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why the difficulty has arisen about deciding the date. Which
are the periods of Shakespeare's works ? What sort of dif-
ferences would one naturally expect to find in an author's
later and his earlier works ? There are two evidences which
help to give date first, those external to play or connected
with it, or extrinsic (give derivation) ; others internal, or
change in the play itself.

II. Now we shall find what external proofs we can find
as to the date of the play. First, the entry (here explain
meaning of entry) gives when As You Like It was entered ;
year not put, 4th August, and "to be staid," i.e., printed
1623. Some clue is given by the fact that the previous
entry was in 2yth May, 1600, and next 1603. What will
conclusion be then ? 1599 or 1600. Just about opening of
Globe Theatre, where it was acted (Adam). Not mentioned
in Mere's list, and this was entered in 1598. Must be between
1598 and 1600.

1. Allusions in play may also help us as to date. Why?
Here point out and let the class read in text, and explain
allusions to Marlowe's work, Diana fountain, half-pence
(coined 1582). (Who was reigning?) Also possible refer-
ence to statutes passed against oaths v., 2, 63 ; iv., i, 164;
but these last quotations mentioned are not supposed to have
any intentional reference on the part of the author. (Here
recapitulate external evidence.)

2. Deduce the mode of thought brought out by the
author ; its cause ; and hence date of play about time of Shake-
speare's temporal troubles, loss of friends, etc. . . . One of his
later comedies. If later, shall we expect to find it better
from a literary point of view than former plays ? Why ?
One of great tests of date and internal evidence is the
verse test (a) Run on verse, seen in later plays. (Point out
and show examples.) (b) Feminine endings. (Explain and
point out passages marked.) (c) Less rhyme in later plays.
Why ? Prose more perfect in style and form, also the play
lends itself to prose, as there is much conversation, and

26 Notes on Herbartian Method

unimportant parts are generally prose. (<7) Speech end test
the broken line. Also seen in Richard II. (Show passages

III. How could the date of composition influence the play
itself? History of times affect the mind of the poet?
Personal history ? How shown in this case ? Coming after
Henry V., what effect did this produce in scene, place,
character and contrasts, and lastly, age of the poet ? Mature
lost the glare of worldly goods sees by experience use of
sorrow and adversity learnt by experience.

IV. Recapitulate internal evidence, verse test and lan-
guage, and ask some of the examples that were pointed out
and shown.

V. Make class discover for themselves some of the in-
ternal tests for next lesson as run on verse, feminine endings,
speech end tests.

Blackboard Sketch.

Date of Play.

( External.
Means of d,scovery{ Intemal


Allusions (6).

1. Style and mode of thought.

2. Language.

Verse test



Class Oxford Junior Grade. Time Three-quarters of an hour.
Aim To give the class increased literary knowledge ; to stimulate their
imagination, and so lead them more easily to realise the play in an appre-
ciative manner.

I. Preparation.

Class to read whole of scene before the lesson.

Shakespeare's "As You Like It"

II. Presentation.

i. Analysis

It describes
of action.

Natural : see " winter's
wind," " antique oak,"
" brawling brook ".

Moral: the Duke, "happy

is your grace ". Jaques,
J " weeping and comment-


It adds nothing to action, but contains
several beautiful and well-quoted lines,
e.g., " Sweet are the uses of adversity ".

Words and phrases selected,
(a) co-mates.

(6) old custom of the sea-
son's difference.

(c) painted pomp.

(d) envious court.

(e) the penalty of Adam.

. chur-

Explanation or appreciation of.

the redundancy, cf. brothers.

mode by which Shakespeare
marks length of exile.

Alliteration : notice con-
trast continued.

figure of speech and force
of envious.

classical, not biblical, cf.
golden world.

contrast/aw^-, bites, chiding,

work out figure of speech.

force of feelingly. Para-
phrase passage.


(/) icy fang and .
lish chiding,
of winter's wind.
(g) no flattery counsellors

that feelingly.

(h) Sweet are the uses of
. . . venomous,
wears yet a precious
jewel, etc.

Note the familiar and oft-quoted lines " Sermons in
stones," and paraphrase and give general meaning.
(i) " Happy is your grace," etc.

Deduce i. That the Duke is resigned, nay, content,
ii. That he must be magnanimous,
iii. That Amiens admires him.

28 Notes on Herbartian Method

III. Recapitulation.

A few questions of general import, e.g. :

1. Give a very brief description of the forest.

2. What is the function of this scene in the play ?

3. Why does Shakespeare lead Orlando to Rosalind in

the forest ?

4. Repeat the lines about adversity.

IV. Assimilation.

As a written exercise the class may sketch from memory
the forest and the personages, or paraphrase one or other
speech or learn some lines by heart.


I. Teacher begins by reading to class last two lines of
Act i. :

Celia. " Now go we in content

To liberty, and not to banishment."

Point out that these lines prepare our minds for the scene
which Shakespeare is now to put before us, in which we see
the forest that is to be the place where Rosalind's fortunes
are to be played out.

Who are the characters in this scene ? What relation is
there between the Duke and Rosalind ? and why is the former
in banishment ? Quote some phrases from the text which
picture the forest for us. (" Winter's wind," " antique oak,"
" brook," etc.) Point out to class that the poet is here deftly
and with great art making the personages describe Arden.
Draw from them greater need of this in his day, when stage
properties were rude. If any place in locality lends itself
to contrast, here direct attention to it. Why is Shakespeare
so particular as to his background ? How will it affect the
life of Rosalind and Orlando as conceived by us? With
what other life will it contrast ? Given his upbringing, in
which life will Orlando show to most advantage ? Where do
we first see this truth ? (Wrestling match.)

Next show that not alone our natural surroundings, but
those with whom we associate colour our lives, and therefore

Shakespeare's "As You Like It n 29

Shakespeare carefully discloses to us the personages with
whom his hero and heroine are to be thrown.

How does Amiens comment on the Duke's first speech ?
(" Happy is your grace," etc.)

What does this tell us of the Duke's character ? What
do we learn further from the lords about Jaques ? (" Weep-
ing and commenting," etc.)

Do the lords criticise this adversely ? If not, what of
their characters ?

Is there any incident at all in the scene ? Why finally
did Shakespeare write it ?

II. Next the teacher proceeds to read or let a member of
the class read the Duke's first speech, and then discuss the
words and phrases in something like the following mode :

(a) Co-mates: i. What is the meaning of particle co ?
Give examples of other words. (Co-workers, etc.)

2. What is the meaning of mates ?

3. What do you call this doubling ? Why does the poet
use it ?

Is there any other word pointing to the same idea ?

Old custom: Suppose the Duke had merely said custom,
what would have been implied ? But if the custom is old
what further is implied ? Find another phrase that marks
the lapse of time in exile. (" Season's differences.")

Note. All the other phrases are commented on after the
same mode, the teacher putting searching questions, connect-
ing the force of passages, and only supplying what pupils
cannot find out.


Class Oxford Junior Grade. Time Three-quarters of an hour.
Aim To cultivate a literary taste and to increase the appreciation of
class for Shakespeare.

I. Preparation.

Class read through scene before coming to lesson.
Subject-matter recalled briefly by a few searching questions.

Notes on Herbartian Method


II. Presentation.

Its function in the play :

(a) To bring into relief the gentleness

and lovableness of Orlando's char-
acter, and thus to heighten our
appreciation of the hero of the

(b) To advance the action of the play

by preparing us for the sojourn of
Orlando in the forest, where his
good qualities will appear to ad-

( Words and phrases selected. Give explanation or appreciation of.
(a) " O you memory of old Memory for memorial ; use

A nalysis of

Sir Roland."

of abstract for concrete.

(b) " Why would you be so Would you = were you



" The bonny priser of humorous = whimsical.
the humorous duke."

(d) " Your virtues are sanc-


tified and holy traitors redundan ^ | a nd holy}'

to you."

figure of speech, personi-

allusion to poisoned robe
sent to Hercules.

me to the malice of a
diverted blood and
bloody brother."

(e) " When what is comely
envenoms him that
bears it."

(/) " I will rather subject Orlando's nobility of char-
acter in preferring to
suffer evil rather than
commit it. Diverted
blood : the feeling of a
relation turned from its
proper course.

(g) " The thrifty hire." use of thrifty Hypallage.

Cf. "youthful wages,"
" weak evils ".

(h) "When service should in alliteration and metaphor,
my old limbs lie lame."





Shakespeare's "As You Like It" 31

(f) " And unregarded age expand metaphor into a

in corners thrown." simile.

(j) " He that doth the Shakespeare's religious mind
ravens feed, be com- in thus expressing trust
fort to my age." in God's providence.

(k) " My age is as a lusty use of kind to mean season-
winter, frosty but able, natural. Cf. use of
kindly." kind, iii., 2, 87, " cat will

after kind ". Figure of
speech simile.

(/) Give substance of Orlando's last speech.
To be deduced by class :
i. Character of Adam from his speeches,
ii. Shakespeare's modesty in choosing to act the
part of Adam, one of minor characters in the
play ; also how Shakespeare must have entered
into the character of Adam since in acting his
part he was giving expression to his own sen-

iii. To notice rhyming passage a thing unusual in
play occurring generally at the close of a
speech or scene.

III. Association.

Refer to source of As You Like It, i.e., Lodge's novel.
Contrast Shakespeare's treatment of the relations between -

master and servant, and point out to class how much

truer Shakespeare is to nature.

IV. Recapitulation.

1. What is the function of this scene in the play ?

2. What light does it throw on Shakespeare's own

character ?

3. What classical allusions are in this scene ? What

Scriptural allusions ?

4. Give two instances of figures of speech.

5. Quote some lines revealing Orlando's love of what is


32 Notes on Herbartian Method


Introduce lesson by recalling Shakespeare's intention
in choosing the forest as the scene of the greater part of the
play, i.e., to bring into prominence all Orlando's good
qualities, these surroundings being more calculated to do so
than those of the Court.

Questions : Who are the only persons in this scene ?
What effect has this limitation to two persons on our minds?
To whom does Shakespeare wish to direct all our attention ?
What points in Orlando's character are brought out in this
scene ? Point out Shakespeare's choice of the situation in
which to bring Orlando before us. The dialogue is between
master and servant, and the words of each serve to bring out
Orlando's nobility and lovableness. What sentiments to-
wards his master does Adam's first speech reveal ? What
are Orlando's feelings towards his old servant ? Adam's
loving admiration for his master and Orlando's respectful
words to his aged servant show us the delicacy of his treat-
ment of inferiors. The fact, too, that Adam had spent his
years from " seventeen till almost fourscore " in the service
of Orlando says much for the character of both Orlando and
his father. How does this dialogue at once affect our feelings
towards Adam ? By what means has Shakespeare previously
endeavoured to win our admiration for Orlando ? Did he
succeed then ? Has he succeeded now ? The effect of this
scene, then, is to increase our admiration of the hero, and to
make us desirous of following his fortunes. What, then, is
the function of this scene ? To advance the action of the
play by preparing us for Orlando's stay in the forest.

Read through Adam's first speech, and ask following
or similar questions :

Why does Adam in a manner regret his master's virtues?

Phrases: i. What is meaning of memory here? Who
was old Sir Roland ?

2. What is the meaning of " fond " ? the force of " would
you " ?

Shakespeare's "As You Like It" 33

3. To what incident does this refer ? Who is the
" bonny priser " ? The humorous Duke ?

Why does Adam regret Orlando's having overcome the
wrestler ? Who else was affected in a different way by
Orlando's success. Comment on the word humorous here,
meaning whimsical. Show how the Duke deserves the
epithet by his conduct towards Rosalind and his change of
feeling towards Orlando after the wrestling match, simply
because he was the son of Sir Roland, whom the Duke's
father hated.

4. What does Adam mean by these words ? Notice how
beautifully Shakespeare clothes his ideas. He gives expres-
sion to the same idea in Hamlet, " Breathing like sanctified
and pious bonds, the better to beguile" (i., 3, 130).

What figure of speech is this ? What is noticeable about
the two adjectives in the line ? What effect on the idea has
the repetition ?

5. Notice the classical allusion, and tell the incident of
Hercules and the poisoned robe.

6. What point do these words bring out in Orlando's
character ? What is the meaning of " diverted blood " ?

7. What is the meaning of "thrifty"? of " hire " ? Is
it the wages that are thrifty ? Give examples of this trans-
ference of adjective. (Needless stream, weak evils, youthful

8 and 9. Note alliteration and metaphor, which, expanded
into a simile, would run thus :

" I should be cast aside in my old age, just as useless
things are thrown into a corner." Would Orlando be the
man to cast off his servant ?

10. Notice Shakespeare's religious-rnindedness in his
reference to Providence.

11. Note the simile of the use of "kindly" to mean

Class to give Orlando's speech in their own words.
What do we learn of Adam from his speeches ? What is
Adam's function in this play ?

Recapitulate as in matter.


34 Notes on Herbartian Method


Class Average age, 12. Time Half an hour. Previous Know-
ledge Subject, predicate and object (direct). Aim To exercise pupils'
understanding and teach them to generalise.


I. Preparation.

'(a) The boy skates.

(b) The boy loves games.

(c} The good boy desires to please his

1. Examples.


(d) Walking in the woods is pleasant.
<(e) " Alas ! " said she.

2. Analyse above examples under head of subject, predicate,

and object.

3. Define sentence, subject, predicate, object.

II. Presentation.

((a) Subject.

(i) EssentialParts.Ub) Predicate.

[(6 1 ) Object if (b) is transitive.

'(a) Enlargements of subject.

(b) Indirect object.

(2) Non-essential


I h
Parts. 1, v " Place -

(c) Extension, j ...^ Manner<

l^iv. Cause.
Further Examples to illustrate 2 :

1. Diligent children receive their reward at the distribu-

tion of prizes.

2. The kind master gave a holiday to his pupils yesterday.

3. He took them to London by train, as a reward.
(2) continued :

(a) Enlargement consists of adjective or phrase qualifying

subject or object.

(b) Indirect object denotes person or thing indirectly af-

fected by the action, through medium of a preposition.

(c) Extension or enlargement of predicate denotes cir-

cumstances of time, place, manner or cause.

Parts of a Simple Sentence 35

III. Association.

A nalysis of last

(Subject : The master
Enlargement : kind
Predicate : gave
Extension : yesterday (time)

Object (direct) : a holiday

(indirect) : to his pupils.

IV. Recapitulation.

What are the essential parts of a sentence ? What are
the non-essential ? What does indirect object denote ?
How many kinds of extension ? Give examples of each.

V. Application.

Ask class to form a sentence with direct and indirect
object ; another with two kinds of extension ; also make
pupils analyse : " Grateful children make a return to their
parents in their old age by their love and care ".


I. Begin lesson by asking the definition of a sentence.
Ask for a few examples, and write some on blackboard,
supplying some such as given in matter. Ask for the
subject in each case, and what it denotes, and how found.
Also for predicate. Draw from class whether predicate is
complete or incomplete. If the latter, as in (a] and (e), how
is it completed ? What name is given to completion ?
Write analysis of one or two sentences.

II. Elicit now from class what are the necessary parts in
every sentence ; then refer to (c) and (d), and ask what un-
necessary words are in the subject ; what are their use ? To
enlarge or give us a larger knowledge of subject, therefore
called enlargement. Next give further examples (i) and (3).
Ask for enlargement of subject in (i). Get class to analyse
sentence. Ask to what " At the distribution " refers, and
thus elicit that it enlarges or extends the meaning of the
predicate, therefore is called extension. Now analyse (3),
elicit the kinds of extension, and ask for other examples
of extension of time, place, etc.

36 Notes on Herbartian Method

III. Lastly, give sentence (2), and point out that the
master cannot give a holiday without giving it to somebody.
By comparison with direct object which completes the sense
directly -, show that "his pupils" completes it indirectly
through a preposition. Some verbs need such a completion,
e.g., give, send, take, etc. Ask examples of these, and which
are the direct and which the indirect objects.

IV. To exercise class in enlargement, object and exten-
sion give sentences, and ask pupils to supply different parts.

V. Lastly, write sentence in application on blackboard,
and analyse it with class.

Conclude lesson by questions in matter and examples


Class Oxford Preliminary Grade. Time Half an hour. Previous
Knowledge The structure of the simple sentence. Aim To exercise
pupils' understanding and teach them to analyse.


Extract. First two verses of Cowper's Boadicea.
"When the British warrior Queen,
Bleeding from the Roman rods,
Sought with an indignant mien,

Counsel of her country's gods ;
Sage beneath a spreading oak
Sat the Druid, hoary chief;
Every burning word [which] he spoke

[Was] Full of rage and full of grief."
Herbartian Steps.
I. Preparation.

1. (a) Meaning of predicate.

(b) Number of sentences depends on number of predi-


(c) Underline predicates in extract.

2, Subject to each predicate found by question who or what.

Analysis and Parsing of a Piece of Poetry 37
II. Presentation.

When . . . gods
(first sentence).

Sage . . . chief
(second sentence).

'Subject : The Queen

Enlargement : British warrior bleeding,


Predicate : sought
Object (direct) : counsel

(indirect) : of her country's gods
Extension : with an indignant mien.
Subject : The Druid
Enlargement : hoary chief
Predicate : sat
Extension : beneath a spreading oak

(place) sagefly] (manner)

.Subject : word
Enlargement : every burning
(third sentence), "j Predicate : was full

{Object (indirect) : of rage and grief.
( Subject : He

(Fourth sentence) J Predicate : spoke
[Object : which

Parsing of words underlined :

British: Proper adj. of qual., qualif. Queen.

Bleeding : Pres. part, of irreg. intrans. verb to bleed,

referring to Queen.
Sought : Irreg. trans, verb, act. v., ind. m., past tense,

3rd per. sing., to agree with subj. Queen.
Country's : Com. n., 3rd per. sing., neut. g., poss. c., govd.

by gods.
Gods: com. n., 3rd per. plu., com. g., obj. c., govd. by

prep. of.

Spreading : Part, adj., qual. n. oak.
Sat : Irreg. intrans. verb, indie, mood, past tense, sing.,

3rd per., to agree with subject Druid.
Chief: Com. n., masc. g., sing., 3rd per., nom. c., in app.

with Druid.
Spoke : Irreg. trans, verb, act. v., indie, mood, past

tense, sing., 3rd per., to agree with subject he.

38 Notes on Herbartian Method

III. Association.

Rules of syntax and etymology as brought into the
" procedure " column.

IV. Recapitulation.

Questions on what has been gone through, and the same
bit to be written by the pupils without further help.


I. Read the verse to be analysed. Before beginning to
analyse it with class question as to what is a sentence.
What parts are necessary to every sentence ? Of what
must predicate consist ? What is a finite verb ? Which
words are finite verbs in the extract ? Underline them.
How many sentences therefore shall we have ? How is the
subject found ? Now collect round each predicate the
sentence which belongs to it. Is "bleeding" a finite verb?
Why not ? How much is the first sentence ? (The first
four lines.) What is the predicate here ? About whom are
we speaking ? What then do we call the words " The
queen " ? (Subject.) What are we told about the kind of
queen ? What place is for words qualifying the subject ?
How much of sentence is the enlargement of the subject ?
Is the predicate transitive or intransitive ? If transitive,
what completion must it have ? Where is the object
direct here ? Is there any further completion required in
the case of " seeking" here? What name is given to the
gods of whom she seeks ? To what does the phrase "with
an indignant mien " refer ? Where shall we put it in then ?
Work out the other sentences in the same way, and let class
write out the whole for home-work, or let them write one or
two sentences at once in class.

Parsing : Underline some of the more difficult words in
the passage for parsing. Ask pupils to parse them orally,
and question as to the function of each word, in order to find
the part of speech it belongs to. Ask the reason for each
case given to the nouns. Lead class to distinguish between
the verbal forms in " ing," and discriminate when it is a
participle, when an adjective, when a noun giving examples.

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 39

In parsing chief teach the rule for nouns in apposition,
and draw from class why they should agree in case, and ask
for other examples of the same.


Class Average age, 12 years. Time Half an hour. Aim To
exercise pupils' understanding and teach them to generalise in English


I. Preparation.

1. Examples drawn from class.

2. Definition of sentence.

(subject )

3. Two principal parts j predicate j meaning 01.

II. Presentation.

1. Examine examples given and deduce:

(a) Some verbs are complete in themselves. Others

require a noun or its equivalent after them.

(b) Latter express action passing over from subject

to an object. Former a state of being, or an
action not passing over to an object.

^Transitive (Lat. transire = to pass

2. Two kinds of verbs -j over).

[intransitive (Lat. in = not).

III. Association.

Give short sentences, e.g., " He ran," " She broke her
doll," " The boy reads well," etc. Get class to distinguish
kind of verb, and give reason in each case.

IV. Recapitulation.

Definitions of transitive and intransitive verbs.

V. Application.

Get class to make six sentences with transitive and six
with intransitive verbs.


I. Introduce lesson by asking for sentences from the
class. Write four or five on the blackboard, choosing some

40 Notes on Herbartian Method

with objects and some without. Ask what two parts are
common to all, and what each denotes.

II. In what do the sentences differ ?

Taking an example containing an ^transitive verb, ask

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