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152



Notes on Herbartian Method



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY LESSON ON THE
SCULPTURE OF THE LAND.

Class Oxford Seniors. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Aim
To exercise the understanding of the pupils and lead them to apply their
previous knowledge of physiography to explain the present formation of
the land.

MATTER.
I. Preparation.

Consider the earth as a Divine masterpiece. God the
Divine Sculptor. Nature His Hand.

1. Original cooling of earth's surface.

2. The atmosphere.
Rivers and glaciers.
Frost, ice and avalanches.

5. The sea.

6. Upheavals and earthquakes.
.7. Volcanoes.



Instruments used.



II.



Cooling process.



Presentation.

The work of each of the above tools :

(a) Subsidence of some parts (oceans),

and consequent relief of others
(continents) from the strain of con-
tracting.

(b) Chief mountain ridges thus formed

in direction of axis.

(c) No part of present land is part of

original solid surface, though pos-
sibly on the same sites. Why ?
The dissolving or wearing work of gases,
vapours, winds, evaporation and
condensation, the cause of (c).
(a) Wearing away mountains.

I (b) Forming ridges out of tablelands.

| (c) Cutting valleys and canons.

i (<l) Depositing debris partly on plains
and chiefly in the sea. In general
levelling the high lands to the sea.



2. Atmosphere.



Rivers and
Glaciers.



The Sculpture of the Land



153



/^Filling crevices and joints of rocks,
loosing pieces, thus forming ava-

4. Frost and Ice. - lanches, which wear away cliffs and

preserve the sharpness of mountain
I peaks.

5. The Sea. Continually denuding the coastland.

Result of 3, 4 and 5. Laying low of the land and forma-
tion of stratified rocks of consolidated debris in the bed
of the sea. Only at considerable depths is the earth's
surface preserved from decay.

Action of the above counterbalanced by :

C /Large tracts of sea-floor

raised in its original
level condition, seen
(a) Gentle by the horizontal posi-
and uniform. ( tion of the stratified
rocks, e.g., 1,000 miles
of Central and North
Russia and China.
/By volcanic action ;

6. Upheavals. when the stratified

rocks present a crum-
bled appearance as if
tilted up ; the oldest
rock highest. Age
of mountains can be
told by the number of
upheavals apparent.

(c) Volcanoes form mountain peaks with
^ lava.
III. Association.

Comparisons and examples throughout.
For i. Compare cooling of roast apple.
For 2. The work done by a cyclone on land or by a
strong wind dashing sea on land.

For 3. Glaciers of the Alps. Deltas of Mississippi and
Nile. Canons of Colorado.



(b) Disturbed
and sudden.^



154 Notes on Herbartian Method

For 4. Landslips after severe frosts. Peaks of the Alps
called "Needles".

For 5. West coast of England and Scotland indented
and rugged.

For 6. (a) North of Russia and Siberia.

(b) Andes and Rockies, Alps, etc.

(c) Teneriffe, Vesuvius (Herculaneum and Pompeii).

IV. Recapitulation.

Question on the agents at work and the work done by
each.

V. Application.

Moral lesson, some such as the following :

1. The slowness and continuity of God's work.

2. All things work together towards His end.

PROCEDURE.

Introduce lesson by comparing the formation of the
land to the work of a sculptor. Briefly draw from class the
points of resemblance. By referring to the earth as a planet
and comparing with Jupiter, elicit what was its original
condition. Let us now consider the influences at work upon
it which have in course of ages reduced it to its present
condition. What took place gradually in the gaseous globe ?
Ask what effect this cooling process had on the globe when
it solidified. Refer to the familiar example of a roast apple
cooling, to elicit the subsidence of some parts and relief of
others ; deduce from this the cause of unevenness of earth's
surface, and how oceans and continents were formed. From
map of world show that the greatest mountain ranges are
from north to south owing to the great lateral pressure
caused by the subsidence of land forming the oceans. Show
diagram of section of a mountain range with evidences of
successive upheavals, and let class deduce from this that
possibly the position of them has remained the same through
all these ages. From the well-known destructive work of
rain, rivers, etc., draw from pupils that though the sites may



The Sculpture of the Land 155

be the same the actual substance must have been worn
away many times and built up again. This leads us to
consider the chief instruments Nature uses to wear away
the land. Let class name some, e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5. For
examples of 2, refer to the destructive power of winds, e.g.,
cyclones in tropics ; also air loosening the rocks by expansion
in their crevices. Then go on to the results of evaporation
and condensation, and elicit the work of rivers and glaciers.
Give examples of glaciers grinding down valleys and carry-
ing debris to the sea. What rivers do to the land below
snow-line glaciers do above it. From example of deltas of
Nile, Ganges and Mississippi, draw from class the work of
rivers ; describe the canons of Colorado.

Compare the action of rain in the gutter to show how
rivers cut up plains and tablelands, even when composed of
hard rock. Next, pass to the action of frost, and elicit land-
slips and avalanches. Ask how these are caused. Lastly
ask how the sea helps in the work of degradation of the
land, and elicit instances of its work, e.g., Zuyder Zee,
" The Needles," west coast of British Isles, etc. Collect
together the work of (i) The atmosphere ; (2) rivers and
glaciers ; (3) frost ; (4) the sea ; and ask class what is
common to it all, and what must be the eventual result if
there were not some counter-action.

Show illustrations of 6 (a) and (b). Question as to their
manner of formation, and deduce the two kinds of upheavals.
What facts can be deduced from the structure of our coal-
fields ? Point out that these stratified rocks were formed in
the ocean beds which must have risen gradually judging
by the horizontal position of the layers the newest on top.
Contrast illustrations of sudden upheavals as to position
of oldest rock. Finally refer to volcanoes and earthquakes,
and how they influence the earth's crust, even in the ocean
beds.

Conclude lesson by a short summary, dividing the instru-
ments of Nature into two classes : those which level, and
those which raise the land's surface, and recapitulate.

Give some examples of how the change of temperature



Notes on Herbartian Method



is instrumental in sculpturing the land. Trace the work of
rain falling on a tableland. How does it resemble the action
of snow above snow-line ? What reason is there for sup-
posing the principal mountain ranges of the continents to
be on the sites of the original contractions of the earth's
crust ?

THE CAPE TO CAIRO RAILWAY.

(The subject-matter will need bringing up to date.)

Class Average age, 16 years. Time Forty minutes. Aim To
interest the class in the progress of modern times and especially in the
scheme of Mr. Cecil Rhodes.



MATTER.



I. Preparation.



What led to its
Conception.



II. Presentation.



i. The Idea.



2. Route.



3. Three Parts,
(a) Completed.



Mr.



/(a) The telegraph the pioneer.
Rhodes.

(b) i, 800 miles to Umtali.

(c) " White man's wire that talks."

(d) One-tenth of funds found by Rhodes.

(e) To be completed in five years, pro-

bably 1904, and reduce 55. to 33. 6d.

'(a) To connect British territory in North
and South Africa.

(b) Outcome of telegraph.

(c) Attraction of name Cape to Cairo.

r (a) First in direction north to south on

globe.

(b) Egypt, Soudan, German East Africa,
Rhodesia and Cape Colony.

I Kitchener and late Egyp-
tian War. Cf. Gordon.
Atbara Bridge, 37
days' order from Ame-
rica. Want of water.



Idea of natives : " Spirit " hard worked.



The Cape to Cairo Railway



1 S7



Sketch Map
to show the projected

Telegraph,
APE TOWN to CAIRO.



English Miles
100200 400 600 800




158 Notes on Herbartian Method



(

\Bechu a naland Ur - Rhod s own
'



Vryburg in

, , r .,., Bechu a nala

() Completed. . fo Bul penses, few <hfficult.es

1 in Rhodesia. { tO en g ineers -
Idea of natives in south : Engine full of oxen.

Ii. Buluwayo to Salisbury and Zambezi.
ii. Berber to Khartoum. Difficulties of
clearing ; level ; fording of rivers.
Valley of Zambezi, etc., in i. and ii.

I German East Africa, British East Africa,
Abyssinia, Rhodesia and Lake
Tanganyika.

III. Association.

1. Compare with Canadian Pacific of 1885 as to engineer-
ing and uses.

2. With Siberian line ; so useful to England ; brings
Australia nearer.

3. Cape to Cairo, not much saving to time or traffic.

IV. Recapitulation.

Recapitulate chief points by questions and write them on
blackboard, and allow pupils to copy the scheme as founda-
tion for an essay.

V. Application.

1. Great undertakings generally due to energy of one or
two, who never reap the good result of their efforts. Cf.
various inventions, the pioneers of Australia and Africa, etc.

2. Class to reproduce account in their own words in
the form of an essay.

PROCEDURE.

I. Introduce lesson by asking class what is the mean-
ing of the saying, "The world is shrinking". What
inventions in the past century have caused it to appear to
become smaller ? Then lead on to the telegraph and the
railway systems of the world how the telegraph is generally
a pioneer of the railway, and relate how the idea of Cape to



The Cape to Cairo Railway 159

Cairo was the work of Mr. Rhodes. Relate circumstances
connected with points in preparation, and give the class
the latest result reached by the telegraph, and how much
more still to be completed, etc., etc.

II. Origin of idea not very useful to commerce. Why
are North and South Africa connected in the British mind ?
But are they connected as to commerce, trade, interest ?
Why not ? Notice direction of railway. Compare with other
great systems ; this is the first in a north and south direc-
tion. Use map of Africa and draw from class the countries
to be traversed by the railway. Are they all British terri-
tory ? Which are, and which are not ? Will the whole route
be an easy matter then ? Why not ?

(Trace on blackboard with coloured chalk a sketch of
route, dividing it into three parts : completed, building, and
proposed.) Question as to parts completed ; when finished.

How the war in the north led to completion as far as
Berber. Relate energy of Kitchener and the famous Ameri-
can bridge. What does this augur as to British trade ?
Would Gordon's destiny have been averted if a railway
had existed ? Why ? Explain difficulties in construction.
Would the Nile be a help or hindrance ? Show how the idea
of natives at first sight of train was the outcome of their
general characteristics. Contrast with south. Who was
the leader here (show photo). How had the late war
affected the railway ? Different result to North Africa. Why
would engineering be easier here ? What great river will
have to be crossed ? Relate estimation of engineers as to
the bridge across the Zambezi, and show picture of Victoria
Falls. What is usual mode of conveyance in south the
chief beast of burden ? Hence idea of natives that the engine
was full of oxen.

(Trace places on blackboard, sketch as lesson proceeds,
and show pictures, etc., where possible.) Treat in a similar
manner the part building. Refer to difficulties, and draw
these from class by questions on the physical features of
the country ; also part proposed. What new difficulty will
arise ? What nations will have to be consulted ? Why ? etc.



160 Notes on Herbartian Method

III. Compare with Canadian Pacific, which began as a
political necessity and became a commercial enterprise.
The marvels of engineering in the construction, etc., also
with " Russia's iron grip on China," which will not cost
England anything, but be of more service to the British
than to any other nation. Why ? What countries will it
bring nearer ? The Cape to Cairo not much saving of time,
journey of eleven days estimated from Cape to Cairo ; while
England to Cairo is five, thus sixteen in all ; and now
England to Cape by sea is seventeen.

Probably in the unknown future the railway will prove
to be of great use when its originators are beyond the reach
of praise.

IV. Recapitulate points by questions, and give short
notes for essay.

V. Draw lesson of life that few reap here below the
reward of their inventions, labours and enterprises. Draw
from class examples of this in history, great sailors and
soldiers, artists, statesmen, inventors, etc.



LESSON ON NATURE OF HEAT AND ITS
EFFECTS.

Class Oxford Junior and Senior. Time Three-quarters of an hour.
Previous Knowledge Some of the common effects of heat. Aim To
exercise reason in discovering cause and effect, and deducing principles
from examples.

MATTER.
I. Preparation.

/i. Relative sensation of heat.
. Heat absent = cold.



Experiment with
basins of hot,
cold and tepid
water.



3. Heat is the agency which produces

a difference of physical condition in
bodies.

4. The different condition produced, as

long as no change of state occurs,
is called temperature.



Nature of Heat and its Effects
II. Presentation.



161



i. Nature of HeatJ



2. Effects of Heat.



(a) Formerly thought to be fluid.

(b) Now a vibratory movement among

the particles of matter.

1 Chemical change
due to interac-
tion of mole-
cules.

(d) Heat as form of (Does work.
k energy. \Bullet and target.

(a) Change of tern- (Example : Sun and
perature. \ fire effect this.

'Example:
Bar of metal.
Exceptions :
India-rubber.
Boiling and
rising of
water.

Cf. cause of
wind.

(c) Change of state of aggregation.

(d) Chemical action.



(b) Expan-
sion.



i. SolidsJ

ii. Liquids.^
iii. GasesJ




GRAVESAND RING.



11



1 62



Notes on Herbartian Method




DIAGRAM TO ILLUSTRATE
EXPANSION OF LIQUIDS.

V. Application.

Allowances made
for effects of\
Heat.



Experiments.

1. Gravesand Ring.

(Expansion of solids.)

2. Expansion of Liquids.

(a) Bulb expands and liquid

sinks to b.

(b) Liquid expands and rises

to d.

(c) If cooled liquid returns

to a.

III. Association.

All familiar examples given during
the course of the lesson.

IV. Recapitulation.

1. Definition of heat.

2. Its nature and effects.

3. Experiments as proof.

Railways. Bridges.
Metal pipes. Wheels.
Effects felt in summer.
Safety valves.



BLACKBOARD AT END OF LESSON.
Nature and effects of heat.



i. Nature.



((a) Temperature. \
(b) Expansion. -Solid, liquid, gas.

(c) Change of state J
(d) Chemical change.

Illustrations : Three basins of water. Candle, bell, gas.
Gravesand ring and expansion of liquid in tube.

PROCEDURE.

I. Question the class as to ordinary meaning of hot,
warm, as applied to things we feel and touch (perform ex-
periment with basins of water and deduce that the sensation
is relative). Explain relative by reference to relative move-



Nature of Heat and its Effects 163

ment, relative weight. Question so as to deduce that cold
is the absence of heat. What is it then that produces this
physical difference in bodies ? What name do we give to
the doer of any act ? Then we say heat is the agency which
produces a difference of physical condition. Is there any
other way of expressing the fact that one body is hotter than
another? Instead of saying it has greater heat we say
what ? Therefore the condition produced by heat so long as
no change of state occurs is called temperature.

Now we shall consider .what this heat is. Formerly it
was thought to be a fluid. What is a fluid ? What two
states of matter come under the name of fluid ? But now
heat is discovered to be a vibratory movement among the
particles of matter. (Exemplify this in boiling water, then
in combustion, which is an interaction of molecules producing
a chemical change.) Heat as a form of energy.

II. Question class as to effect produced by sun, the great
centre of heat, and by fire. What is this physical condition
called ? It is only so called when no change of state occurs
in the body effected by heat. The first effect of heat then
is change of temperature. (Here show experiment of
Gravesand ring on blackboard if apparatus not available, and
deduce the result that heat causes expansion.) Is there any-
thing else besides solid matter that will expand with heat ?
What causes the kettle lid to move ? the water to boil ?
(Refer here to separation of molecules, and hence resistance
of pressure.) (Show experiment 2.) Now in physical
geography is there any example of another state of matter
being affected by heat and expanded ? Hence cause of winds.
Use of a fire in room causing a draught, etc. Now we have
seen that in the second effect of heat how many things may
be made to expand. (One exception to this, india-rubber.)
Now what did we say occurred when water boils ? But does
not the heat change the water ? Into what ? Steam. Can
this be said to rise in temperature ? Why not ? What is
temperature ? Apply heat to ice, what change shall we have ?
Now we see that heat can change state in how many ways ?
Liquid to gas, and solid to liquid. What happens to wax



164 Notes on Herbartian Method

under heat ? Therefore what is the third change effected by
heat ? This is called state of aggregation.

III. There is one more effect produced by heat, and this
has to do with combustion. Now, when for instance a
candle burns, what effect has the heat upon wax ? Under
which effect may we class this ? Do experiment of water
and soot formed from candle, and deduce that new sub-
stances have been formed from heat applied to candle-wick,
and these are formed by combination of different materials
in wax, etc. This is called a chemical change because new
substances are found by combination.

IV. (Recapitulate effects of heat and examples of each.)
Now all these effects of heat cannot be overlooked in working
materials which are so affected. In the summer-time, when
temperature is so high, what will happen to metal bridges,
pipes, etc. ? To counteract this allowance has always to
be made for expansion. Why ? In railway lines, bridges,
pipes, etc. ? To come to familiar examples, gloves in sum-
mer, loosening glass stopper. In engine's safety valve.
Why?

V. Recapitulate nature of heat and its effects. Proofs of
each.



LESSON ON THE PROPAGATION OF HEAT.

Class Oxford Junior and Senior Divisions. Time Three-quarters
of an hour. Previous Knowledge Nature of heat. Aim To exercise
reason and judgment of class in discovering cause and effect.



MATTER.

I. Preparation.

,-, .,. ,-, /-i. The heating of a kettle of cold water.

Familiar hxam-\

, , I 2. Use or fires and stoves.

pies to prove ,.,

.1 , rr i ! 3. Mixing of water at different tempera-

that Heat ts}^

fnr*ac



transferable.

U-



tures.
Things dried in sun.



The Propagation of Heat



II. Presentation.

Heat transmitted in three ways.

I (a) Transfer from particle to particle
through mass of substance in direc-
r J r

tion ot decrease or temperature.
(b) In solids.

Example : Poker in the fire.

Good Conductors. Metals ; less good marble, slate,
glass.

Bad Conductors. Organic substances, brick.

,i. How objects feel to the touch.
2. Woollen material to keep in heat.
Copper ball wrapped in handkerchief

and held over burner.
Differences proved by bars of different
metals in fire.



Proofs.



(a) Transmitted by mo-

tion of heated par-
ticles from one point
of body to another.

(b) In fluids.



/ i



11.




Boiling water and
winds.

Draughts, ventila-
tion.

iii. Trade winds, land
and sea breezes.

iv. System of heating by
hot-water pipes.

CONVECTION CURRENTS USED DURING
THE HEATING OF WATER.

(a) Transmitted from one body to another

through an intervening medium,
without affecting the temperature
of medium.

(b) Fire and sun give heat in this way.



3. By Radiation.



1 66 Notes on Herbartian Method

Ii. Thermometer in vessel exhausted of
air, affects sides,
ii. Something held in front of fire,
iii. Stoves ; hot-water pipes.

III. Application.

, Heat passes from furnace to water
through boiler by conduction.



Example of Work-
ing of Hot-
water Pipes.



2. Passes through water by convection.

3. From water through pipes to air by

conduction.

4. Air to person, convection.

5. Pipes also radiate heat.



PROCEDURE.

I. Question class on familiar examples, as heating water
in a kettle, a room by a fire, and mixing water at different
temperatures, and make them deduce that heat is transferable.
What happens when a hot body is put in contact with a cold
one ? Refer to what we do to get warm, therefore heat is
transferable.

II. Heat is not always transmitted in the same way.
(Examples of poker in fire and bar of metal.) Which part will
be last to feel hot ? Deduce heat travels in solid in direction
of decrease of temperature. On blackboard show how
particle transfers to particle. This is called conduction,
and is the method of transmission in solids. (Here do
experiment of silver and wooden spoon in hot water, also
copper wire over gas.) Deduce that conduction is not same
in all materials. Give examples of good and bad conductors.
How discovered .by sense of touch, and reasons. Familiar
examples, blankets, light woollen materials, spoon in tea
and hot water, etc.

We have seen how heat is transmitted in solids.
What is the other state of matter affected by heat ? Draw
experiment on blackboard and deduce the difference between
it and conduction. Particles move from one point of body



The Propagation of Heat 167

to another. Examples given and elicited from the class.
Boiling water, winds, draughts, ventilation. Land and sea
breezes. Hot-water pipes.

Deduce third method by example of rays of sun. Do
not reach us by convection. Why by conduction ? Refer
to fact that air nearer sun and yet not warmer than earth.
Therefore heat must pass through without affecting it.
This method of transmission called radiation. Refer to term
and word ray. Fire also gives heat this way. Use of fire-
screen. (Refer to dark rays and light rays, and show that
in radiated white heat we really speak of light.) (Draw ex-
periment.) Familiar examples, stoves and hot-water pipes,
etc. Warming of atmosphere.

III. Explain working of hot-water pipes. How heat
passes by conduction, convection and radiation, questioning
class as to method of transmission in each case.

Conduction : passage from particle to

particle solids .
Summery: Htztis Convection . passage of one partide to

transferable and anothr , ace jn bod liquid and

transmitted in

Radiation : passage from one body to
another without affecting medium.

Recapitulation : How can we prove that heat is trans-
ferable ? In how many ways can heat be transferred ? What
is conduction ? What are good conductors ? Name some
bad conductors. What is convection ? In what bodies is
heat transmitted by convection ? What is radiation ? How
is heat transferred in this way ? Give some examples. Give
one example which will include all three.



1 68



Notes on Ilcrbartian Method



LESSON ON THE CONDUCTION OF HEAT.

Class Average age, 16. Time Forty minutes. Previous Lessons
i. Nature of heat, its effects ; 2. Transmission of heat ; 3. Thermometer ;
4. Expansion of solids. Aim To lead the class to deduce the difference
of conduction in different materials, and apply this fact to familiar
examples.

MATTER.
I. Preparation.



Familiar
Examples.



2. Principles
Deduced.

II. Presentation.



(a) Heating of kettle of cold water.

(b) Use of fire, stoves, etc.

(c) Mixing of water of different tempera-

tures.

(d) Contact of hot and cold brick.

(a) Heat is transferable.

(b) Transmission continues till both

bodies are of the same temperature.



/ Transfer from particle to particle through
i. Conduction. mass of substance in direction of

decrease of temperature.

Illustrated by simple examples of transmission of motion.
Heat is a vibratory motion, hence transmitted by contact of
particle and particle.

(a) Bar of metal.
Examples to be

Analysed.



-j (b) Spoons in hot liquid.
I (c) Poker ; hot water in jug.




DIAGRAM TO ILLUSTRATE DIFFERENCE OF
CONDUCTIVITY IN SILVER AND BRASS.



DIAGRAM TO ILLUSTRATE Low
CONDUCTIVITY OF WATER.



2. Familiar
Examples.



(a) Wooden and silver spoon in hot water
(have apparatus for experiment in


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