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for investigation, and upon the result which may be reached it will
depend whether it be necessary to pursue the inquiry in other
directions.

A person's name was that which was given in baptism, to which,
in process of time, was added another, which therefore was appro-
priately styled the surname. The sources from which surnames
were derived were various, chief among which were personal char-
acteristics, as Long, Short, Brown, White ; oSice, as Sumner, Reave,
Constable, Parson; occupation, as Tailor, Goldsmith, Cooper,
Baker ; and place of abode, from which John living at Kelvedon was
known as John de Kelvedon until de was dropped and Kelvedon



The Introduction. 15

became the family name. It will he perceived at a glance that, as
respects the name whose history we are investigating, the last of
these four sources has the best — T might almost say the only —
promise of success, and in point of locality we are directed first to
the county of Essex.

There are in Essex two places which at once occur to those who
are familiar with that part of England. Braintree suits well as
to its earlier half, but its second is by no means adapted to what
we require. In substance, tree and wood are indeed not distantly
connected, but our concern lies less with substance than with form,
and particularly with sound. With these few words we may then
dismiss Braintree from consideration.

The other place is Brentwood, which in ancient time was written
Brendewode. And here we have to show, if so it be fact, that
there was in ancient times a family of de Brendewode or Brende-
wode, and then that the forms which have already been mentioned
originated from it.

The iirst of these is easy and will not require many words, nor
does the second present any feature of difficulty, though it must
necessarily be treated of at greater length.

There is on record the Will of a John Brendewod, which is
dated on Friday, the vigil of Saints Perpetua and Felicitas (7
March), A.D. 1348. The testator was a citizen of London, and he
describes himself as a fripperer, that is to say, a dealer in second-
hand clothes and furniture. His Will was proved and enrolled in
the Court of Hastings of the City of London in March, 1348-49.
A summary of it is given in the Appendix (A) as it stands in the
Calendar of Wills of the Court of Hastings, printed by the Corpora-
tion of the City of London (Part I, p. 537). In the same highly
important series another testator mentions a Stephen de Brende-
wode (Calendar, Part II, p. 100). This is William Castelyn,
whose will, dated February 10, A.D. 1348, was not proved until
1366-67, and who calls himself a " pheliper," which was another
word for fripperer. These are not put forward as the earliest in-
stances of the name, nor for any other purpose than to prove that
five hundred years ago and upwards Brendewode was a recognized
surname.

The mutations and transformations, even, to which English
names, both of persons and places, have been subject are legion in
number, but in all the object was curtailment. However short a
name might be, it was shortened whenever that was possible. Al-
though a triangle might be small, our fathers saw no reason why
they should travel round its sides when a walk along its base would
bring them more speedily to the same destination. It will not be
foreign to the purpose if I observe that, according to English cus-
tom, e was and is very frequently sounded as if it were a. For an
instance much in point we need go no further than the town which
gave its name to the capital of what is now the State of Connecticut
when the early settlers, whilst evidently adopting the pronuncia-
tion, changed the spelling. Accuracy of orthography, as an ab-
stract consideration; identity with what had been done before;



16 Brainerd-Brainard Genealogy.

reproduction in writing of tlie local pronunciation — such were the
conflicting claims which presented themselves to the mind of the
parish priest in his capacity of custodian of the parochial register.
It is probable that the first of these often weighed with men who
were scholars, but when there was no standard how could one form
be more accurate than any other ? Nothing could be more arbitrary
than the spelling of surnames, and when persons in a good position
and of the best education which the age afforded spelt their names
in different ways on the same document, who shall take upon him-
self to say that such a way was right and such a way was wrong?

In Essex the form most frequently met with is Branwood, and I
will give some instances which were brought to light in the investi-
gations I made whilst collecting materials for the present paper.
Indeed it will be right to say here that the facts revealed rendered
it unnecessary to seek evidence beyond the limits of that county.

In the parish of Little Baddow, near Chelmsford, is a mansion
called Branwoods, a name derived, in all probability, from a former
possessor. Among the Marriage Allegations in the Bishop of
London's Eegistry, as printed by the Harleian Society, is one dated
April 26, 1608, having reference to the marriage of John Bran-
wood of Chelmsford with Ann Newman of Gingrave. In the
earlier part of the same century administration to the effects of a
Branwood of Fingringhoe was granted by the Consistory Court of
the Bishop of London. In the Calendar of Wills proved about the
same period in the Court of the Archdeacon of Essex occur the
names William Branwood, 1632, and Richard Branwood, 1638.
Of the latter, I took an abstract, which is printed below as Ap-
pendix (B), where it forms a pendant to the earlier Will, of which
a summary is also given.

At Coggeshall the parish register contains entries which lend
important aid in the elucidation of the matter, and for copies of
them I have to thank an Essex antiquarian. In 1627 is the mar-
riage of Thomas Branwood and ^Mary Northay, and it is followed in
1628, 1631, and 1634 by baptisms of children of Thomas Branwood
and Mary his wife. In 1639, on the occasion of the baptism of a
daughter, the same parents appear as Thomas Brayntwood and
Mary his wife, thus clearly indicating what, in the opinion of the
Vicar or his scribe, was the real origin and true orthography of the
name he was called upon to write. In 1646 the form is Thomas
and Mary Brainwood, still evidently the same individuals, and in
1653 is the marriage, as Mary Brainwood, of, we may safely assume,
the person who in 1628 was baptized as Mary Branwood. The
form Brainwood is analogous to what we find with respect to
Brentford, a town in the adjoining county of Middlesex, the t
having been almost always omitted and the name written Braine-
ford or Bravneford.

In 1652 Thomas Branwood, with many others, clothiers of
Coggeshall, was a petitioner to a Cromwellite body styling itself
the Council for Trade.

It is. however, to Writtle we turn for evidence which almost
to exist for our special benefit and which is so conclusive



The Introduction. 17

that it will carry conviction to the minds of all. The parish regis-
ter, it should be stated, is not extant prior to 1634, but we soon
come upon entries which are decisive in their character. We start
in 1637 (August 15th) with the marriage of William Bra3'nard and
Susanna Grave. Xext, in 1640 (April 14th), we have the baptism
of Susanna, daughter of William and Susanna Branwood, in a
significant entry to which I shall revert presentl_y. Then, in 1645,
is the baptism of Jane, the daughter, and in 1646, of Keginald, the
son of William Brandewoode, and lastly, at the close of the century,
in 1699, that of William (the son) of Eeginald and Mary Branard.

The evolution of Branard from Branwood should, perhaps, be
explained, and it will only require a word. The letter iv when
followed by a vowel was usually omitted in speaking and often in
writing, whence Branwood became Branood, which is very easily
corrupted into Branard. In the Calendars of Essex Wills the name
Brathat is foimd, which is a similar instance, being a manifest
corruption of Braithwaite. So general was the custom to which I
am now adverting that if a name beginning, for instance. Woo be
not found under the letter W, search should not fail to be made
under 0. Woburn, locally, is always called Ooburn; Wokingham,
OkLngham, and so forth. Odell, in Bedfordshire, has entirely
superseded Woodhill as the name of the village to which belonged
an early and honored settler in New England. Brewood in Staf-
fordshire is locally called Brood, and such instances might be multi-
plied indefinitely.

By a curious coincidence, the day previous to my examination
of the registers of Writtle, I was at the house of the incumbent of
a parish in another county, who stated that he would shortly be
called upon to baptize the child of one of his parishioners, an agri-
cultural laborer, and was in doubt as to how he should spell the
surname in the register. He found, he said, so many varieties of
the name that he could not take upon himself to determine which
was correct, and inquiry in the ]3arish from which ho supposed the
family to spring had only added to their number. I ventured to
suggest that search after an assumed "correct" orthography was
somewhat wide of the mark; that the point was to identify the
child as the son of certain parents, and that the course was to spell
the family name as it appeared in the entry of the father's mar-
riage. This view commended itself to the worthy rector, who ex-
pressed the intention ofr acting upon it.

Now-, at Writtle, the writer of the entry of 1640 proceeded upon
a plan just the reverse, and he did this not hastily, but advisedly,
and upon second thoughts. He first wrote Braynard ; he then drew
the pen through all but "Bra," and for " ynard " substituted
" nwood." A pertinent question is. Would he have done this if
they had been two distinct names, and is not the fact of his having
done it conclusive proof that they are identical? He could never
have intended that the surname of the child should be different
from his father's, but what he did mean and thought he had accom-
plished was to give proper spelling in place of the sound conveyed
to the ear by the popular pronunciation.



18 Brainercl-Brainard

From what has gone before it will be seen we have proof posi-
tive, repeated, contemporary, that Brainwood, Branwood, and the
re:5t are but varieties of one and the same name derived from Brent-
wood. And what is always matter of satisfaction, the family be-
lief is fully and abundantly confinned by the strongest tests to
which it has been subjected, the evidence derived from the district
to which our attention was a priori directed is so complete and so
cogent as to render needless any research in other localities. Al-
though it has been said already, and in a last word may be repeated,
that in the work respecting the name borne by the emigrant no
attempt has been made to trace his family. The evidence points
very clearly to the part of the kingdom in which any investigations
having that end in view should be instituted.



John Brandewood, fripperer. To be buried in the church of S.
Michael de Cornhull. To Alice his wife all his tenements in the
parish of S. Christopher, London, charged with the maintenance
of a chantry, for life. To the Prior and Convent of the House of
Holy Trinity within Algate the reversion of a certain shop in return
for their prayers. Another shop in the said parish of S. Christopher
to be sold after the decease of his said wife, and forty shillings
of the proceeds to be given to William, son of William Page, and
the residue to be devoted to pious uses. Dated London, Friday the
vigil of SS. Perpetua and Felicitas (7 March) A.D. 1348. Proved
and enrolled in the Court of Hasting of the City of London Mon-
day next before the Feast of the Annunciation of S. Mary the
Virgin (35 March) A.D. 1348-9 — Eoll 76 (136).

APPENDIX (B).

Eichard Branwood of the parish of Eettendon in the County of
Essex, husbandman, November 26, 1638.

Though sick of body, yet of sound and perfect memory. To be
buried in the Christian burial of the churchyard of Eettendon.
To my godchild Eichard Spurgeon an ewe sheep and twenty shill-
ings of money. To my servant fifteen shillings. To the widow
Netherwood five shillings. To William Hodges ten shillings. All
the rest of my ready money, chattels, goods, or household stufE what-
soever, I give and bequeath to my two sons Eichard Branwood and
John Branwood. my debts, legacies, funeral and Court charges
being discharged, my will is that they shall be equally divided be-
twixt them both, not one to wrong the other. And I make them
executors of this my will. And I request Mr. Eichard Benton to
be my overseer thereof, to see it performed, and if any difference be
betwixt them that he will be a means with another honest neighbor
to end the same. Eichard Branwood, his mark and seal. Witness
hereto, William Taylor and William Hodges, writer. Proved De-
cember 18, 1638, in the Court of the Archdeacon of Essex. (25
Whitehead).



The Introduction,



RICIL\RD BRANWOOD.



Administration of tlie goods of Richard Branwood, late of the
parish of Fingringhoe, in the county of Essex, deceased, who died
intestate, was granted by the Consistory Court of the Bishop of
London, 14 December. 1631, to Elizabeth Branwood, widow, 'the
relict of the deceased.

(Consistorv Court of London — Vicar General's Book, 1616-23,
fo. 238.)

The name now under consideration has been discovered in the
parish records of London and of a good number of places on or
near the great road leading from London through Essex to Ipswich
and Suffolk. Doubtless further search would reveal the name in
many other towns or villages. Ongar. Romford, Brentwood,
Chelmsford, Colchester, and Braintree, the last named a great
center of the cloth-weaving industry in the seventeenth century,
have all been homes of persons bearing our family name. This
region was the scene of Rev. Thomas Hooker's preaching, and a
number of Hartford's first proprietors or settlers can be traced to
the same locality. It is then no accident, but a very probable tra-
dition which connects our Daniel Brainerd with this part of Essex.
Indeed, we can show that there were Brainerds in Chelmsford and
Great Baddow, places especially connected with Hooker ; in Brain-
tree, whence came John Talcott, and probably also Joseph Loomis
and William Wadsworth; in Becking, whence probably came Wil-
liam and Ozias Goodwin ; in Colchester, whence possibly came
Nathaniel Foote, and in Ongar, whence came Richard Lyman.
These men followed Hooker to Connecticut, or in t^ome instances
preceded him. I give below a list of such wills and administrations
as have been found bearing the name, with their dates and the
places in the Court records where they may be found ; then a list of
parishes in which persons bearing our name have lived, with the
dates from which parish registers are extant; and finally a tran-
scription of such parish records as have been printed. In the latter
case it is not asserted that any of the persons were of near kindred
to our New England emigrant, though dovibtless if we could but
know there may be distant kinship. Perhaps success will reward
some future searcher in what seems to be a promising field.

COMMISSARY COURT FOR ESSEX AND HERTSFORDSHIRE.







D.ite. Vol.


Page.


Braynewood Jo


Will.


1506 Greye.


134


Brainewood John,


"


1540 Carter.


148


Braynwood William.


"


1546 Curting.


94


Braywood Thomas,


" Pleshey,


1564-6 Kettell.


115


Braynwode William,




1567 Fourth file


No. 16


Braynard Margareta


, Easter Alta,




58


Branwood Margaret,


Woodham Mortimer.


1630-1


180


Brainwood Matthew,


Woodham Walter.


1631-2


74


Branwood Anna, Bursted Magna,


1633-4


136


Branwood Thomas, Easter Alta,


1646-60


93


Branard Hellena. Loekley.


1661-2


48



20 Brainerd-Brainard Genealogy.

PROBATE AND ADMON ACTS.







Date.


Vol.


Page.


Branwood Ro Hockley,




1619-21




28


" Margarets, Eastei


Alta.


1619-21




214


Elizabetha,




1622-3




92


Humfridus, Woodham Mortimer,


1628-31




133


Margaret,




1631-3




22


Matheus,


Walter,


1631-3




76


•' Anna, Burstoed.




1633-5




S2


William, West Hanningfield,


1641-0




14


Branard Helena, Hockley,


Will.


1661-3




20


ARCHDEACONRY COURT FOR ESSEX.






Breynwood William, Baddow


Magna,


1400-1510




115


Brenwood ( John )
JEliz f


.<


1508-10-12


-13-18-






32-27-29-84-63


5


■' John


■'


1508




8


Eliz.


"






9


Brendwood Elizabeth.




1528-35 R


ipton


46


Brenwood John.




" "




60


Braynwood John.




" "




127


Brainewood Hugh




1591-1602


Stevens


41


Braynwood Thomas.




1613




43


Branwood John, Harlow,




1617-1060


Brown


105



The Acts Books commence in 1558. Index in each Vol.

Colchester Registers from 1542-1610:

Fingringhoe. Near Colchester. Baptisms from 1653; burials 1678;
marriages 1681.

Woodham Mortimer, between Chelmsford and Maldon. Marriages and
burials from 1664; baptisms 1731.

Woodham Walter. Nearer Chelmsford. Baptisms from 1568; burials
1558; marriages 1681.

Writtle. West of Chelmsford. Registers from 1634.

Great Baddow. Southeast of Chelmsford. Registers from 1543.

Little Baddow. East of Chelmsford. Registers from 1650.

Chelmsford. Registers of St. Mary's Church from 1525.

High Easter. Northwest of Chelmsford. Baptisms and burials from
1572; marriages 1576.

Pleshey. East from High Easter. Registers from 1056.

Harlow. Registers from 1814. Previous registers stolen.

West Hanningfield. South of Chelmsford. Registers from 1558.

Great Burstead. East of Brentwood. Registers from 1558.

Little Burstead. Registers from 1681.

Hockley. Twelve miles southeast of Chelmsford. Registers, baptisms,
and burials from 1732; marriages from 1757.

Romford. Southwest of Brentwood. Church of St. Edward the Con-
fessor. Register from 1561.

Horn Church. Register from 1576.

Havering-atte-Bower. Register from 1670.

Ongar. Ten miles west-southwest of Chelmsford. Register from 1538.

Chipping Ongar. Registers from 1538.

High Ongar. Registers from 1538.

Greensted-juxta-Ongar. Registers baptisms from 1561-62; marriages
from 1576; burials 1561.

Brentwood. Registers from 1695, for baptisms and marriages; for
burials from 1741.

Braintree. Parish of St. Michael. Registers from 1664.

Braintree, Vol. No. 1 (parchment). Baptisms 1660-1740; marriages



The Introduciion. i^l

1004-1740. No. II. Baptisms 1740-1812. No. III. Burials 1740-1812. Nos.
IV-Vl. Marriages 1740-1812.

Booking. Two miles nortli of Braintree. Records lost in the civil wars.*

Coggeshall. Between Braintree and Colchester. Registers from 1584.

Rettendon. Nine miles southeast of Chelmsford. Registers from 1678.

Parish registers of Bobbingworth gives the marriage of Ann and James
Brainwood, 16 .

From Greensted Parish Register :

Jeffrey Branwcod married Grace Gooding, Oct. 3, 1631.

From the Parish Register of Chipping Ougar, Co. Essex, Eng-
land:.

Abigail Braynwood, daughter of James Braynwood of Chipping Ongar,
was baptized Aug. 3, 1645.

James Braynard was buried June 30, 1079, according to the late act of
Parliament for burying in woolen, as appeared by affidavit, received
June 24th.

James, son of James Brainwood, baptized July 17, 1016.

James Brainwood and Alice Fensam were married May 10. 1613.

Anne Brainwood married James Bettis Jan. 24, 1724.

Anne Brainwood was buried Nov. 18, 1722.

Elizabeth Brainwood married Thomas Sawkin Oct. 1, 1.599.

Elizabeth Brainwood, ye wife of Jeffrey Brainwood. laborer, was buried
Aug. 24, 1G29.

Elizabeth Braimvood was buried Nov. 20, 1729.

Joane, dauslitev of Thomas Brainwoode, was baptized Sept. 19, 1562.

Grace, daughter of Thomas Brainwoode, was baptized Sept. 18, 1564.

Thomas Brainwood was buried Jan. 30, 1612.

Old Mother Brainwood (probably wife of Thomas) was buried Nov. 27,
1014.

Mary, daughter of James Brainwood, May 13, 1615.

Jone Brainwood was buried Sept. 24, 1562.

Jane Brainwood, baptized February 12, 1572.

Elizabeth Branwood, the daughter of Jeane and Elizabeth, baptized
July 19, 1054.

John, son of .James Branwood and Ann. his wife, was baptized Oct. 4,
1081.

Mary, ye daughter of James Brandwood, was baptized Dec. 31, 1683.

Lidia, daughter of Ann and Jeames Branwood, was baptized January
6. 1685-86.

Katerine, daughter of James Brandwonds and of Anne, his wife, was
baptized October 5, 1690.

Katherine, daughter of James and Elizabeth Branwood, was baptized
December 5, 1664.

Charles Blomer. barber surgeon, and Anne Big, daughter-in-law unto
Jeffray Brainwood, of our parish, was maryed at Cheping Ongar, January
19, 1622.

Joan Branwood was buried February 13, 1572.

Mary, daughter of James and Elizabeth Branwood. was buried No-
vember "l4. 1600.

Katherine, daughter of James and Elizabeth Branwood. was buried
November 2, 1668.

Elizabeth, wife of James Branwood. was buried .January 10, 1668-69.

Lidiah, daughter of Ann and Jcanie Branwood, was buried August 27,
1686.

A male child of Jeames Branwood's was buried May 22, 1687.

Anne Brainwood was buried November 18, 1722.

James Brainwood was buried March 15. 1723. Godfrey .Jones. Rector.

Elizabeth Brainwood was buried November 20, 1729.



It is said they have been found.



22 Brainerd-Brainard Genealogy.

Parish Eegister of High Ongar, Co. Essex :

Thomas Braynwood, son of Thomas, baptized July 14, 1594.
Thomas Braynard. son of Thomas, baptized December 21, 1596.
Thomas Branwood, son of William, baptized June 2, 1616.
Thomas Braynard, son of Thomas, buried September 8, 1596.

From Christ's Cliurch, Newgate Street, London; Burials and
Christenings :

Edward Braynard was buried July 15, 1583.

Register of St. Dionis, Back Church, London :

Anne Branwoode, daughter of William Branwoode, was baptized Dec.
1, 1560.

Anne Branwoode, daughter of William Branwoode, was baptized Jan-
uary 16, 1564-65.

Anne Branwoode, daughter of William, was buried February 22, 1563-64.

Katheryn Branwoode, wife of William Branwoode, was buried October
13, 1563.

John Habor, St. Buttolph's, w'out Algate. and Margaret Braynwoode
of this parish, were married November 14, 1568.

Margery Branwoode, daughter of William, was baptized December 27,
1562.

Margerj' Branwoode, daughter of William, was buried September 16,
1563.

Nycholas Branwoode, prentice with his brother William, was buried
October 6, 1563.

William Braynwoode and Margaret Pottct, both of this parish, were
married April 29, 1564.

William Branwoode, householder, was buried June 22. 1566.

Marriage licenses issued by Bishop of London, 1520-1610, Harl.
Soc, 1887, p. 304:

April 26, 1608. John Branwood, of Chelmsford, Co. Essex, yeoman,
and Ann Newman of Gingrave, sd. Co., spinster, dau. of Francis Newman,
late of the same, yeoman, dec'd, at St. Mary, Mounthaw, London.

October 16, 1638. John Branwood, of the parish of Rompford in
Essex, carpenter and bachelor, aged about twenty-seven years, intendeth
to marry Alice Johnson, maiden, of the parish of St. Martins-in-the-Fields,
Co. of ^Middlesex, aged about twentv-seven years. Licence to be married in
St. Pauls, Covent Garden.

Registry of Marriage Licenses for Hampshire, issued by the
Bishop of Winchester:

James Brainwood of Newport. Isle of Wight, gardener, and Elizabeth
Preston, of the S. sp., at Gatcombe, Carisbrook, or St. Nicholas, Jan. 28,
1702-3.

The name of Brainwood does not occur in the " Herald's Visitations of
London, 1633-35," or in the " Visitations of Essex, 1552, 1558, 1612, 1634,'
nor in the Westminster Abbey registers. A careful examination of the
Harleian Society's publications discloses very few of this name and these
few have been given above.

Thomas Brainwood, whose relict was Margaret and brother was Wil-
liam Brainwood, died in Booking, 1576-80; owing to loss of the registers
no further facts can be found.

From St. Michael's Parish, in Braintree, Eng. :
Sarah Brannard or Brainard. dau. of James, died June 2, 1662. Mr.
Kentworthy, vicar of the church.



The Introduction. 23

From Essex Court Directory of 1890:

Charles Brainwood, S Lynn Terrace, Eamsey Eoad, Forest Gate, E.

Olive Branwood, London, Eng., 1878.

From the Eegister of St. Mary's Church, Bocking, Esse^; Co.,
England :

Jane Braynhod, baptised May 11, 1564.

Johanes Braynwood, filius Robti, baptised, Jamiarie 19. 1566/7.

Thomas Braynewoode. filius Robert!, baptised September 4. 1569.



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