be identical with the same signatures in the second
edition. An examination of further copies may result in
the finding of a different text for these signatures.


The fact has already been noted that copies of this vol-
ume, which contains the error "Subsidues," are mated re-
spectively with the Vol. II entitled "The Second Edition,"
(Type A), and with another whose relative position in the
series is not indicated, but which is distinguished among the
S. P. copies of 1726 by having "Vol. II" on its title page
(Type B). It is none other than the title page of the C. P.
edition (PL VIII).

It is in this edition that occur the largest number of errors,
and where consequently we should expect to find the largest
number of variations in the text, if errors were corrected as
they were noticed during the progress of the printing. Vol-
ume I of this edition is printed in large part from a font
like that used both in the first and C. P. editions, and in the
absence of typographical errors equivalent pages from the
three texts cannot usually be distinguished apart.

In its entirety, however, the text of Vol. I of the second
edition, in contrast with the uniformity that marks the other
texts, is separable into four units, to-wit: pages 1-52, Part
I ; page 53, Part I, to p. 80, Part II, inclusive ; pages 81-160,
and 161-164, Part II. Each of the first three units ends on
the last page of a signature. The type of the first and
second units is similar but not identical; that of the third
unit is quite different from that of any of the others.
Changes in the page numbers and running titles from unit
to unit increase the contrasts,' and finally the paper of the
first and third units, so far as noted, is thinner than that of
the second. These facts lead to the belief that the first and
third units were not only set, but actually printed in a dif-



ferent establishment, or in different establishments, from
the second. A similar inference may also account for dif-
ferences noted above in the earlier issue.

The three title pages of Vol. I are identical with those of
the first edition,) the first or general title page being 6^
inches high, outside border to border. The separate title
page to Part I of these two editions (PI. Ill) is the only
title page in the series that has a printer's device, which is a
basket of fruit and flowers. The condensation of the xvi
preliminary pages of the first edition into xii pages in the
later editions has already been noted (p. 16). Exactly the
same setting has apparently been used in each case, except
that for the Contents a narrower headpiece and the omis-
sion of the tailpiece were found necessary for lack of space,
and in the later edition the catchword at the bottom of the
last page of the Contents of Part II is printed "TRVELS."

The preliminary leaves of a book are printed last. While
Vol. I of the second edition was in the printing the forms of
the preliminary pages of the first edition were still available,
and the printer here again exercised his economical bent and
used with them the old title pages in preference to labeling
his new Vol. I as the second edition, to correspond with its
mate, Vol. II.

Examples of errors of spelling in this edition have already
been given. There are at least ten of them in the first unit
to two in the other ninety-six pages of Part I. In some
copies corrections have been made of some of these errors
which are not without interest :

p. 22.3

p. 25

p. 2621



Headpiece inverted
Headpiece upright
Headpiece inverted
Headpiece upright



These three errors occur respectively on pages 2, 5, and 6
of signature C, Part I. The signatures were printed in two


halves or "lorms" of eight pages each, front and back, in
two operations. Pages 2 and 6 were on one side — the
inner form — and page 5 was on the outer. The inner
form of some sheets must have been printed at the same time
as the outer of other sheets, both before and after the cor-
rection of the errors, leaving one side of the sheet blank in
each case, while the sheets perhaps were drying. Sheets
with "gerat" and "inpartially," were then printed on the
back, respectively before and after the correction of the
headpiece. Similarly, of sheets on which the headpiece side
or outer form was printed first (uncorrected and corrected
respectively), some were then printed on the other side
before, and some after the two words had been corrected.
In no other probable way would the intermediate combina-
tions be possible.

Copies with all three corrections represent therefore the
latest states of the forms in question. The two copies noted
in this class have in Vol. II the title page from the third
edition. The uncut copy from the Hoe collection is also in
this class, so that instead of being a first edition it really
represents the latest printing of the second. So far, then,
as Volume I is concerned, there can not be said to be a second
issue of the second edition. There was but one.

No other variants were noticed in Part I, and none at all
in Part II.


Part III

The natural, i.e., the earlier mate of the Vol. I just de-
scribed is probably the more common volume, the one first
above designated, and labeled "The Second Edition" (PI.
XI). The publication of this edition having been shown to
have preceded that of the C. P. edition, the use of the title
page of the latter with the body of the former must have been
simply an economical makeshift, an example of which we
have already seen in Vol. I. Moreover, in the latter combi-


nation there seem to be the more passages that have under-
gone alteration (Cf. pp. 31, 33).

The general title page in this volume — "The Second Edi-
tion" — is 6^ inches high within the outside frame of the
border. The substituted title page is about 6% inches high,
and as noted above has on it "Vol. II" (PI. VIII). In each
of these general title pages the first letter of the date, M, is
larger than those that follow it, and differs in this respect
from the first edition, in which these letters are all of the
same size.

The "Contents," as a unit, is of a different setting and its
capitals are of a different font from those of the first edi-
tion. In the body of the text, however, the same font of
type as in the first edition seems to have been used through-
out the volume.

A careful examination of Part III in many copies showed
only two variants caused by the correction of two misspelled
words. The identity of this Part in all other respects in all
of the copies, with either title page — and there are many
means of identification — is beyond question. These words
are "Debr" for "Debt" (p. 15.15), and "ngular" for "singu-
lar" (p. 114.6).

A comparison of Part III in the first and second editions
shows a well marked difference in the capitalization of nouns,
in the spelling of certain words, and in several cases in the
lineal grouping — or setting — of the words of the text over
two or more lines. See pp. 7, 77, 82, 87, 99, 103, and 104.
There are some pages that look identical in the two cases,
but since great care was generally taken to have the pages
in the different editions correspond at the first and last word
respectively, often no dissimilarity throughout the page is
distinguishable where similar type was used. These remarks
apply generally to Part III ; except to signatures I and K,
pages 113-144. Head pieces, chapter headings and tail
pieces, defective type and misspelled words show that these
two signatures are identical with those of the first edition,


as above intimated. Of defective type two instances are in
"I hired" (p. 121.7) and in "Mouths" (p. 123.7), and of
misspelled words a few are "Justce" (p. 113.6), "en-ed" (p.
115.9), and "menti-ed" (p. 139.5).

As between the first and second editions only two variants
were noted in these signatures. The error "ngular" appears
in all eight copies consulted of the first edition (PI. XII).
It was found corrected in two copies of the second edition,
and in each case the copy had the general title page of the
third edition, as might be expected (PI. XIII).

The second variant is "converse" (p. 138.1) for "(he had)
conversed," which occurs in the verbal form in this passage
in copies of the first edition, but in the substantival (although
nowhere capitalized) in all of the other editions, so far as
noted. (Cf. infra, p. 93.)

Of Part III, then, there were only two S. P. editions in
1726, and only one issue of each edition.

Part IV

A superficial comparison of Part IV of the first edition
with that of the second edition leads to the belief that they
are in all respects identical. The first title page, the head-
pieces of the Contents and of Chapter I, the running titles
and the page numbers, and finally the type of the text, all
point to this conclusion. Careful scrutiny, however, leads
to a different conclusion. The lower right leg of R in
WORLD on the title page in one case is horizontal on the
bottom ; in the other curved. The headpiece of the Contents,
beside other differences, is respectively without and with
stars at the four corners. Although the headpiece and the
initial letter to Chapter I are the same there are three differ-
ences in the chapter Contents on that page.

After Chapter I the headpieces in the two editions agree
only in signatures C, F, K, and N, so that on general prin-
ciples it should be only in these signatures that we might
possibly find other evidences of identity, but in all of them


except N we do find evidence, amounting to proof, that they
were not printed from the same settings for both editions.
This evidence is found : ( 1 ) In italicized nouns whose initial
letters are from different fonts in the two several issues (p.
71, etc.)- The forms "Gray" and "Grey" are used indis-
criminately, even on the same page, so they could not have
been a subject of correction from one printing to another;
(2) The first edition contains the more reasonable reading
in passages of which two versions exist, as might be expected
where type is set from manuscript ; (3) There is often notice-
able on corresponding pages otherwise alike a difference in
the spacing of the words, which not seldom extends to an
apparent reset of one or more lines.

In signature N, however, instances of marred type, as
hereinafter noted (p. 36), show that the same settings were
used both in the first and second editions.

This Part IV of the second edition, beside its real and
pseudo-resemblances to the same Part of the first edition,
has some other peculiarities not equally accentuated in the
other Parts. It contains about sixty errors, and signature
I, pages 113-128, occurs in two entirely different settings,
which together contain, in the ratio of about two to three,
about thirty errors or differences — one or more on each
page but two. Copies with each signature seem to be equally
common and each signature occurs in combination with each
of the two title pages to Parts III and IV, so that there is
no apparent clue to the order of their issue nor to the cause
of the variation. The usual correspondence of pages with
like-numbered pages of other settings, as previously noted, is
here broken for the first time — the first time, excepting of
course those pages where the printed matter was condensed
for economical reasons. There are two different settings of
eighteen consecutive lines on pages 119 and 120, and of
several lines in the lower half of page 122; eleven lines of
the latter are also differently spaced from the corresponding
lines in the first edition. These two settings are best dis-


2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Online LibraryLucius L. (Lucius Lee) HubbardContributions toward a bibliography of Gulliver's travels to establish the number and order of issue of the Motte editions of 1726 and 1727, their relative accuracy and the source of the changes made in the Faulkner editions of 1735, with a list of editions in a private → online text (page 2 of 13)