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^ TYLER'S Quarterly Historical

The Ships That Brought the Foxinders of the Nation to Jamestown, 1607.


Genealogical Magazine

Editor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D.


Richmond, Va.

Richmond Press, Inc., Printers




Vol. III. No. 1.

JULY, 1921

Spier's; (JSuarterlp gisstorical


(jlenealosical iWaga^ine

Editor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D.

^pWs (J^uarterlp historical anb
(ienealosical jUasajine

Vol. III. JULY, 1921. No. 1.


Annual subscription, $4.00. Single numbers, $1.25.

As back numbers of the old William and Mary Quarterly, of which I was
proprietor, have become very scarce, single copies, as far as had, may be ob-
tained from me at $2.00 apiece.

711 Travelers Building, . _ . Richmond, Va.


Battle of Fontenoy 1

How New England Learned Democracy 2'

As Others Saw Us 6

Remarks on the Civil War 14

Black Beard 19

JosejDh H. Hawkins 20

Benjamin Harrison's Mission to Philadelphia 23

Correspondence of Col. James Wood 28

Berkeley County, West Virginia 44

Robert Bailey 54

Register of Marriage Bonds of Greensville County, Vir-
ginia, 1781-1808 58

Mumford and Munford Families 66

Samuel Swann's Marriage to Elizabeth Fendall 68

Tombstones 69

James Madison, Sr 70

Historical and Genealogical Notes 70

Book Notice 72

Spier's ©uarterlp i^isitorical anb
(genealogical JWasa^ine

Vol. Ill JULY, 1921 No. 1


Fontenoy is a village of Belgium, in the Province of Hainaut,
five miles southeast of Touraine, the ancient capital of France.

Here on May 11, 1745, the French, about 50,000 strong under
Marshal Saxe, defeated nearly an equal number of English, Han-
overians, Dutch and Austrians, under the Duke of Cumberland.
In that age France, like Germany in ours, aspired to universal
dominion, and was opposed by the combined power of Europe.
The battle at Fontenoy was obstinate to the last and was only
decided for the French by a smashing charge of the Household
troops and the famous Irish brigade. The allies lost 8,000 men
and the French 7,000.

This is the battle where the English and French played Al-
phonse and Gaston. As related by Voltaire in his Precis dii Siecle
de Louis XV :

"Les officiers Anglais saluerent les Francais en otant leurs
chapeaux, Le Compte Chabanes. le due de Biron, qui setaient
avances, et tons les officiers des gardes-francais leur rendirent
le salut. Milord Charles Hai, capitaine aux gardes-anglaises,
cria, 'Messieurs des gardes-francaises, tirez.'

Le Comte de Hauteroche, alors lieutenant des grenadiers et
depuis capitaine, leur dit a voix haute : 'Messieurs, nous ne tirons
jamais les premiers; tirez vous-memes.'

Les Anglais firent feu roulant; cest-a-dire quils tiraient par
divisions, &c."

Translated this reads :

"The English officers saluted the French by lifting their hats.
Count Chabanes and the duke de Biron, who had advanced in front
of the line, and all the officers of the French Guards returned the

2 Tyler's Quarterly Magazixe

salute. Lord Charles Ha}^, captain of the British Guards, cried,
'Gentlemen of the French Guards, begin the attack.' Count de
Hauteroche, then lieutenant of the Grenadiers and since captain,
said to them in a loud voice: 'Gentlemen, we, Frenchmen, never
are the first to attack, we wait to be attacked.' Then the Eng-
lish made a rolling fire, that is to say they fired by divisions, one
after the other, &c."


Just as there was a Washington family on the southside of the
James River, distinct from the Washington family of Westmore-
land County, so there was a Lee family on the Southside which
appears to have had no connection with the distinguished Lee
family of the county on the Potomac.

The Lee family of the Southside laid no pretensions to aristoc-
racy, but they furnished two brothers, Jesse and John Lee, who
performed an important part in the life of Virginia and the na-
tion itself. They were both Methodist preachers, sons of a re-
spectable and religious farmer, Nathaniel Lee, of Prince George
County. The ministrations of John Lee were confined to the
South, but the ministrations of Jesse Lee were almost nation wide,
and his great work was chiefly in the New England States, where
he was the agent above all others in establishing the Methodist

He was born in Prince George County in 1758, fell under the
influence first of Rev. Dexereaux Jarrett, an Episcopal minister
with Methodist leanings, and later was received in the folds of
the church by Rev. Robert Williams, who was the pioneer of Meth-
odism in Virginia. Methodism, indeed, had its stronghold in this
State. In 1779 there were in the United States forty-two min-
isters and 8,577 members and nearly one-half of this number were
in Virginia. It was here the largest labor was employed and
here the greatest product was gathered. The situation of things in
religion was especially favorable. The church was here, and hnd

How ISTew England Learned Democracy 3

been here from the foundation of the Colony. There were many
worthy ministers of the old established church living when Wil-
liams came in 1772, but their religion was formal and lifeless, and
had little power of opposition.

Mr, Lee moved to North Carolina in 1779, and the following
year was drafted into the army. But though he responded to the
call, he soon made it known that, though willing to do any other
service, his principles forbade him to use a gun. So he was em-
ployed as a teamster, and was so successful in mingling religious
teachings to the soldiers with attentions to his duties that, when
he left the army, he received a highly honorable discharge, and
went to his old home in Virginia with credit.

It was in 1782' that, yielding to the earnest entreaties of Bishop
Asbury, he consented to go on a circuit, and in 1783 he was ad-
mitted into "travelling connection," and entered on a wide field of
usefulness. He spent six years preaching in North Carolina, Vir-
ginia, Maryland, New Jersey and New York, winning many to
the Methodist Church, and increasing his reputation as one of the
ablest preachers in the United States. The revival in 1787 was
a noted one, especially in Virginia, and Mr. Lee played a great

New England alone remained untouched by the free spirit
of the JMethodist Church, which alone among the Protestant bodies
had no predestination article in its creed. This region. New Eng-
land, stood out like an iceberg in the cold and stern formalism of
its religion. But there the church organization, unlike the Colo-
nial Church of Virginia, had tremendous power. The preachers
were entrenched behind special legislation, and in administering
religion, they employed it as a great political force to dominate
society. This was accomplished by emphasizing those parts of the
Calvinistic creed, wliich dealt in terror and fatalism. Thus the
preachers and a group of lawyers and wealthy laymen in each com-
munity grasped all power, and the people had either no say, or
servilely accepted what was marked out for them by this auto-
cratic establishment.

To assail this rock of l)igotry and prejudice required no ordi-

4 Tylek's Quarterly Magazine

nary courage, but Jesse Lee, of Virginia, was not the man to
know fear.

In 1789 he began the almost hopeless undertaking of convert-
ing this section of the Union, and for a long time his experiences
were discouraging — very discouraging. He received much harsh
treatment. Was often denied the use of the meeting houses and
often had to preach on the streets. Then the pulpit opened its
mouth and soundly belaboured what its ministers called the "dam-
nanable principles of Methodism," Of his reception at Greenwich,
Mr. Lee wrote : "The priest and deacon of the place had taken
much pains to convince the people of the evil of letting me preach
in the parish, and withal they told the people, if the society is
broken up, they must beai the blame. Poor priests, they seem
like frightened sheep, when I come near them."

Mr. Lee's account of the fast days in New England shows that
the observance of these days was, like all the other church institu-
tions, entirely devoid of any real devotional feeling. He wrote:
"The manner of fasting, in general, is to eat a hearty breakfast
as usual, then attend public worship in the forenoon and after-
noon, without eating any dinner, and then have supper before
night." It could be no great mortification of the body to fast
twelve hours on two hearty meals.

Mr. Lee visited all parts of Xew England and sometimes found
"lewd fellows" in the crowds, disposed to insult the minister,
and bring his services into contempt, but with a man of Mr. Lee's
intrepidity and great readiness of speech, these attempts to bring
ridicule upon him was never a safe experiment, and there were
occasions when he had resort to scathing and withering words of
rebuke. The spiritual desolation of large parts of the country
through which Mr. Lee passed was as surprising as it was painful.
There were hundreds of families and neighborhoods where a min-
ister never came. In Provincetown, where the Pilgrim Fathers
first put foot to land, the town meeting refused to allow the Meth-
odists to build a church, and, when the Methodists nevertheless,
collected materials to proceed with the work, a company of men
assembled in tlie night and burnt the lumber. Mr. Lee visited the

How Xew England Learned Democeacy 5

melancholy scene in the morning, and said sadly, "I feel astonished
at the conduct of the people, considering we live in a free country,
and no such conduct can be justified."

Mr. Lee spent the greater part of eight years in Xew England,
returning to the South in 1797. But he had accomplished a great
work. Xot only had he set the Methodist Church on a firm
footing in New England, but the doctrines which he taught of
perfect freedom went to leaven the whole mass of society. Xever
again was the Congregational Church the same. Society might
have much the same appearance, Init it was radically changed at
heart. Laws were soon to be passed disestablishing the church and
the authority of the autocrats declined. Presdestination became an
obsolete dogma in the platforms of all the churches.

One might say that the springs of action set in motion by Lee,
the Methodist apostle to Xew England, were continued by another
man who, though born in Massachusetts, had spent his early and
active manliood in Virginia. This was John Leland, who had
taken a leading part in disestablishing the Episcopal Church in
Virginia. He was a Baptist, and by long residence was a Vir-
ginian in heart and principle. From a different standpoint, he,
like Lee. contended for religious freedom, and found on the na-
tional stage a representative in the statesman Jefferson.

So the election of 180i was especially one where the issue was
democracy and freedom, religious and political. The victory that
Jefferson won has no equal for principle or thoroughness. Espe-
cially was it so in Xew England. He carried all the Xew England
States except one. For the first time in their history a real democ-
racy began to exert its influence upon the Puritan States.

On a plain marble slab in the old Methodist burying ground
in Baltimore appears the following inscription:

In Memory of

The Eev. Jesse Lee

Born in Prince George County, Va., 1758.

Entered the Itinerant Ministry of the M. E. Church, 1783. and

Departed this Life September, 1816.

Aa:ed 58 vears.

6 Tyler's Quaeterly Magazine

A man of ardent zeal and great ability as a minister of Christ.

His labours were abundantly owned by God.

Especially in the Xew England States, in which he was truly the

Apostle of American Methodism.


The Memoirs of General Frederick Adolphus Eiedesel, and the
Memoirs of his lady, afford interesting reading. They hold up a
mirror somewhat different from that in which our ancestors were
accustomed to view themselves.

General Eiedesel was Commander-in-Chief of the German
troops hired by the British to fight the Americans. He came over
in 1776, and was soon joined by his wife and three children, who
shared his campaign and captivity.

These German troops, generally referred to as "Hessians"
from one of the provinces from which they came, were terribly
abused by the Americans, who spoke of them as mercenaries accept-
ing blood money. There was no limit of censure of the British
government for hiring them. And yet no real difference existed
between their case and that of the Germans, who in the Civil War
were given large bounties for enlisting, and fighting the South.
During the war whole regiments, unable to speak a single word of
English, were captured by the Confederates. They were, never-
theless, extolled as patriots and heroes by the Xorthern press.

Major General Riedesel served in the campaign which had its
fatal termination at Saratoga. The British General Burgoyne
was a bull headed kind of man, and averse to taking advice. Had
he minded Eiedesel, he might not have been forced to surrender.

When the surrender took place at Saratoga, October 17, 1777,
Eiedesel estimated the Armerican army to number 22,350 men,
of whom there were in actual service 20,817. The British and
German Army numbered only 5,801 men, of whom 327 were camp

As Others Saw Us 7

servants. Gates" fignix'S reduced the Americans to half the num-
ber, and left the enemy at about the number given by Riedesel.
But Burgoyne signed the articles after assurance from Gates that
the Americans were four times as numerous. However stated,
there is not as much glory in the surrender as we have been taught
in our school histories. Nevertheless, the importance of the vic-
tory cannot be over-estimated, as it decided France to take active
steps in our behalf.

Probably the most discreditable feature of the war, on the
part of the Americans, was their breach of the article which guar-
anteed the prompt return of the captured troops to England on
parole. Eiedesel had advised Burgoyne to make Canada their
place of return, which could have been accomplished at once. But
Burgoyne, as in other matters where Eiedesel showed excellent
judgment, declined the advice, and the delay occasioned by waiting
for the means of transportation enabled the fault finders in Con-
gress to defeat the terms of the treaty. In this matter, the influ-
ence of General La Fayette was decisive. The British were bound
by the articles not to fight the Americans, but he argued that they
were under no obligations not to fight the French, who were on
the point of becoming allies of the Americans.

So the captured army were retained as prisoners of war for
many years, during which time they suffered many hardships and
m.any died.

They first went under guard to Boston, and Lady Eiedesel
writes :

"Boston is quite a fine city, but the inhabitants were out-
rageously patriotic. There were among them many wicked people,
and the persons of my own sex were the worst. They gazed at me
with indignation and spat when I passed by them."

Spitting at people is an abominable breach of good manners,
but Lady Eiedesel ascribed it to "outragous patriotism." Ben-
jamin F. Butler, of Massachusetts, directed his general order No.
28, in the Civil War, at New Orleans, against "any word, gesture
or movement, on the part of any female," expressive of insult or
contempt to a Federal officer or soldier. The words for prevention

8 Tylee's Quakterly Magazine

thereof expressed a presumption so shocking that Prime Minister
Lord Palmerston denounced the order in Parliament "as unfit to
he written in the English language." Even read at this lapse of
time, the language is undoubtedly the most revolting attaching
to any order in modern military annals. And yet the patriotism
of some people was so "outrageous" that it actually found defenders
in the North. Butler in his "Book" prides himself upon the fact
that Lincoln and his government approved his administration and
never revoked his order, and James Parton, his biographer, claims
to find ample vindication of Butler in the public meetings in New
York and Boston that greeted him on his return to the North.

But returning to Lady Eiedesel, her remarks must not be taken
as applying to all the women in Boston but to some* only, and
that some Americans of the Revolutionary period, as some of the
Civil War, were not very lovable people is shown by the following
additional testimony from her:

"I had, during my residence at Bristol in England, made the
acquaintance of a Capt. Fenton, whom the Americans claimed,
but who remained faithful to his Sovereign. Upon this the in-
furiated rabble seized his wife, who was a most respectable woman
and a daughter of the age of fifteen, who was very beautiful, and
stripped them both of their dresses, without regard to their moral
worth, their beauty and their delicacy; and, after having besmeared
them with tar and covered them with feathers, drove them through
the city. What had one not to fear from a people maddened to
that degree of hatred?"

It was maddened people of this character, disguised as In-
dians, that have been glorified in history because they threw the
tea overboard in Boston harbor in 1773. Such, too, was the char-
acter of the mob in 1770, who attacked the British soldiers in the
streets of Boston and had the unfortunate results which thev drew

*The German officer, Schlozer, speaks very differently of the wo-
men whom he encountered on the way from Boston to New York in
the course of their march to their prison camp at Charlottesville, Va.:
''So they stood by dozens all along the road, laughed mockingly at us,
or, from time to time, dropped a michievous courtesy, and handed us
an apple."

As Othees Saw TJs 9

upon themselves emblazoned in history as a massacre of the inno-
cent. Between these so-called patriotic incidents, and lynching of
negroes in the South for abominable crimes, there is very little
difference. Mob rule can never be justified, no matter how good
the cause.

Xovember 20, 1777, was a gala day in Boston, when Governor
Hancock attended and hundreds of people dressed in holiday at-
tire were present from the country around. The crowds delighted
to taunt the helpless British by cheering "King Hancock" in
mockery of King George. At this time General Riedesel entered
in his journal the following description of the Xew Englanders :

"One can see in these men, here assembled, exactly the na-
tional character of the inhabitants of Xew England. They are
distinguished from the rest by their manner and dress. Thus they
all, under a thick and yellow wig, have the honorable physiognomy
of a magistrate. Their dress is after the old English fashion;
over this, they wear, winter and summer, a blue blouse, with
sleeves, which is fastened around the body with a strap.

One hardly sees any of them without a whip. They are gen-
erally thickset and middling tall, and it is difficult to distinguish
one of them from another.

Xot one tenth of them can read writing and still fewer can
write. This art belongs, aside from the literary men, exclusively
to the female sex. The women are well educated, and, therefore,
know better than any other matrons in the world hovv- to govern the

The New Englanders want to be politicians, and love therefore
the taverns and the grogbowl; behind the latter of which they
transact business, drinking from morning till night."

This is not a very pleasant picture and was surely overdrawn.
Certainly the men of ISTew England were not so ignorant or
drunken, nor the women so learned and unfeminine, as represented.

In Xovember, 1778, came orders that the prisoners must march
to Virginia. This state and Xorth Carolina had provided the pro-
visions tliat saved the American Army from starvation at Valley
Forge the winter before. And now again no flour could be had in

10 Tylee^s Quaktekly ]Magazine

the Xorthern States for the British prisoners, and only in Vir-
ginia was there a chance to supply them with food. Hence their

Lady Eiedesel went along with the army, and had several un-
pleasant experiences. They passed through the States of Massa-
chusetts, Connecticut, Xew York, Xew Jersey and Pennsylvania.
This is what occurred at the home of Col. Howe, to whom she
meant to pay a compliment, by asking if he was related to the
British General Howe.

" 'God forbid,' replied he, in great anger, 'he is not worthy
of that honor.' The colonel was a man of very fair reputation and
spent in husbandry the time which he was not obliged to devote
to military service. He had a daughter, who was about 14r years
old, and quite pretty, but very ill-natured. Sitting with her at
the fireside, she said, on a sudden, staring at the blaze, 'Oh, if
I had here the King of England, with how much pleasure I could
roast and eat him.' I looked at lier witii indignation and told
her, 'I am almost ashamed to belong to a sex, which is capable of
uttering such fancies,' I shall never forget that detestable girl,
and I was impatient to leave her, though we had very good ac-

Tlie patriotism of some people of Virginia was hardly less
"outrageous" than that of some peoi)le of Boston. Lady Riedesel
writes :

"After our arrival in Virginia, and wlien we were in a days
journey distant from the place of our destination, we had for our
last meal tea and a piece of bread and butter for each. This was
the end of our little stock and we could have procured no more
either for our present and future wants, — except some fruit, which
a peasant gave us for our guineas. At noon we reached a house
where we begged for some dinner, but all assistance was denied us,
with many imprecations against the royalists. Seeing some maize,
I begged our hostess to give me some of it, to make a little bread.
She replied that she needed it for her black people; 'they work
for us' ; she added, 'you come to kill us.' Captain Edmunstone
then offered to pay her one or two guineas for a little wheat, but

As Others Saw Us 11

she returned, ' You shall not have it, even for hundreds of guineas,
and it will be so much the better if you all* die.' "

On their arrival at Charlottesville, A^irginia, in the winter of
1779. the soldiers were afforded very poor accommodations. Their
sufferings must have been great. The troops were "billeted in
block houses, Avithout windows, and poorly defended from the cold."
And the snow on the ground was three feet deep.

Fortunately, the weeks that followed were mild and the fruit
trees were blooming in the middle of February. The soldiers made
haste to put up barracks which were made warm and comfortable.
Lady Eiedesel secured good quarters and was treated with respect.

The summer following was very hot, and the General had a
sun-stroke which came near finishing him. He and his wife were
permitted to go to Frederick Springs in Berkeley County (now
known as Berkeley Springs), where they met General Washing-
ton's family. Unfortunately no printed account is given of their
relations to one another. Doubtless, Lady Eiedesel saw a good
deal of dancing at the springs, for she makes this comment:

"The Virginians are naturally indolent, which may be attri-
buted to their hot climate, but on the least excitement they be-
come animated and dance and whirl about, and as soon as they
hear the reel, (an English or Scottish Xational dance), they look
for a partner and jump about with wonderful vivacity; but when
the music ceases, they are again like statues."

As her husband had experienced a severe sunstroke, it was
natural to refer the indolence of the Virginians to the heat of the
climate. Now heat is not wholly local but comes in waves, ex-
tending over great areas, and my experience has been that at
similar altitudes the temperature from Boston to South Carolina
does not differ materially in the summer. A much better explana-
tion is given by Du Roy, the Elder, who was commissary of the

♦Notice the use of "you all." Some Northern readers might inter-
pret this to mean a singular as the woman was addressing Lady
Riedesel, but of course she meant a plural, referring to the whole
British army. No Southerner ever uses "you all" in the singular.

12 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine

Second Division of the Hessians. He says that the men in Vir-

Online LibraryLyon Gardiner TylerTyler's quarterly historical and genealogical magazine (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 28)