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Charles to Rupert. Hesitation of Parliamentarians and
final resolve to abandon siege and cut off relieving force
under Rupert. Result meeting at Marston Moor.

2 and 3. Draw plan, completing it during course of lesson,
and describe opposing forces ; tell of dispute between Rupert
and Newcastle and its issue, also retreat of Manchester's
army and its recall on seeing movement of Rupert.

From position and plan deduce advantages and dis-
advantages to each side.

Compare Hastings and Agincourt with regard to hill.
Number of cavalry (these regiments originated in the Civil
War). Number of forces on each side not always a test of
result (Boers in Transvaal War).

4. Course of Battle. Describe weather, etc., time of
beginning, unsettled state of forces on each side. Final
agreement to retire Newcastle to bed and Rupert to dinner !
Sudden attack on part of Parliamentarians. First shot Sir

The Career of Oliver Cromwell 103

John Houghton and Cromwell's nephew wounded. Retreat
of Rupert. Newcastle roused. Action on right wing, Goring
chased to York ; reaction on part of White Coats.

Scotch regiments fled under Leven. Manchester fled, but
returned. Action of Cromwell saved the day. Royalists fled
to York by Micklegate Bar. Four thousand dead on field : ex-
cavations in 1858 and 1859 prove the amount of carnage, etc.

5. What was result to Royalists ? to Parliamentarians ?
Which general came out best after battle ? What had
Newcastle done? White Coats ? etc.

Here note name of battle : " Runaway Generals".

Causes of Failure. What would disunion on one side
lead to ? Would position of forces help on results ? Which
side had greater advantage ? Compare method nowadays
of supreme commander-in-chief, who regulates major tactics,
and generals the minor tactics. Compare General Duller
and Transvaal War.

III. Association. Show illustrations and compare with
Transvaal War as to :

Command of Forces. " Union makes strength " one
commander-in-chief. In former times bravery of one often
lost battle, as in present case.

Arms. Heavy armour a hindrance ; pistols, not many
guns ; often hand-to-hand fight, and now Gatling guns, 15-
pounders, etc. So much ammunition to kill one man, as
seen from statistics of Crimean War.

Condition of Soldiers. 111 fed and badly paid, depended
much on energy of commander. In modern times, compare
transit of supplies to the Transvaal and likeness between Boers
and Parliamentarians. Want of provisions obliged a retreat


Class Oxford Preliminary. Time Half an hour. Previous Know-
ledge Civil War and the Commonwealth. Aim To lead class to an
appreciation of the man by following him in the different stages of his

I. Preparation.

Question class on what they already know of Cromwell.


Notes on Herbartian Method

II. Presentation.

C Son of Robert Cromwell, a gentleman
Birth and Paren- 1 of Huntingdonshire, said to be qon-

tage. 1 nected with House of Stuart.

Born 1599.

Educated at first at a school at Hunt-
Early Education. J Later on at Cambridge, whence he was

recalled by the death of his father.
I Settled on his estate.

f i. Elected Member of Parliament for
Huntingdon in 1628. Did not take
an active part in its proceedings,
though he opposed Charles's scheme
for draining the Fens.

2. In 1640 elected member for Cam-

bridge, and soon showed himself to
be on the Parliamentary side.

3. Civil War being declared, Cromwell

threw himself heart and soul into
it. Parliamentarians at first un-
successful. Cromwell sees reason,
and remedies it.

4. Victory over Charles at Marston

Moor ; beginning of his fame.

5. Created Lieutenant-General of Par-

liamentary forces, which he re-

6. Defeats Charles at Newbury and

Naseby, 1645.

7. Appointed Lord-Governor of Ireland.

8. Proclaimed Lord - Protector of the

Commonwealth, 1653.

9. Quelled insurrection in Ireland.

10. Engaged in a war with Spain, in

which he was victorious.

Public Career.

The Career of Oliver Cromwell


Closing years.

Ch aracter.

For a year or two before his death his

health began to fail.
One of his last acts was to dissolve the

Parliament, and before he could

summon another, health gave way

owing to care and anxiety. Died

1658, on the anniversary day of

two great victories.
( Cruel, shown by his ruthless massacres

in Ireland.
Unscrupulous, shown in his treatment

of the king.
Narrow-minded in his application of

everything to religion.
Tyrannical, shown in his treatment of

the Parliament.

Ambitious of power. Superstitious.
Great decision and energy of character,

shown in his discipline of army.
In domestic life a good husband and


III. Association.

Compare him with Thomas Cromwell, so as to make
class distinguish between the two.

IV. Recapitulation.

Question on heads of matter.

V. Application.

Show that Cromwell desired power, and succeeded in
obtaining it. It did not, however, bring him happiness.
Power does not always mean content, especially if unlawfully


I. Introduce lesson by a few questions on what the class
know already of Cromwell. Draw from class that he is a
very important character in history ; but for him the fortunes
of England might have been different from what they are.

106 Notes on Herbartian Method

II. He was born in 1599. Here notice his 3ooth anni-
versary. Son of a Huntingdonshire gentleman, said to be
connected with the House of Stuart. Early education
carried on at a school in Huntingdon ; later on sent to Cam-
bridge, etc. Public career begins with his election as member
for Huntingdon in 1628. Connect this date with Charles's
third Parliament and the Petition of Right. Do we hear
anything of him in connection with this third Parliament ?
Why not ? Because it was his first election, and he was
still a young man. However, mention is made of his
opposing Charles's scheme for draining the Fens. Draw from
class what draining the Fens would entail, and why Cromwell
opposed it. In 1640 he was elected member for Cambridge.
What Parliament was this ? What was the great work of
this Parliament ? Presented the " Grand Remonstrance "
and conducted the trial of Charles. Cromwell showed him-
self to be on the Parliamentary side, one reason for this being
his religious opinions, which were very Puritanical. Civil
War declared in 1642. Cromwell threw himself heart and
soul into it. Draw from class where the successes lay in the
beginning of the war. Why was this ? Who would be the
first to see cause of this success ? What did he set himself
to do ? What was the consequence of this superior training ?
At what battle did the Ironsides first distinguish themselves ?
Draw from class the effect of this great victory on Cromwell's

After victory at Marston Moor he was created lieutenant-
general of the Parliamentary forces. Tell class how he
proposed the passing of the Self-Denying Ordinance for the
purpose of excluding from the army such incompetent com-
manders as Essex. Remodelled army, which met and de-
feated Charles at Newbury and Naseby, 1645. Charles
imprisoned ; in 1649 trial conducted and sentence passed,
Cromwell being one of the judges. On very day of execution
a Council of State was appointed to carry on the govern-
ment, and England was declared a Commonwealth. Draw
from class that this was not pleasing to the nation, whose
idea was a constitutional government, therefore confidence

The Career of Oliver Cromwell 107

in Cromwell began to decline. Power of the Government
rested on the terror inspired by Cromwell. Tell class how,
on king's death, Ireland declared in favour of the Prince of
Wales, and draw from them the effect this would have on
Cromwell. Tell of his behaviour in Ireland, and how he
earned the hatred of the nation by his barbarous cruelty.
Scotch likewise took up arms for Charles II., but Cromwell
defeated them at Dunbar, 1650. A Scotch army invaded
England, but was defeated at Worcester, 1651. Describe
his dealings with the Long Parliament, which he finally
expelled, and chose another, which was a failure, and finally
resigned its powers to Cromwell. Then he became Lord-
Protector and drew up " Instrument of Government," by
which he provided that Parliament should be called every
three years : to consist of 400 members for England, 30 for
Scotland, and 30 for Ireland, and Catholics should be debarred
from voting. Tell of his first Parliament, 1654. Draw
from class how this Parliament disapproved of his absolute
rule, whereupon Cromwell adopted Charles's plan of ruling
without a Parliament. Point out his inconsistency in mak-
ing use of the very plan he had so loudly condemned in the
king. If not very popular at home, he was very successful
abroad. Went to war with Spain to secure for England
undisturbed trade with America, 1656. Called his second
Parliament, and excluded 100 members. Remainder pressed
him to take title of king, which he refused. Why ? In 1658
a fever, brought on by anxiety and the cares of government,
end-ed fatally. Draw from class what his closing years must
have been. His acts of cruelty had made him many enemies,
lived in constant fear of assassination, slept with loaded
pistol under his pillow, haunted with superstitions owing to
his guilty conscience. Died on his birthday, 3rd September,
1658, which was the anniversary of his two great victories of
Dunbar and Worcester.

Draw from class his character : (i) His cruelty from his
treatment of the Irish. Tell incident of his setting fire to
church. (2) His unscrupulosity, shown in his treatment of
the king. His words, " If I met the king in battle, I would

io8 Notes on Herbartian Method

fire at him as at another". (3) His narrow-mindedness in
wishing to enforce his Puritan notions on every one. (4)
His tyranny, shown in his harsh rule on the declaration of
the Commonwealth. (5) His ambition of power, shown in
his dealings with those who opposed him.

Describe his appearance : Plain and awkward, usually
dirty in his attire ; a great contrast to Charles, with his
refined manners.

Draw from class his good points : Energy and decision
of character, shown in his disciplining of his army. Love
of country, though perhaps not unmixed with selfishness.
Taught the people to know their power, and caused name of
England to be respected abroad. In his private life a good
husband and father.

III. Association.

Draw from class that, though Cromwell succeeded in
acquiring power, it did not make him happy, because not
lawfully acquired.

IV. Recapitulation : When may Cromwell's public career
be said to begin ? Why did the battle of Marston Moor
bring him into public favour? How did he treat the Irish and
Scotch ? With what result ? What does this reveal to us of
his character ? What were the good points in his character ?



Class Oxford Junior. Time Three-quarters of an hour. Previous
Knowledge Great Plague. Illustrations Picture of Old London ; map
to show part covered by fire. Aim To exercise imagination of the class
and interest them in the account of the Great Fire,


I. Preparation.

i. Question class on state of London at this period,
Causes which made it unhealthy.

The Great Fire of London (1665)


2. Causes

2. Compare slums of East London to-day and part called
Old London.

3. Great Plague its spread and destruction of 100,000

II. Presentation.

i. People just beginning to recover from shock of plague
when fire broke out.

i(a) Outbreak in baker's shop, Pudding
(b) Spread owing to wooden houses.

f (a) Flickering light seen over tops of

(b) Feeble fire-engines of day.

(c) Increase of fire caused by wind.

(d) Panic of people. Church attacked.

(e) No need for rumour, fire announced


(/) State of streets, fleeing families.

(g) 100 churches in ashes, 400 streets.

(h) Ordinary means useless, extraordi-
nary resorted to.
Raged four days, finally spent itself.

r Attributed to Catholics. Why? Cf.
Nero. Inscription on Monument
(name of station now). Pope says
of it :

" Where London's column pointing to the skies
Like a tall bully lifts its head and lies ".

^s* ( Loss of fortune to many.
1 Ruin and starvation.

3. Description.

Rumours as
to Origin.

5. Results. 4

of streets.

A blessing in disguise.

'Id' <r f Two years toclearaway.

| Original sites found,
erects, i .

v Bricks used again.

Cleared away plague.
Sanitary conditions improved.
Generosity of Lord Mayor.

no Notes on Herbartian Method

III. Association.

Compare Fire of London with that of Moscow. Con
trast causes, effects and results as affecting the fortunes ot

IV. Application.

A word on the great results that often spring from small
causes, and events that often look like calamities are in
reality blessings.

" There is some soul of goodness in things evil, would
men but observingly distil it out." Shakespeare.

V. Recapitulation.

Question on matter in points given ; sketch outline on
blackboard, as foundation for class to write an essay as


I. Introduce lesson by questions on period. Who was
reigning ? What great calamity had taken place ? What
led to it ? What was the state of London at this time ?
Compare with London of to-day. Is there any part still in
a similar state ? Old London. Show picture, and draw
from class reasons for dire results. Question on Great Plague
and the terrible destruction which it caused.

II. i and 2. Inhabitants just beginning to recover from
this shock when the fire broke out. Began in a baker's shop in
Pudding Lane. (Show position on map of London of to-day.)
Why would houses burn easily ? Why would fire be more
liable to spread then ? Cf. fires of to-day, speedily put out,
and checked by material of buildings very often.

3. Here describe the fire as given by many historians.
The appearance. Its increase by wind. The panic of
people and the spread of the rumour. The streets of flame.
The roaring of fire. The cries of the terrified multitude.
Refer to fact that such occasions bring out true human nature
in its worst and best sense. Cf. accounts of shipwrecks,
where heroes and heroines are first discovered. Church
attacked, The result. Means taken to stop it. Why

The Great Fire of London (1665) In

very feeble. Cf. engine of to-day. Let class suggest from
cause of spread the only means of stopping it. Destroying
the buildings to make a gap between flames. Slight success
obtained. Fire continued for four days, and then spent
itself. Picture the scene when all was over the destruction,
the loss of property, life, etc.

4. Then when all was quieting down again the usual
question arose. What is this question ? What does it lead
to ? (Rumour.) Who were held in disrepute at this time ?
Cf. Nero and Christians. Why could they not clear them-
selves ? For how long had they been held in abhorrence ?
Refer to Monument, its appearance, where it stands, etc.
Now a railway-station. The inscription, and Pope's lines
about it. (Part of this was erased in late years.) What is
general opinion now ? Cf. Gunpowder Plot and modern
ideas since State Papers have been open to the public.

Results. Bad : Question class on loss to people in way
of money. Fortune. Business. What part of city was
it ? What sort of people lived there ? Can we see traces
of it to-day in the way of good results ? What had led to
the plague ? How could this be remedied now ? Was it ?
Relate how it took two years to clear away rubbish from
original sites of buildings, and some streets found and rebuilt.
Some of old bricks used again. Result is city of to-day.
St. Paul's rebuilt. Refer to generosity of mayor at the
time, etc., and lead class to see that it really was a " blessing
in disguise ".

III. Compare with other great fires in cause and results.
Moscow. What were some of great differences ? But
results to England.

IV. Close by drawing a lesson on the great results from
little things in cases of both good and bad. Cf. origin of
Penny Post, one kind act, etc. Ask class to quote some
lines which teach us to find good in everything. Refer to
stories which are founded on the Fire of London (Henty,
etc., etc.).

V. Recapitulate and question on points given in matter,
and set class, as home-work, to write an essay on subject.

1 1 2 Notes on Herbartian Method


Class Oxford Junior Grade. Time Half an hour. Previous.
Knowledge General outline of Tudor period. Aim To impart accurate
knowledge of the character of a sect which characterised England for so


I. Preparation.

/Henry VIII.

Previous Religious] Edward VI.
Changes. 1 Mary.


II. Presentation.

I (a) Popular party in sixteenth and seven-
teenth century.
(b) Champions of religious liberty who
desired purer doctrine: hence name.
I (a) Private judgment.
(b) Church not State should reform.
(c) Reaction from the Marian persecu-
'(a) Holy Scripture guide in doctrine.

(b) Use of surplice, ring in marriage,

sign of Cross, kneeling.

(c) No external ceremonies, all internal.
4. Their History :

r,,. , 1 rBrownists to Amsterdam on account of

Elizabeth. {


( Ask for freedom ; 1,000 clergymen.

y antes I. J Result: emigration of PILGRIM FATHERS,

^ 1620.

(Persecuted by Laud.
rCromwell and
Parliamentary side. { Ironsides>

20,000 Puritans in ten years left on account of persecu-
tions and prosperity in the Colonies.

~ ,,, f Character lost between Independents and

Commonwealth. \



The Puritans 113

III. Association.

Compare with Lollards, difference of history on account
of the temper of the people of England at the time.

IV. Application.

(i. Manners and customs.

Their Influence. \ 2 ' Literature and stage.
3. Commerce.
[4. History.

V. Recapitulation.

Summarise with points on blackboard, and question as
to who the Puritans were. How they arose. Their
doctrine. Their history during four reigns, and their
influence on the times.


1. Begin lesson by reference to religious changes of
Henry VIII. Cause of first great change. Original in-
tention of first Reformers. In what sense did the Church
need reform ? Note tendency in all such cases to excess of
zeal. Refer to Edward VI. and his advisers. The Book of
Common Prayer. Was his father really a Protestant?
Catholics and Protestants suffering side by side in his reign.
What was the cause of this confusion ? Finally, relate the
bad effect of Marian persecution, the reaction of which led
to a further excess of reform. The outcome was Puritanism.

II. i. Who they were. Their idea of purer reform:
hence name. Religion brought into everything, even their
dress. Ask pupils name of some sects now who carry zeal
to same extent. What was the attitude of people's minds
towards interpretation of Scriptures ? What would this
naturally lead to ? What is teaching of Catholic Church on
this point ?

2. What is the outcome of private judgment to-day ?
(Over 400 sects in England !) Relate the Puritan idea of
reform, and how the Marian persecution had led up to


114 Notes on Herbartian Method

3. Doctrine guided by Holy Scripture. All outward
signs done away with. (Here relate ceremonies, etc., which
were abolished.) Refer to Catholic doctrine in this respect.
Why externals necessary ? Man made up of soul and body
one reacts on the other, even in all our passions, e.g.,
outward signs of anger, etc., therefore necessary in religion,
but of no value without internal sentiment. Ex. : Genu-
flexion, etc., in church. (Show illustration of costume,
etc., of Puritans.)

4. Draw from class, by questions on period, the history of
Puritans, beginning with Elizabeth. How they were persecuted.
The emigration, resulting in foundation of our American
colonies. Mayflower. They did so much good, and founded
New England. James I.'s attitude. How did this coincide
with his character ? Charles I. Who was his great adviser?
His attitude towards Puritans. Refer to Civil War. What
celebrated army was raised at this time ? What was the
foundation of Cromwell's success with Ironsides ? (Fight
for religion.) Cf. the Boers. (Give some details about
Ironsides, and show illustrations if possible.)

Do we hear much of Puritans after Commonwealth ?
What sects arose then ? Puritan character lost between
Independents and Presbyterians.

III. Association: As in matter.

IV. Recapitulate history briefly. Draw from class their
influence on manners and customs. Why would these be
so affected ? Lead on to literature and stage. Who is the
great Puritan poet ? On what subjects did he write ? The
emigration would lead to progress. In what way ? What
good results have we now of the New England colonies ?
In what way have the Puritans influenced our history ?

V. Recapitulate points in matter, and ask questions as
given in matter; and, finally, contrast Quakers and Salvation
Army, etc., of our own day with the Puritans,

Monmouth' s Rebellion 115


Class Average age, 13. Time Forty minutes. Aim To exetcise
imagination and give class clear idea of the unsettled state of James II. 's


I. Preparation.

A word or two on James II.'s religious opinions and how
he behaved when he came to the throne.

II. Presentation.

r T [Opportunity afforded to rebellious spirits

i. Cause of Insur- r

through the general dissatisfaction
rection. .. .

of people at James s religious views.

"To place on the throne Monmouth, who
. had become very popular owing to

his personal attractions and gener-
ous disposition.

( (a) Earl of Argyll.
3. Leaders. ... SJ

\(b) Duke of Monmouth.

'(a) Argyll kindled rebellion in Scotland.

(b) Monmouth landed at Lymein Dorset,

marched to Taunton and proclaimed
himself king.

(c) Battle of Sedgemoor, 1685, in which

Monmouth was defeated.

(a) Execution of Argyll and Monmouth.

(b) Confidence of James raised consid-
Result. { erably. He set about schemes for

securing ascendancy of Catholics.
Ruin of many innocent persons.

III. Association.

Compare with Wat Tyler's Rebellion in Richard II.'s

Failure of Monmouth due to the inability of rebels to
cope with a disciplined army.

n6 Notes on Herbartian Method

IV. Recapitulation.

Questions as in procedure.

V. Application.

Point out evil effect of revolution on nations. Cf. French


1. Introduce lesson by questioning class on religion of the
Stuarts. Tell them how James II. was inclined towards
the Catholics, whom possibly he wished to gain for his ends.
Let class say what would follow from this preference of
James. Moreover, James had given his word that he would
uphold the English Church.

II. i. Point out that the nation was in a state of dis-
satisfaction, which seemed to afford an opportunity for a

2. Tell class that two notable men, Argyll and Mon-
mouth, a son of Charles II., were in Holland, whither
they had fled because they feared the displeasure of James
owing to their agreeing to the Test Act. Monmouth very

3. Tell class how they agreed to create a rising Argyll
in Scotland, and Monmouth in England.

4. Argyll sailed from Holland, arrived at Orkneys on
6th May, 1685. Captured and executed. Monmouth had
agreed to start six days later, but did not do so, in hopes that
the bulk of the army being occupied with Argyll, England
would be left unprotected. Landed at Lyme Regis; gathered
a number of followers. Marched to Taunton, and proclaimed
himself king. Followers amounted to 6,000 men; 1,000
horse plough-horses chiefly. Draw from class what class
of men these recruits were drawn from. Government ap-
prised of movements of the rebels. Militia sent out against
them. Royal troops encamped at Bridgewater. Monmouth
descries them from top of a steeple. Plans a night attack.
Advance in dead silence. Accidental pistol-shot reveals
their presence. Refer to same incident at the Modder
during the Transvaal War. Royal troops immediately on

The Trial of the Seven Bishops 117

alert. Desperate fighting. Memorable battle of Sedgemoor,
1685. Last battle fought on English soil. Monmouth fled
when he saw his cause hopeless. Followers fought until
all perished. Monmouth found hiding in a ditch, taken and

5. Point out how elated James was after the victory,

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