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was cutting away with knives of the very finest steel.
" Diamond steel,"" said one of the greasy crew. It must
be hard, for now and then the knife meets with bits of
the shell which gives the coup de grace. This bomb
explodes when the poor whale dives, stung by the
harpoon. From the knives of this giant sausage machine,
the cubes of blubber were caught in buckets which hung
on an endless chain, these carried them up over a wheel,
and turning a somersault pitched them right into the
steaming cauldrons.

" How long have you been a whaler ? " the man was



FAUNA 297

asked who was doing the honours of the ship. " Oh, I
only come this cruise. We got here the middle of May.'*'
" When do you leave ? " " Oh, the middle of August ;
after that, all ice here. There is two whaling steamers,
and one tugboat to each ship,"" he said. "Dey goes
long way sometimes. Very few fish this year. Dey kill
them all. No, dey not all fresh, sometimes dey pick up a
dead one, that has been wounded, but has got away.
What did I sail in before? Oh, I carries fruit from
West Indies. The three-masted schooner? Oh, she is
a collier, bring coal from England. No, she don't carry
oil]; they pick up the bones along the shore, carry dem to
Stavanger ; they grind dem up," Our friend showed us
samples of the whalebone, saying it was worth d£'180 a
ton, and that it was used in the manufacture of silk.

The fauna of Spitzbergen, although not very rich in
species, is exceedingly rich in individuals. It includes
fifteen mammals, only two of which are terrestrial — the
reindeer and the ice-fox — besides the usual inhabitant
of the Arctic regions, the polar bear. The number of
reindeer is really puzzling. In a single summer, or rather
in the com-se of a few weeks, no fewer than from 1500
to 2000 reindeer were killed by hunters for several
consecutive years previous to 1868. Much emaciated in
June, they grow very fat towards the end of the autumn,
after feeding on the mosses. Great numbers are
" marked " (that is, have both ears cut at the same
height), and the hunters were persuaded that these
individuals came from an unknown continent in the
north-east, where they had been marked by the hand of
man ; but Sir Martin Conway discredits this notion, and,
indeed, it seems difficult to believe that reindeer could
pass over the hundreds of miles of ocean separating
Spitzbergen from any other land.



298 POOR BALMNA BOOPS

Eight Cetaceans are met with in the seas of Spitzbergen
{BalcBnaptera hoops), 80 to 110 feet long. I do not think
the one we saw was more than 70 feet, judging from the
size of a man alongside ; B. gigas and B. rosirata, 30
feet long ; the white whale (Behiga caladon), two of which
we saw towed in with one big Balcenaptera hoop and
two B, gigas, about 30 and 20 feet long. All hurried
on deck to see this wonderful tow pass ; the tug steaming
slowly along advanced with this long line of dead whales.
One of them had a thing waving about in the air like a
great transparent balloon bigger than the whale itself.
I think we all felt a little sad to see these great un-
protected carcasses float slowly by, blown out to quite an
indecent size, an unmerited contemptuous treatment for
these great harmless mammals. The balloon, I found,
was the air which had entered the tongue. A tube is
inserted from the tug, and the whole is blown full of air
to make it tow more easily.

The setting to this forlorn group was most beautiful.
The sky a soft pale transparent yellow, reflected on the
great Fox Glacier, suffusing it with the same light, leaving
its steep sides in cold blue and purple shadow. The
water of the bay, who can describe it ? The glassy
transparent water had the colour and fire of an opal,
with every here and there upstanding many-coloured
miniature icebergs shaped like strange ice flowers. The
whales were the only Cetaceans we saw, though other
bays in this archipelago are populated with crowds of
walrus and Greenland seals.

Besides the fulmar and glacous gull {Larus glmwus),
or the " burgomaster," of which I have already written,
there are also black guillemots, that drive and scurry
away when the launches come too close, ivory gulls,
kittiwake gulls ; while geese, looms, and snipe swarm on



THE SNOW BUNTING 299

and about the lagoons and small fresh-water ponds.
The bernacle goose is only a bird of passage, as it goes
farther north-east to nest. The eider breeds in large
colonies on the islands, where its young are safe from the
ice-fox, only the glacous gull and the brent goose being
admitted to keep them company, while the lumme and
the tern confine themselves to separate cliffs. These
birds, however, are only guests in Spitzbergen, the snow
bunting being the only species which stay permanently ;
twenty-three species breed regularly on Spitzbergen, and
intermittently four others — the falcon, snow-owl, swan,
and skua.

After a short sleep, we were awakened about half-
past seven by an unusual sound, a sort of lapping, and
looking out of the port we saw that the calm surface of
the bay was alive with a perfect army of fulmar advanc-
ing slowly in line. Each bird seemed to stir the water
with its feet as it advanced, sipping in the waves as
though there were food of some sort in them, — the noise
of such a multitude of creatures feeding was most strange.
One was somehow reminded of the rippling sound made
when the chorus at the Albert Hall turns those countless
pages of music all at once.

When we came on deck we found that the first officer,
who had been with the purser on a shooting trip to Axel
Island whilst we were all asleep, had returned. They had
come upon a camp of some sort, and skeletons of bears
and men were lying on the barren shore. They brought
back a sextant made of oak. A proper sextant, though
rough to look at. It would be quite possible to take an
observation with it, if you knew how much to allow for
the error of the instrument.

What a dismal picture one conjures up of the
deserted camp, and unburied bones suiTounded by



300 THE HEIGHT OF THE MIDNIGHT SUN

great glaciers and stranded ice-floes. Besides the sextant,
the party brought back an arctic tern, a sweetly pretty
little white creature, with sharp-pointed bill and bright
scarlet feet, and some of Richardson''s skua, black-backed
birds with hooked beaks and white breasts.

It seems strange at first to have the sun always in the
sky. We had an argument with some of the passengers
as to how high it was at midnight, and at last the
captain went and fetched his sextant and shot the sun
for us. It turned out to be eleven degrees above the
horizon. There is a sort of rosy tint in the sunlight
most of the time, and the distant snow peaks have
quite a pink glow as they peep up out of the haze, then
the earth is reddish, and the moss that springs up
whenever the snow has melted away has quite a crimson
lake and burnt sienna sort of a tint, so that in spite
of the great blue glaciers the scene is not all cold and
white. The bright scarlet bodies of the poor skinned
whales, which drift by at intervals, also give a touch
of colour, and the transparent glassy tint of the moun-
tains in shadow is most wonderful with an unearthly
beauty all its own.

We were very comfortable all the next day after
leaving Recherche Bay. The mist had enveloped our
surroundings, but the sea was calm. One small fishing-
boat had emerged right in our path, about the time
of daybreak in ordinary latitudes. The air was chilly
and damp, but in the music-room all was comfort and
warmth. One knot of people were busy painting arctic
birds ; another knot, arctic flowers. Some were reading,
others talking of their greenhouses and gardens at
home, being reminded of flower after flower at the mere
sight of one's dish full of flowering mosses. These few
long days at sea made fast friends of many people. All



LATITUDE 80° 24' N. 301

were on the qui vive for the first sight of the pack-ice.
On deck the air was cold, very cold, so that we could
not be far off. First one little scrap, then another of
transparent green ice floated by, then more, little lumps
and hummocks. The ship slowed ; and as she did so
the fog began to lift, and continued lifting as we slowly
forged ahead. The small lumps passed more rapidly
every moment ; then the mist lifted, and right in front
of us was the limitless Ice- Pack reaching away as far as
the eye could see. Only fancy if the Fi-am could have
been coming out of the pack at that moment, there
were we in latitude 80° 24' N., and she came out a little
north of 80° ; but the Siders of Tromso, a whaler, was
the vessel in luck that time. Opening Nansen's
Farthest North at haphazard I came across the passage :
" The world that shall be ! . , . Again and again this
thought comes back to my mind, I gaze far on through
the ages."

" Monday, April 30th. — Drifting northwards. Yester-
day observations gave 80° 42', and to-day 80° 44^'. The
wind steady from the south and south-east." " It is
lovely spring weather. One feels that spring-time must
have come. . . ." Then again, "Every night I am at
home in my dreams, but when the morning breaks I
must again, like Helge, gallop back on the pale horse
by the way of the reddening dawn, not to the joys of
Valhalla, but to the realm of eternal ice." Much
longing, it seems to me, is in the words.

Hummocky ice stood up in all kinds of shapes, the
standing pieces a bright green, with every now and then
a patch stained by either ironstone, or the bed of
some Siberian river. We steamed round the edge of
the pack some four to five hundred yards from it, and
noticed that the ice had a slight pink tinge with trans-



302 PRINCE CHARLESES FORELAND

parent blues and greens against a tender pale sky, the
ice merging into the sky. We turned and headed south,
the low ice dispersing very soon. All, as usual, had been
thought of, and above the first item on the menu at
lunch was July 25th, Ice Pack, Lat. 80° 24,' Long. 4° 50'.

In the afternoon we again sighted Spitzbergen. The
mountains, with the sun shining on the pink snow, came
into view in a long line under a thick grey cloud, which
slowly rose, leaving the most beautiful clear green sky.
All the afternoon the peaks passed in procession great
snowfields and glaciers, while the mountains, hollowed
into basins, were filled with snow, and rising from inside
the basin, round the sides, were ice and snow, like the
beautiful fern patterns that one sees in winter on the
window-pane.

We had a concert in the evening, which lasted till
half-past ten. It was bright daylight still, a lovely
soft yellow light over all. The sea like glass reflected
the soft colour on the surface, and the ripple from the
ship's bow broke in little billows of the most lovely
sapphire blue. A tall girl, with a figure like a goddess,
and a glorious crown of golden hair, was singing. The
voices in the music-room were stilled to listen, as her
clear notes rose higher and higher. All the time the
marvellous ice-peaks of Prince Charles's Foreland were
slowly passing, each one framed by the porthole, trans-
parent and clear, the colour of opals. Those peaks !
those lovely peaks ! and the voice went on, and the
peaks glided by, both leaving an impression that will
never fade.

It was late in the summer when the Vectis, with the
Vecti on board, decided to cross the North Sea to the
coast of Britain. All on board of the ship wondered if
Mgw and Ran, the god and goddess of the sea, and their



THE BELIEFS OF THE VECTI 303

daughters, would show themselves in ugly mood on their
way home. Having cruised all along the fjords of
Norway from Christiania to the polar ice, they had
imbibed many new beliefs, as was natural when visiting
the halls of the dead, and treading the soil held for so
long by the sons of Odin.

The Vecti believed as of old, that those who were
drowned at sea went to Ran ; those who died by weapons
went to Valhalla ; and those who died a natural death in
their beds or chairs went to Hel. What happened to those
who died of the movement of the sea is not known. The
seafaring people worshipped -^gir, for he governed the
sea and wind. Ran, his wife, received well all ship-
wrecked people in her hall at the bottom of the sea,
and had a net with which she caught men who came out
to sea ; drowned men were sure to be welcomed by her.

The Wind and the Fire are the brothers of Mmr.
The Wind is so strong that he moves large oceans, and
stirs up his brother the Fire, ^gir and Ran have nine
beautiful daughters who live in the sea, and the waves
are named after them. These daughters often go three
together, and the winds awake them from their sleep.
They are not partial to men, and are always seen in
storms. All had names emblematic of the waves. They
are called Himingloefa, the Heaven glittering ; Dufa,
the Dove; Blodughadda, the Bloody-haired; Helfring,
the Hurling, or Heaving ; Ud, the Loving ; Hronn, the
Towering; Bylgja, the Billowing, or Swelling; Bara,
the Lashing ; Kolga, the Cooling. ^Egir and Ran were
not to let this mighty vessel go home quietly.

The ship was hardly out of sight of land when the
sky became dark and threatening, the clouds hung low
and moved with great rapidity, the wind kept increasing
in violence, the waves rose higher and higher, and the



304 THE DAUGHTERS OF RAN

North Sea was like a sheet of white foam. The Vectis
rode over the waves as if she were a seagull, and was so
easily steered that the people believed and declared that
she understood the human voice. From the south-west,
the wind shifted suddenly to the north-west, and alternate
gusts of wind and rain followed each other in quick
succession.

" It is good," suddenly exclaimed the Doktor, " that
no man knows his fate beforehand ; his mind is thus free
from anxiety and sorrow." " The day was fine this
morning," answered Thomasson, "but, after all, a day
should be praised at night, a woman after she is buried,
a sword after it is tried, ice when it has been crossed
over, and a voyage after it is ended."

" Those are wise sayings," replied the Doktor ; and as
the Vectis was ploughing her way fast through the waves,
he said to Thomasson, " Tell me of those sea-maidens
who wander over the sea, and pass their lives in doing
harm to many men."

" Those maidens are the daughters of ^Egir and Ran,"
replied Thomasson ; " they are evil-minded, and slay
men ; they are seldom gentle to us seafaring people,
and the wind arouses them from their sleep, and they
look angrily at the ships sailing over the sea."

"Who are the maidens," asked the Doktor again,
" who walk over the reefs, and journey along the fjords
and shores ? These white-hooded women have a hard
bed, and make little stir in calm weather."

Thomasson replied : " These are billows and waves,
daughters of Ran. They lay themselves on skerries ;
their beds are the rocks, and the calm sea stirs them
not ; but lo, when the wind blows hard, it rouses their
anger, and they send the men that are on the deep to
Ran, their mother."



THE COAST OF BRITAIN 305

" I fear," said the Doktor, " by the look of the sky,
that we are going to meet Mgir and Ran and their
daughters erelong in their angry mood."

The wind kept increasing. "The brother of Mgir,
who stirs the ocean," said the foster-brother, " wishes to
see what kind of men are on board of the Vectis ; for, as
thou seest, the sea is becoming mountain high." Then
the Doktor, who was looking at the wake made by the
ship, said to Thomasson, " who are those white-helmeted
maidens that I seem to see yonder? They are dressed
in white, have frowning looks, their breasts heave with
passion, and they are coming fast towards the Vectis.''''

" Those are three of the daughters of Mgir and Ran,
and by their size and fierceness must be Hronn, Bylgja,
and Hefring ; let us beware of them, for their anger is in
their looks ; they are coming rapidly toward us, and I
think they mean us harm."

Thomasson had hardly uttered these words when there
dashed a wave so strongly against the Vectis that it made
her shiver from stem to stern ; it was Hronn, they fancied,
that had come against the ship. Then another wave
followed and hit the great ship on her bows ; it was
Bylgja, Right after Bylgja, in the wink of an eye, came
another wave that swamped the deck of the ship and
flung four men down. The wind shifted, and the ship
was driven toward the dangerous coast of Britain, and
came in sight of a large island with great white cliffs
hanging over the sea. The storm seemed then to be at
its height. " Witchcraft moves the storm," cried
Thomasson, " and we had better sail under the lee of
the island, for we cannot contend with ^gir, nor Ran,
and their daughters."

During the night the storm abated, and towards
morning the Vecti thought they saw nine Valkyrias,
20



3o6 THE THAMES ONCE MORE

helmet-clad and with shining spears, riding in the air
over their ship, and then the storm ceased. " They have
come to protect us and hush the storm ; the decree of
the Nornir in regard to our death is not yet to be
fulfilled."

Entering the mouth of the Thames, they steamed
slowly up, and, arriving at Gravesend, the anchor was
let go, the Vecti returned each to his home with much
spoil in skins, beautiful gold filigree, enamel work, and
many fine embroideries.



INDEX



Aandalsnaes, 178, 179

Abel, Nils, 36

Acropolis, 29

Act, Conscription, 219

Adderoen, 56

Adrian vii., 39

■^gir, 303

^sir, 279

Akershus, 33

Akersvik, 39

Albans, St., 39

Alfax, 279

Alumanniae, Hansa, 114

Amt, 73

Amtmand, 37, 39

Anastasius, 39

Angantyrs, 13, 14, 15

Animals, Wild, 251

Anlestael, 188

Archer, Colin, 48, 50

Arctic Circle, 223

Argonaut, 174

Arne, Bjornson, 86, 180

Arngrim, 13

Art, Museum of, 17

Norwegian, 25

Asgaard, 276

Atlantis, 262

Attenburg, Maria Cornelia, 5 1

Aud, 280

AuflemsQeld, 169, 171

Axel, 64



Baade, Knud, 19
Bach, 29, 30, 80
Bache, Walter, 129
Baedeker, 66
Bakke, 63, 151



307



Bakke-Elv, 152

Balmtaptera boops, 298

Balholm, 154, 160, 161, 166

Bandak, Lake, 52

Bara, 303

Barents, 288

Barnett, J. F., 129

Bastio, Isle of, 7

Bautasten, 57

Bautastenar, 5

Bears, 50, 259

Bele, King, 161, 164

Bennatter, Mr., 57

Bensjordtend, 231

Berg, Magnus Elisen, 18

Bergen, 29, 62, 102, 104, 109, 113,

120, 144, 168

Bishop of, 64

Bergthora, 281, 282, 283

Berlin, 21

Bjorgen, 186

Bjornson, 21, 22, 24, 35, 37, 46, 79,

86, 107, 128, 130, 186, 188, 189,

257
Bjorvik, 33

Callipso, 291

Canal, Nordsjo-Skien, 52

Cape Leigh Smith, 288

Mohn, 288

North, 240

Capellen, Georg, 128
Cappelen, Herman August, 21
Cariole, 146
Carlsruhe, 21, 27
Centaurs, 31

Charles, Prince, 218, 273, 302
Christian in., King, 216
Christian iv., King, 64



3o8



NORWAY AND ITS FJORDS



Christiania, 7, 8, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37.

38, 40, 41 > 44, 45
Christiansand, 53, 55, 56, 257
Christie, Mr. H., 193

Stiftamund, 253

Church, Vor Frelsers, 30

Clubfoot, Baron, 64

Crane, 94

Cratch, Mr. W. D., 262

Colbran, 105

Collet, Frederik, 24

"Confession, The Condemned

Man's," 38
Constantinople, 36
Conway, Sir Martin, 297
Copenhagen, 27, 29, 30
Cottell, Mr. R., 262
"Couple, A Solitary," 20
Court Poet, 278
Cuyp, 17

Dahl, 18, 65, 221

Fru, 164

Johan Christian, 17

Dalen, 17

Dals-Elv, 135

Dannreuther, Edward, 129

Dairies, Co-operative, 157

Death, Black, 36

De Beriot, 105

Deer, 241

De Hooch, 17

Denmark, 39, 56, 64, 73

Devonian Times, 270

Ditten, Wibe, 64

Doktor, 304, 305

Dovre, 155

Dow, Gerard, 17

Drobeck, 7

Dry as adopetala, 291

Du Chaillu, 72, 138, 161, 196,

276.
Dufa, 303
Dusseldorf, 19, 21
Dydril, Thorkel, 92

Earl, 64

East Glacier, 293
Eddas, 278, 279
Edinburgh, 40
Edsvaag, 22



Egdir, 279
Eide, 69, 74, 140
Eider, 265
Eidsvold, 30, 37, 40
Eidsvoldthing, 71
Eidsvoldwark, 38
Einar, 278
Ekeberg, 33
Ekersund, 56
Elfdal, 181
Elgin, Lord, 28
Elk, 260
Elphinstone, 128

Elv, Skiens, 52

Ender, Axel, 24, 184

England, 42, 73

English Fleet, 74

Eozoon, 269

Erik Blodoks, 208, 278

Erika, 36

Erlingsson, Magnus, 215

Espelandfos, 70

Eugenius, 39

Evanger, 135

Everdingen, 17

Exhibition, Jackson, 50



Faio, 62

Faerder-Fyr, 4

Faestningsbrygge, 1 18

Faged, 73

Faleida, 168

Farsund, 56

Fauna of Spitzbergen, 297

Fearnly, 19

Fele, Norwegian, 80

Fenvir, 279

Fikensensand, 63

Fiksensund, 81

Fin, Farm of, 140, 1 42

Finck, Mr., 104

Finland, 246

Finnegaarden, 112

Finneloft, 140, 141

Firdafylke, 167

Fjaerland, 173

Fjalar, 279

Fjeld Finns, 240

Fjord, 4, 44, 141

Aurlands, 145, 154

Bolstad, 135



INDEX



309



Fjord, Bommelo, 60

Bukke, 55

Christiania, 4

Daviks, 168

Drammen, 7

Eid, 71

Eyds, 168

Fjaerlands, 155

Graven, 74, 75

Hardanger, 62, 63, 72

Ilelgeraar, 50

Hundviks, 168

Is, 168, 178

Langesand, 50

Mauranger, 63, 66, 67

• Melanger, 230

Molde, 178, 181

Naero, 140, 144, 145, 152,

154, 167, 170, 289

Nord, 168

Romsdal, 178, 182

Sandesogns, 7

Sogne, 72, 145, 167, 273

Solberg, 230

Sor, 69, 71, 134

Stavanger, 69

Stor, 288

Trondhjem, 148, 246

Ult, 168

Utne, 71

Vaags, 230

Fladager, 30
Fleelith, 283

Fleet, Dano-Norwegian, 217

English, 74

Flora of Spitzbergen, 292

Flydal, Farm of, 177

Flydalsbrae, 177

Flydalshorn, 174

Fokstuen, 181

Folgefond, 63, 65, 66, 69, 70

Folgefondfjeld, 65

Fogderi, 73

Formanskab, 73

Fox Glacier, 289, 293, 298

Fram, 48, 50, 250

Frederick vi., 37

P'redrikshald, 5

Frey, 279

Frich, J. C. G., 19, 33

Friedricks, 19

Friesland, Dutch cruiser, 290



Frithjof, 144
Frognersaeter, 34



Gaad, 45
Gaard, 112, 115
Gaard, Suphelle, 157
Gade, Karl Joans, 37

Niels W., 130

Gaden, Carljohans, 91

Jordenskjolds, 56

Storhammer, 40

Strand, 40

Ganger, 85, 141

Garden, University, 17

Gefle, 181

Geikie, Sir A., 270

Geiranger, 174, 177

Geirason, 278

Gerhard, Marchus, 65

Germany, 56

Gi Sund, 230

Gjerde, 66

Glafin, 278

Glencoe, 180

Glommen, 38, 181

Gloppons, 168

Glosimodt, Olaf Olafsen, 30

Glutton, 260

Gorbitz, Johan, 1 9

Gosse, 120

Grande, 178

Graven, 81

Graveyard, 108

Greenland, 41, 298

Greigh, General, 128

Grieg, Alexander, 128

Edvard, 36, 84, 104,

124, 125, 126, 127, 129,

131. 133

Madame, 125, 126, 127

Grim, 282, 284
Grimstad, 51, 52
Gronsdol, 70
Guarneri, 104
Gude, Hans, 21, 33
Gudebrandsdal, 41
Gudbrandsdalen, 148
Gudvangen, 140, 154
Gulathing, 72
Gundulph, 58
Gunner 282



107,
130.



310



NORWAY AND ITS FJORDS



Haakon, 73, 139, 165, 219, 278

Hafsfjord, 59, 61

Hake, 13

Hakluyt, 253

Halden, 5

Haldor, 99

Hailing, 84

Hallingdal, 35

Hamar, 39, 40

Hammerfest, 248, 249

Hammer Store, 39

Hampstead, Morten, 40

Hanekanob, 76

Hangse, Lensmand C. J., 73

Hansa, 113, 115

Hansen, Carl Sundt, 21, 30

Andr. M., 239

Hanskuld, 283, 284, 285
Harald Fairhair, 278

Haardrada, 21, 214

Haarfagre, 57, 59, 202, 206,

207
Hasvik, 247
Haugen, Hans, 258

Ole, 79

Haugesund, 59
Haven, Astre, 56

Nestre, 56

Heftye, Villa, 34
Heimskringan, 35
Hel, 303
Helfring, 303
Helgi, 282, 284
Hellesaeterbrae, 171
Hempl, 197
Herodotus, 35
Herschel, Sir John, 40
Hertfordshire, 39
Hervard, 14
Hervor, 13, 15, 16
Hestmann, 224
Heyerdahl, Hans, 25, 26
Hildal, 70
Hildalfos, 70
Himingloefa, 303
Hjalmar, 15, 16
Hjorvard, 14
Hoff, Major, 65
Holberg, Ludvig, 36
Holefos, 174
Holmenkolbakken, 35
HolmenkoUen, 32, 34, 35



Holmguist, Mr. P. J., 270
Hop, 124, 134
Horedo, 33
Horgheim, 179
Horland, 64
Hornelen, 168
Hornindalsvand, 168
Hornklof, 278
Hotel, Fletcher's, 140
Hardanger, 69, 71

Sandven, 81

Hronn, 303, 305
Hudiksvalla, 181
Huldreslaater, 81
Hummicky ice, 301
Hurling, 303
Hydalshorn, 177
Hyrning, 88, 97, 100

Ibsen, 189

Henrik, 26, 36, 37, 51

Knud, 51

Ice Age, 63

pack, 301

Idne Samlen, 63
Ilissus, 31
Infanticide, 27
Invik, 168

Island, Frederick Jackson, I49
hie de France, 289, 290
Ivar, the Viking, 138

Jacobsen, Schoolmaster, 22, 23

Jaderen, 57

Jadki, 248

Jagter, 117

Jambadi, 95, 99

Jardalsnut, 151

Jardine, Sir Henry, 40

Jarl, Eirik, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 94,

95. 97,98,99. lOl

Sigvaldi, 89

Jarlsberg-Laurvik, 257

Joachim, 104

Johan, King Carl, 29, 30

Johansen, 49

Jomfru Marias Synaal, 59

Jordal, 70

Jotnar, 34, 276

Jotunheim, 279

Jurassic Times, 27 1

Justedal, 85, 225



INDEX



311



Karmo, 58

Karmosund, 59

Keary, Mr. C. F., 278, 280

Keesa, 53

Ketil Flatnose, 280

Kielland, Alexander, 36, 189


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