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of surround- *
ings on



Occupation of
people.



Character of
people.



Large portion of them
herdsmen, therefore
simple and frugal.
Country offers no great
resources, therefore
people turn all to
account.

{Possessed of great sense
of beauty and love of
Nature ; bold, hardy,
thrifty ; lovers of inde-
pendence.



V. Recapitulation.

Question on matter as in procedure.

PROCEDURE.

I. Introduce lesson by questioning class as to position
and general character of Switzerland. Show on map the
countries touching it.

II. What can be said of general elevation of country?
What is the chief mountain system of Switzerland ?
Let class give the names of these Alps from their

position. " Central Alps," portion occupying Switzerland.
" Western Alps," stretching from north-west of Apennines
to Mont Blanc. " Eastern Alps," extending from Bavaria
to North Italy, and from borders of Switzerland to Northern
Plain. Let class say what proportion the Central Alps
occupy. They are situated on each side of Rhone valley,
more northerly known as Bernese Oberland. Contrast
Matterhorn with Jungfrau. Second system of mountains
the Jura much less striking in appearance than the Alps.
Point out on map the plateau lying between the two ranges
of mountains. Numerous outlying spurs stretch from the
Alps and Jura into this tableland. Slope of both systems
abrupt towards south and long towards north and west.
Let class point out effect of this on appearance., i.e., moun-
tain summits more striking seen from the Italian than from
the Swiss side.



The Physical Features of Switzerland 135

III. Contrast relief with Italy. Latter has great plain
in the north, and the peninsula is occupied by the Apennines,
which have lowlands on each side.

What is determined by the slope of a country ?

Why are the rivers of Switzerland of little use ?

Where do they take their rise ? What effect has this on
them ?

Show on map how Mont St. Gothard forms a kind
of knot in which numerous branches of the Alps meet, and
here are the sources of four great rivers, viz., Rhine, Rhone,
Reuss and Ticino, going off in different directions. Note
the Falls of Schaffhausen. Rivers are closely connected
with the lakes, which are noted for their number, their size,
their beauty and their depth.

Draw from class the use of these lakes.

Rhone on account of its rise in a glacier is muddy
and troubled at its source, but on leaving Lake Geneva
it is a clear blue stream, therefore the lake serves to
purify it.

What effect has the melting of the snows on the volume
of a river ? When a river enters into a broad lake what
of its waters ? (C/. Gulf Stream.)

What of the volume of the river on leaving the lake ?
Decreased.

What advantage is there in this ? Inundations pre-
vented.

Owing to the elevation of the country, what can be
said of climate ?

The lower valleys being deep and narrow, what kind of
climate may we expect in winter ? in summer ?

How does the climate differ from that of Italy ?
IV. Draw from class the effect of this climate on pro-
ducts, etc.

Products : Half country too high for cultivation ; a little
less than half is under grass. What occupation follows in a
country where there is an abundance of grass ?

What do the products of a country determine ?
Manufactures.



136 Notes on Herbartian Method

Grass being the chief product results in the rearing of
cattle. What manufacture follows from this ?

What should we expect of the manufactures of a country
possessing no coal nor iron.

Manufactures of Switzerland important notwithstanding.
Draw from class there must be something which enables
her to carry them on.

By what means other than steam can machinery be
worked ?

What must be character of stream which works a mill ?

Has Switzerland any rapid torrents ? Why ?

Here compare with Holland, another country carrying on
important manufactures without coal or iron.

Can Holland make use of water for machinery like
Switzerland ? Why not ?

Tell class that Holland makes use of the regular winds,
which work numerous mills. If possible, show class a
picture of typical scene in each country.

Draw from class the occupation of number of people
since cattle-rearing is carried on. How does this kind of
life affect their character ?

What effect has the lack of resources on the people ?
Makes them thrifty.

What effects 'have the surroundings on the character?
Mountains make them bold, hardy lovers of independence.
Cf. mountaineers of Scotland. * Natural beauty of their
country fosters in them a love of the beautiful.

V. Recapitulation : How is the country divided ? Why
are the summers hot ? Why are the rivers of little use for
navigation ? How is it that Switzerland is prosperous in
her manufactures ? How are the occupations and character
of people affected by the nature of the country ?



Winds



137



NOTES OF A LESSON ON WINDS.



Class Oxford Juniors. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Previous
Knowledge General notions as to distribution of temperature over earth's
surface. Aim To interest class in causes of natural phenomena.

MATTER.
I. Preparation.

A few questions as in procedure to elicit the definition
" Air in motion ".



II. Presentation.

i. Cause of Winds.

fUnequal heating.
(a) Difference of pres-U ing amoun

sure in air owing to



of ^
VSLpouTt
( Flows from region of high



(b) Movement of air to K fo ion of , ow



obtain equilibrium



pressule s p iraUy .





REGION OF HIGH PRESSURE.



REGION OF Low PRESSURE.




Candle flame at top and bottom of
an open door into a warm room
from a colder hall.



IN-DRAUGHT AND OUT-
DRAUGHT,



138 Notes on Herbartian Method

2. Direction.

i. Unequal heating of tropics and polar

regions.

What deter-In. Unequal heating of land and water.
mines gene-{ General circulation through zones.

By day and
night.



ral direction.



Causing : Alternation of
land and sea breeze.



.By seasons.



'olar/ \Regions
Calms




Calms of Cancer
TftADES/

Equator of Heat

Doldrums



Calms of Capricorn
N.vf\ANTl\ TRADES

Calms

Po/arv 4 Regions

DIAGRAM OF DIRECTION OF WINDS.



i. Ascending cur-
rent heated lighter
TRACES air.

ii. Descending
current cooled hea-
vier air.

iii. Ascendingcur-
rent heated air.

iv. Descending
current cold heavy




SEA BREEZE BY DAY.




L AND BREEZE BY NIGHT.



Winds 1 39

3. How the direction of a wind is changed.

(a) By shifting^

of situation | See change of monsoons.

of greatest I See steadiness of Trades over ocean.

heat.

rln N. hemisphere from N. through E.

(b) In a fixed ) and S. to W.

hemisphere from N. through W.
and S. to E.

S. Hem.




t

| In 5.

V- ai




DIRECTION IN N. HEMISPHERE. DIRECTION IN S. HEMISPHERE.

III. Application and Association.

As described in procedure while teaching above.

IV. Recapitulation.

For questions see procedure.

PROCEDURE.

I. Open lesson by picturing for class a large room in mid-
winter in which there has been no fire, though there is a
fire laid at one end. Elicit facts that (a) it is equally cold
in all parts, (b) that there is no draught ; but when fire lighted
if we sit near it at first experience tells us that it is the most
draughty place ; or if room very warm on cold day, and go
to open window, which way is air moving ? If passage
cold and room warm and you open door, what result ?
What is the name people give to these movements of the
air ? Draughts. They are artificial and small winds, for by
a wind we simply mean air in motion. Lastly refer to fact
that in a house equally heated within and well sheltered
from outside air there would be no draughts.



140 Notes on Herbartian Method

II. This brings us to the chief part of our lesson, which
is to find out the cause of winds. If they are only large
draughts they will be caused by same reason, and that we
found to be unequal heating. We have now to find why
this should cause air to move. What is effect of heat on
gaseous bodies ? If I have a vessel full of air and heat it,
what effect on air ? But we have learned gases like liquids
press in all directions equally if sum total of atoms is less
than sum total of pressures, therefore effect of heat is to
alter pressure. Remind class that unequal heat is the
point to which they must direct their attention. Given two
air masses at same temperature, we have same pressure ;
heat differently result ?

Refer to water ; vapour lighter bulk for bulk affects
pressure.

Elicit from class desire of gas for equilibrium; refer to
the spread of house gas all over room equally. The dis-
semination of odours will illustrate same principle.

Draw two areas of pressure. Ask a few questions as to
the direction of draughts. Do the experiment with candle
and elicit that the movement to restore equilibrium is from
the region of high to the region of low pressure. Give other
areas from map.

Proceed next to apply and associate same idea to the
explanation of land and sea breezes in the explanation of
why they blow and change at stated intervals. Draw the
diagram on p. 138 (Direction of Winds), and describe the
circulation of the air currents from Equator to Poles and back
again in search of equilibrium. Only refer very briefly to
the fact that the earth's rotation affects direction (this should
form subject of another lesson). Conclude by referring again
to land and sea breezes, and from them deduce reason of
change of monsoons. If time permit show the cyclic move-
ment of wind by a diagram on blackboard.

III. Application and Association : As in matter.

IV. i. Define wind and say how it is caused.

2. Explain why on a cold day there is a draught inwards
from the window of a warm roorn,,



The Phases of the Moon 141

3. Where do the Trade winds really originate?

4. Why do the Polar winds creep along on the surface of
the earth ?



NOTES OF A LESSON ON THE PHASES OF
THE MOON.

Class Age, 14 to 16 years. Time Three-quarters of an hour.
Illustrations An orange and blackboard sketches. Aim To exercise
the judgment and excite interest in Nature, and thus stimulate the class
to inquire into.

MATTER.
I. Preparation.

. ( (Gk. phasis = an appearance).

1. Meaning of J The different appearances presented to

[ the earth by the moon.

2. Rotation of fit makes a complete revolution round the
Moon. \ earth in 28 days, i.e., a lunar month.




. Direction



ofS



un



OF



D



THE PHASES OF THE MOON.



E is the position of the Earth. The eight small circles represent the
chief positions of the Moon in its orbit, and the figures outside them
represent the corresponding phases.



142



Notes on Herbtirtian Method



II. Presentation.



i. Explanation of
Diagram.

(Blackboard in
coloured chalks.)



2. The Phases.



Why full
moon is not
always ec-
lipsed.



[(a) Large circle, moon's orbit.

(b) Small circles on it, transverse section

of moon, shaded to show its illumi-
nation by sun's rays in different
positions, now the lunar circle of
illumination.

(c) Letters a and b mark how much of

moon illuminated and non-illumi-
nated is seen at E.

(d) Outer figures show the appearance

it presents in each case as seen in
longitudinal section.

A New moon or no moon.

B Crescent (cresco = I grow).

C First quarter.

D and F Gibbous (gibbus = a hump).

M Full moon.

G Last quarter.

H The old moon (half).

Inclination of plane of moon's orbit
Plane of Moon's Orbit




Plane of Earth's Orbit



III. Association.

Questions in procedure.

IV. Summary and Recapitulation.

The phases of the moon are caused by the varying
amount of illuminated surface visible to the earth during its
rotation round that body.



V. Application.

1. How to know when it is first or last quarter.

2. Popular notions

connected with .

r>7 ^ 77 } quarter

Phases of the ,, , ^ rr r r ,,

(b} Effect of full moon on lunatics.



j (n) Change of weather with change of

miflrter.

)(*)



The Phases of the Moon 143

PROCEDURE,

1. Introduce by asking what changes we perceive in the
moon from week to week. Ask what these are called, and
give derivation. Whence does the moon derive its light ?
What motions has it ? Contrast with those of the earth.
What is a lunar month ?

II. i. Draw diagram on blackboard. Ask how much of
moon's surface is illumined by sun ; put in dark shading.
These represent how the moon would appear as seen from
the heavens. As seen from the earth, E, draw from class
that only a, b can be seen, and of this only the part n, b is
illuminated. Next take half a peeled orange to represent
the half of the moon turned towards E. Ask how much
would be illuminated in position A none. Now in B.
Show that the section n, b would appear in longitudinal
section like one flake ; in like manner at C it would repre-
sent quarter of whole orange, which looks at a distance like
a semicircle. The appearance at D can be represented by
the half orange minus two flakes. In like manner elicit the
other appearances.

2. Repeat order of movement, asking names given to
each. Give derivations, drawing from class meaning of
crescent and gibbous, as applied to the moon.

3. Refer again to diagram, and show that if the orbit of
the moon were in the place of the sun and earth, how much
then would be illumined at M (eclipse). If then on contrary
we do see the full moon, what must we conclude? Elicit
3, and draw diagram showing moon's inclined plane, and
illustrate further by tub of water, balls for earth, moon and
sun (pi. of water = the plane of ecliptic).

IV. After giving summary, recapitulate. What is a lunar
month ? When do the following phases occur : Full moon ?
New moon ? Last quarter ? Crescent ? Gibbous ?

V. i. Ask what letter is formed by producing the diameter
of first quarter (p) ; connect it with premier (first). In like
manner last quarter (d), and connect it with dernier (last).

2. Draw from class popular ideas (a) and (b) ; ask



144



Notes on Herbartian Method



what has given rise to (a], and if there are any scientific
grounds for it. Prove not, by showing that the change is
very gradual. In case of (b) show connection in derivation ;
tell class it is a disputed question.

NOTES OF A LESSON ON TIDES.

Class Age, 14 to 16 years. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Pre-
vious Knowledge- Currents and winds, also elementary idea of gravitation.
Aim To lead class to reason by connecting cause and effect and to give
accurate notion of the subject-matter.



MATTER.



I. Preparation.

i. Ordinary signi- fRise of ocean = flood,
fication of-! and

". I Fall of water = ebb.



term "Tides
2. Where seen.



When



[At sea-shore.
\At mouths of some rivers.
Twice each day.



II. Presentation.



i. Causes.



(a) Pull of moon or force of gravitation

to moon.

(b) Effect on solid earth and on water.

(c) Difference of this effect on side under

moon and on remote side.





DIAGRAM TO ILLUSTRATE GRAVITATIVE ATTRACTION OF MOON.

2. During Earth's ( Two high tides on opposite sides.
Rotation. \Two low tides on opposite sides.



Tides



145



III. Association.

f(a) Caused by heat. Currents,
Compare other | v '



cases of
of Water.



|0)



In seas
and oceans.

Caused by rain and snow. In rivers
and lakes. (Rise of Nile, Ganges.)

IV. Formulation.

Full Definition of Tides.

" Tides consist of the alternate rise and fall of the waters
of the ocean caused by the difference between the attractive
force exerted by the moon on the solid earth and on the
water. They occur twice in the course of an interval of
twenty-five hours."

V. Application.



j. Effects produced
by Tides.



(a) Physical.



r i. Wearing of land.
I ii. Formation of capes

1



and points. (Spurn
Head.)

Landing of
steamers.

Advantage at

(b) Commercial. mouth of river to

a port.

Usein construction
of piers, etc.

" Time and tide wait for no man."
" There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to

fortune ;

Omitted, all the voyage of their life
Is bound in shallows and in miseries."
Shakespeare.

PROCEDURE.

I. i. Introduce lessons by questions as to the simple
knowledge the class have of tides. What do we notice
about water when tide is in and when out ? What do we
call rise of water and what the fall ? How does it appear to
come in ? to go out ?

10



2. Moral Applica-
tion.



146 Notes on Herbartian Method

2. Where can we see tide come in and go out ? Why
at mouths of rivers ? So it has to do principally with
the ocean. When do we see the tide come in generally ?
(Refer to the sea-side where people wait for the tide,
bathing, etc.)

3. How often each day ? Is the time regular ?

II. i. Now we shall discover the causes of tide. For a long
time before real reason was discovered people noticed all we
have noticed ; but besides this astronomers remarked that
high tide always occurred when the moon was opposite that
portion or meridian of earth where the waters rose. This
led to the conclusion that the moon must have some in-
fluence on the tide. Refer to attraction of moon to earth
this is what keeps it revolving round it ; also attraction of
earth to moon. Which part of earth will be attracted most ?
Why ? If the part just opposite is ocean, which will have
most attraction, water or solid earth ? Why ? Therefore
when both receive it together the increase of attraction of
water must be perceptible. Why ? If both equally attracted
would a rise in water be noticeable ? Why not ? It was
also remarked that the tidal wave travelled from east to
west. This showed connection with moon. (Here draw
diagram and show tide.)

2. Explain why two high tides, one at opposite sides at
b, caused by difference in attraction ; but this time it is
because earth is drawn away from water. Ask why. And
make the class explain this two low tides caused by depres-
sion, etc.

III. Now we know why water rises in ocean and makes
tide. But are there no other occasions when water rises ?
What happens at Equator when water is heated ? Why is
this not like tide ? Refer to currents and then to rise in
rivers and lakes floods. Give example of Nile and Ganges,
and make the class give reasons for rise in these rivers.
Why is it constant, but varying in height ? What is
the difference between these cases of rise of water and
tides ?

IV. From this we see it is not sufficient to say that tide



Tides 147

is a rise and fall of water of the ocean. What must we add
to the definition ? and what is the cause ? Why the difference
between attraction ? When do they occur ? Make class
give the full definition several times, deducing it by ques-
tions. Explain why every twenty-five hours is more correct
than every twenty-four hours.

V. All natural phenomena have been meant by God to be
of use to man, and we must see now what effects tides have
first on the land physically, and then which concerns man
even more commerce.

1. (a) Refer to the wearing of the coastland. W T ould
it be possible if there were no tide ? Give example of its
action (Goodwin Sands ; Holland) ; meeting of two tides
(formation of capes or heads : Flamborough Head and
Spurn Head, Dungeness) ; other effects, too, in ocean
(whirlpools, rapid current called race : Race of Alderney
dangerous; refer to loss of Stella).

(b) Commercial : Ports landing of ships. Compare
Germany, where water in ports is so shallow. Baltic has no
tides. Refer to estuary of Thames and Severn ; use to ships ;
wait for tide ; saves steam and sail in coming in or going
out. At seaside, use to construct under water. Explain how
works of a pier are built. Refer to longest pier at Southend.
Tide goes out for two miles nearly, so pier is built straight
out. Make class repeat effects of tide, and deduce the
great value of its being twice a day regularly.

2. Refer to proverb " Time and tide wait for no man ".
Also get from class, or give Shakespeare's words, " There
is a tide in the affairs of men," etc. Show how in commerce
it is necessary to take it at the flood and not delay, etc., etc.
Apply this to opportunities in life in spiritual order and
natural order.



148



Notes on Herbartian Method



LESSON ON THE PHYSICAL FEATURES
OF SCOTLAND.

Class Age, 12 to 14 years. Time Half an hour. Illustrations Map
of Scotland, and sketch map on the blackboard. Aim To exercise the
imagination and judgment of the class in picturing physical features
and deducing their effects.



MATTER.



I. Preparation.



Britain,



i. Position and
Shape.



(a) Northern part of Great

divided by Cheviot Hills.

(b) Shape irregular, deeply indented ;

width varies from 30 to 150 miles.
II. Presentation.

((a) Covered with mountains in groups and
short ranges. Long valleys, generally
sloping towards east : hence direction of
rivers.
(b) Country divided by two depressions into

/ . c North of line from

M ^^ tQ Loch

Lynne _

ii. Central ( Between Glenmore
Highlands. \ and Strathmore.

r (i) Plateau.
n Southern j A ion>



2. Coastline.



i. Relief. \



CO

o

II,

So'



.

,. Northern

Highlands,



Uplands. l(3) A hilly fegion

West, rocks hard, indented ; sea deep.

East, stretches of cliff, not so high ;
capes are bold headlands ; sand
dunes from Kinnaird Head to Moray
Firth.

^North, wild cliffs of gneiss, 300 ft. high.

III. Association.

1. Compare relief with England and Ireland.

2. Compare position of mountain ranges and mineral
wealth.

3. Compare effect of Atlantic on all three countries.



The Physical Features of Scotland 149




RELIEF MAP OF SCOTLAND.



150 Notes on Herbartian Method

IV. Recapitulation.

1. Summary of lesson.

2. Repetition of points of relief of coastline.

V. Application.

Effect of Physical f 1 ' National character (,/. Switzerland).

E, . 2. History.

features on , .

13. Productions and commerce.



BLACKBOARD SKETCH.
Physical Features of Scotland.

Position and Shape,

{i. Northern Highlands.
2. Central Highlands.
3. Southern Uplands.
C North.

Coastline. [ East.

I West.

f i. Character.
Effects of Physical Features. - 2. History.

3. Prosperity.



PROCEDURE.

I. Question the class on the position of Scotland as
regards England and Wales, the boundaries ; notice shape,
irregular compared with England and Ireland, yet they are
irregular in comparison with other countries. On account
of indented coast the width varies from 30 to 150 miles.
What would be result of this as regards distance from sea ?
Compare England.

II. i. Relief resembles England in being higher in west
than east, but country is generally covered with mountains
in groups, short ranges and long valleys, sloping towards
east. How will this influence direction of rivers? Country
divided by depressions into :



The Physical Features of Scotland 151

1. Northern Highlands, north of line from Moray Firth
to Loch Lynne.

ii. Central Highlands, between Glenmore and Strath-
more ; and

iii. Southern Uplands, which consist in a plateau, and
two successive hilly regions (draw on blackboard if possible).

2. Now we shall look at the coastline. What have we
remarked about it already ? and in what way would a moun-
tainous country affect the coastline ? In the west, on
account of high coast, rocks are hard and sea deep. In the
east, stretches of cliff, not so high. The capes are bold
headlands. Sand dunes from Kinnaird Head to Moray Firth.
North, wild cliffs of gneiss, 300 feet high. Sea very rough.
Refer to Spanish Armada. Ships lost off these coasts in
dangerous strait.

III. Compare relief with England and Ireland, situation
of mountains, greater height, position of mountains and
minerals ; also effect on climate, more rainfall. How does
the Atlantic affect England and Ireland ? On coastline or in
climate ? But Scotland and Ireland get the full force of its
waves, therefore western coasts most indented.

IV. Recapitulation : Repetition of points of relief and
coastline, west, east and north.

V. Our surroundings affect our lives in character, in
our homes, and at school ; so a nation is affected as a whole
by the physical features of their native land in three ways,
i. National character, independence ; the natural defences
and fortresses have enabled them to resist invasion (cf.
Switzerland). 2. History ; refer to long resistance, and
really never conquered by the sword. 3. Productions and
commerce ; question on comparison of products in flat
countries and hilly or mountainous ones. How does ex-
tent of coastline affect commerce, ports, good harbours ?
etc., etc.

Recapitulate points, and ask a few questions.


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