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THE PAPACY



VOL. III.



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PRINTED BY

8P0TTISW00DE AXD CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE

LONDON



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rU



JUSTIN WINSOR,

CAMBRIDGE. MASS.



A HISTOBY



OF



THE PAPACY



THE PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION



BY



M. CEEIGHTON, M.A.

DDUB PROFE880B OF ECCLESIASTICAL BISTORT IN THE UKIVERSITY OF OAMBRIDOI

AND CANON BESIDBNTIARY OF WORCESTER CATHEDRAL : LL.D. OP GLASGOW

▲ND HARVARD : D.C.L. OF DURHAM ; FELLOW OF THE

SOCIBTI ROMANA DI STORIA PATRIA



VOL. III.

THE ITALIAN PRINCES

1464 — 1518



LONDON

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

1887



All lights reserved



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H^^










y



V y



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PBEFACE.



The period of history with which these volumes are concerned
has called forth in late years a great amount of literature. The
Italian Kenaissance has been dealt with in its literary, artistic,
social, and religious aspects by specialists of great merit ; and its
leading personages have been made the subjects of many ex-
cellent biographies. Perhaps one result of this special treat-
ment has been to unduly isolate this period and exaggerate
some of its characteristics ; it has been regarded as entirely
abnormal, its large historic features have been blurred by the
mass of details, and its place in the development of human
aflFairs has been somewhat obscured. I have striven to treat it
with the same sobriety as any other period, and, while endeavour-
ing to estimate the temper of the times, I have not forgotten
that that temper affected chroniclers as much as it affected those
who were the subjects of their chronicles. If the writers of the
Middle Ages are to be reduced to the scientific view of historical
progress which we now adopt, the same treatment ought in all
fairness to be applied to the literary men of the Eenaissance.
The credulity displayed in the gossip of the one has to- be
appraised as carefully as the credulity of the miraculous records
of the other. I have attempted to found a sober view of the
time on a sober criticism of its authorities.

Amongst these authorities there has been opened up in late
years a great number of the records of contemporary diplomacy,
especially that of Venice, of which we have a consecutive abstract
in the diary of Marin Sanuto. There are no questions which



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vi PREFACE.

require more consideration in the present condition of his-
torical studies than the use to be made of, and the weight to be
attached to, the letters of ambassadors. Really an ambassador
requires as much criticism as a chronicler. The political intelli-
gence of the man himself, the source of his information in each
case, the object which he and his government had in view, and
the interest which others had in deceiving him — these and
other considerations have to be carefully weighed. I have
endeavoured to do this to the best of my power, and have
selected the negotiations which I thought it best to emphasise.
Diplomatic dealings need not always be recorded simply because
we know that they took place ; but the ideas of diplomatic
possibility give us an insight into the politics of the times,
which cannot be disregarded. I have, however, tried to reduce
diplomatic history to its due proportion in my pages.

The epoch traversed in these volumes is one of the most
ignoble, if not the most disastrous, in the history not only of
the Papacy, but of Europe. It is scarcely fair to isolate the
Popes from their surroundings and hold them up to exceptional
ignominy ; yet it is impossible to forget their high oflBce and
their lofty claims. I have tried to deal fairly with the moral
delinquencies of the Popes, without, I trust, running the risk
of lowering the standard of moral judgment. But it seems to
me neither necessary to moralise at every turn in historical
writing, nor becoming to adopt an attitude of lofty superiority
over anyone who ever played a prominent part in European
afifairs, nor charitable to lavish undiscriminating censure on any
man. All I can claim is that I have not allowed my judgment
to be warped by a desire to be picturesque or telling.

There are many important subjects which I have only
slightly touched, and many interesting men who are little more
than names in my pages. My book, as it is, threatens to
become unduly long, and I have felt myself bound to exercise
self-restraint at every turn. I am not writing a history of Italy,
or of the Renaissance, or of the Reformation, but of the Papacy ;



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PREFACE. vii

and I think it best to pass by important questions till such
times as their importance in reference to my main subject
becomes apparent.

I owe an apology on one point to my readers. My final
revision of the sheets was unfortunately hurried owing to unex-
pected engagements, and I notice with regret that I have not
been sufficiently careful in securing uniformity in the spelling
of proper names and in the use of titles, especially as regards
Cardinals. Though this may cause annoyance to fastidious
readers, I think it will not be a source of confusion to any.

I have to acknowledge a debt of gratitude to Dr. Kichard
Garnett, of the British Museum, who, when I was far from
libraries during the greater part of the time in which these
volumes were written, was of great service to me by bringing
to my notice sources of information which I might otherwise
have overlooked.

Cambridge : Jan. 1887.



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Erratum.
Pftge 199, line 10, /or Renaud read Perraud.



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CONTENTS

OP

THE THIRD VOLUME.



!^ BOOK V.

THE ITALIAN PRINCES.
1464-1518.

CHAPTER I.

PAUL II.

1464-1471.

A J). PAGE

' Aug. 24- "^

30 1464 f Co^C^^v® ^^ ^^^1 ^ *^

„ 30. Election of Cardinal Barbo 4

Early life of Paul II. . 4

Paul 11* and his Cardinals 5

Magnificence of Paul II 7

Mar. 1465. Death of Cardinal Scarampo 8

Apathy about a Crusade 8

Paul II. and the reform of the Church 8

Dec. 1464. Paul II. abolishes the College of Abbreviators ... 9

Wrath of the Abbreviators 10

^ Imprisonment of Platina . .11

Paul II. as ruler of Rome 11

The Roman Carnival 12

1465. Paul II. recovers the Patrimony 13

Paul II. and Bohemia 14

Difficulties of King George 14

^ Nov. \t League against George 15

A.ug. „ Paul II. cites George to Rome 16

George's attempts at reconciliation 16

Dec. „ Paul II. refuses to negotiate 17

„ 1466. Sentence given against King George 17

April 1467. King George appeals 18

The Bohemian League seeks for help 19

Mar. 1468. Mathias of Hungary declares against George . . . . 20

Effect of the Papal policy 20

Joy of Cardinal Ammannati 21



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X CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME.

PA OB

Letter of Heimburg 22

War in Bohemia 23

November. Frederick III. goes to Borne 24

Italian affairs 24

Affairs of Rimini 24

Dec. 24. Frederick III. in Rome 25

Position of Papacy and Empire 25

Jan. 9, 1469. Departure of Frederick III 26

Dec. 1470. Paul II. resigns his claim on Rimini 27

Paul IL's Statutes for Rome 27

1469. Mathias worsted in Bohemia 28

Mar. 1471. Death of George Podiebrad 28

July 26. Death of Paul II 29

Character of the Pontificate of Paul II 29

Paul II.'s Bohemian Policy 30

Weakness of Utraquism 31

Peter Chelcicky 31

Rise of the Bohemian Brothers , 32

CHAPTER II.

PAUL II. IN HIS RELATIONS TO LITBRATURK AND ART. .

The Papacy and the revival of learning 34

1438. Gemistos Plethon in Florence 36

Religious ideas of Gemistos 37

The study of Plato . . 39

Influence of Bessarion 40

Pomponius Laetus 4 1

The Roman Academy 43

1468. Paul II. persecutes the Academy 44

Pomponius Laetus in prison 44

Humiliation of Platina 46

Fortunes of the Roman Academy 47

Paul II.'s motives in suppressing the Academy . . . . 48

Platina*s biography of Paul II 48

Paul II. and literature 49

Paul II. and the Cardinals 50

Creations of Cardinals . 50

Personal character of Paul II 51

Architectural works of Paul II 52

Paul II. as an art collector 53

CHAPTER III.

SIXTUS IV. AND THE REPUBLIC OP FLORENCE.

1471-1480.
Aug. 6-9, \



1471. J



Conclave of Sixtus IV 56

Early life of Sixtus IV 56

25. Coronation of Sixtus IV. 58

Crusading scheme of Sixtus IV 58



\



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CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME. xi

PAGE

1471-2. HI success of his legates 69

1472. Papal fleet sent against the Turks 59

Transition of the Papacy under Sixtus TV 59

Condition of Italy 60

Position of the Papacy in Italy 61

Indifference of Europe towards the Papacy . . . . 61

Sixtus IV. engages in Italian politics 62

Nepotism of Sixtus IV 62

The Cardinal nephews 63

Leonardo della Rovere and the Neapolitan alliance . . . 64

June 1473. Festivities to Leonora of Aragon 64

Power of Piero Riario 66

1474. Death of Piero Riario .66

• Sumptuary regulations for the Cardinals 67

Rise of Girolamo Riario 68

Uneasiness in Italy at the Papal policy 68

1475. Jubilee of 1475 69

Florence and the Medici . 69

1471-3. Early dealings of Sixtus IV. and Lorenzo de' Medici . 70

1474. Ill feelings between Lorenzo and Sixtus IV 70

^f?L?^' ]> Murder of Galeazzo Maria Sforza 71

1476. j

1477. Effect of this example 73

Hostility of the Pazzi to the Medici 73

Girolamo Riario helps the Pazzi to conspire against the Medici 74

Privity of Sixtus IV 74

Preparations for the assassination of the Medici . .75

^^^If^'l'Murder of Giulianode' Medici 76

1478. J

Tumult in Florence 77

Failure of the conspiracy . . 77

Reception of the news at Rome 78

June 1. Sixtus IV.'s BuU against the Florentines 79

Jaly 21. The Florentine answer 79

August. War of Sixtus IV. against Florence 81

Fruitless mediation of Louis XI 82

Dec.l479-\^ , ..•,,,

Feb iigo J ^^^^'^^^^ "^^^^* ^ ^*P^^^ S^

„ 1480. Precarious peace between Florence and Naples . . .84

July 28. Occupation of Otranto by the Turks 84

December. Absolution of Florence 85

CHAPTER IV.

ITALIAN WARS OP SIXTUS IV.

1481-1484.

Sept. 1481. Surrender of Otranto by the Turks 87

Girolamo Riario seizes Forli..' 87

May 1482. War of Sixtus IV. against Ferrara 88

Feuds in Rome 88

The Colonna and Savelli side with Naples 89



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Xll



CONTENTS OF THE THIED VOLUME.



PAGE

May-July. Straits of Rome 90

July 23. Arrival of Koberto Malatesta 90

Aug. 21. Battle of Campo Morto 90

September. Death of Roberto Malatesta and Federigo of Urbino . . 91

Ecclesiastical opposition to Sixtus IV 91

1481. Andrea, Archbishop of Krain, in Rome 92

Mar. 1482. Proclaims a Council at Basel 92

November. Collapse of the Archbishop of Krain 94

December. Sixtus IV. makes peace with Ferrara 95

May 1483. Sixtus IV. excommunicates Venice 95

Disturbances in Rome 97

1484. Sixtus IV. attacks the Colonna 97

June 25. Surrender of the Colonna castles 98

„ 30. Death of Oddo Colonna 99

August 12. Death of Sixtus IV 99

Sixtus IV. begins the secularisation of the Papacy . . . 101

Impression produced on Italy by Sixtus IV 102

Girolamo Riario . 102

Energy of Sixtus IV 103

Sixtus IV. as a patron of art 103

Improvement of the city of Rome 105

Buildings of Sixtus IV 107

Painters employed by Sixtus IV 108

Paintings of the Sistine Chapel 109

Sixtus IV. and men of letters 110

Theological aspects of the pontificate of Sixtus IV. . . .112

Decline of the Cardinal College 114

Life in Rome 115

CHAPTER V.

INNOCENT VIII.

1484-1492.

Aug. 1484. Disturbance in Rome 117

„ 20-26. Preparations for the Conclave 118

„ 26-29. Conclave of Innocent VIII 118

Early life of Cardinal Cib5 119

Influence of Giuliano della Rovere 120

Greed of the Cardinals 121

^^^-'^^^y\Quarrels of the Roman barons 121

1485. /^

The Neapolitan barons 121

Beginning of the Barons' War in Naples 122

Dec. Rome besieged by Virginio Orsini 123

Dec. 25. Rome relieved by Roberto Sanseverino 124

^^^-^^•^ The Cardinals press for peace 124

1486. / f f

Aug. 11. Peace with Ferrante 125

Disorders in Rome 1 26

Lives of the Cardinals 126



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CONTENTS OF THE THIED VOLUME. xiii

PAGE

1486-87. Siege of Osimo 127

1487. Alliance of iDnocent VIII. with Lorenzo de' Medici . . . 128
Change in the Pope's attitude 128

^Ffji^^'Wnrderof GirolamoRiario 129

1488. /

Mar. 1489. Creation of Cardinals 130

Negotiations about Prince Djem 131

March 13. Djem arrives at Rome 132

May 1490 Attempt to poison Djem 134

Irreligion in Rome 134

1489-90. Innocent VIII. and Naples 136

September. Rumour of Innocent VIII. 's death 136

^®^-^' I Marriage of Charles Vin. and Anne of Brittany . . 137

Jan. 1492. Capture of Grenada 138

March 22. Arrival in Rome of Cardinal Medici 138

Lorenzo's letter of advice 139

April 7. Death of Lorenzo de' Medici 141

Marsilio Ficino 141

Pico della Mirandola 142

Lorenzo's literary circle 144

Angelo Poliziano 144

Poetry of Lorenzo 145

Convent of S. Marco 146

Early life of Savonarola 146

Savonarola's preaching 148

Savonarola's relations with Lorenzo 149

Deathbed of Lorenzo 150

May, June. Ferrantino of Naples in Rome ...*.. 151

May 31. Reception of the Holy Lance 151

June 3. Family alliance with Naples 152

July 25. Death of Innocent Vlll 152

Character of Innocent VIII 153

Disorders in the Curia 154

Discovery of Julia 156

Art and Innocent IV 156

V

CHAPTER VL

BEGINNINGS OP ALEXANDER VI.
1492-94.

1492 j E^Gction of Rodrigo Borgia 159

Early life of Rodrigo Borgia 161

Children of Alexander VI 162

Aug. 26. Coronation of Alexander VI 164

Alexander VL restores order in Rome 165

Italy's expectations from the new Pope 166

1476-92. Affairs of Milan 166

1492. Relations of Alexander VI. to Naples 167



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XIV



CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME.



1493.
April 25.

June.

May.

June 12.

June.

July.
Sept, 20.



Jan. 25,"
1494. .



PAGE

Dispute about the lands of Franceschetto Cib5 . .167

Opposition of Cardinal Rovere to the Pope . . 168

League of Alexander VI. against Naples . . . . 1 69

Ferrante negotiates with Spain 169

Award of Alexander VI. about the New World . .170

Marriage of Lucrezia Borgia to Giovanni Sforza . .171

A Spanish ambassador in Rome 172

Alexander VI. makes peace with Naples 173

Creation of twelve Cardinals I74

Cesare Borgia 174

Alessandro Famese 175

► Death of Ferrante of Naples 177

Alexander VI. recognises Alfonso II 177



1494.
July.

October.
Sept. 18.



Nov. 6.



„ 10.
„17.

„ 24.
„ 2.

,. 22.

December.

„ 24.

., 31.



Jan. 2.
1495,



16.
19.
26.



CHAPTER VII.

CHABLBS VIII. IN ITALY.
1494-95.

Political changes in Europe I79

Consolidation of France 179

French designs on Naples 180

Preparations of Charles VIII. 181

Alfonso's measures of defence 181

Sack of Rapallo 182

Charles VIII. at Milan 182

The French party seize Ostia 183

Condition of Florence 134

Influence of Savonarola . 184

Helplessness of Piero de' Medici 186

Florentine embassy to Charles VIII 187

Expulsion of the Medici from Florence 188

Causes of this revolution 189

Revolution at Pisa 189

Charles VIII. enters Florence .190

The Florentines and Charles VIII 191

Agreement between Charles VIII. and Florence . . .193

Visit of Ascanio Sforza to Alexander VI 194

Alexander VI.*s dealings with the Sultan . . . .194

Declaration of Charles VIII 196

DiflBculties of Alexander VI 197

Alexander VI. makes terms with Charles VIII 199

The French army enters Rome 200

Attitude of Charles VIII. towards the Pope . . . . 200
Negotiations between Charles VIII. and Alexander VI. . . 201

Meeting of Charles VIII. and Alexander VI 203

Alexander VI. receives the obedience of France . . . 204

Departure of the French army 205

Alarm of Spain at the French successes .... 206



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CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME.



XV



PAGE

Jan. 23. Abdication of Alfonso II 206

Feb. 22. Charles VIII. enters Naples 206

„ 25. Death of Djem 208

The French in Naples 209

March 31. League against France 209

Maj'. Retreat of Charles VIII 210

Julys. Battle of Fomovo 211

November. The French leave Italy ...*.... 212
Results of the French invasion of Italy 213

CHAPTER VIII.

ALEXANDER VI. AND FRA GIROLAMO SAVONAROLA.
1495-98.

Dec. 1495. Inundation of Rome 215

1496. Projects of the League 215

Position of Florence 216

Dec. 1494. New constitution of Florence . . . . . . . 217

Savonarola a political partisan 218

Dangers of Savonarola's position 219

July 1495. Savonarola summoned to Rome 220

September. Savonarola suspended from preaching 220

Feb. 1496. Savonarola resumes preaching 221

Florentine Carnival of 1496 222

February. Savonarola criticises the Papal inhibition .... 222

Attitude of Alexander VI 223

October. Maximilian comes to the help of Pisa 224

November. Retreat of Maximilian 225

Alexander VI. negotiates with Savonarola .... 225
Alexander VI. founds a new Congregation of Dominicans . 226
Opposition of Savonarola 227

1497. Florentine Carnival of 1497 227

Anger of Alexander VI. against Savonarola .... 228

May 4. Demonstration against Savonarola 229

„ 13. Excommunication of Savonarola 229

^ Q r Savonarola renews his preaching 231

Division in his party 232

Attitude of Alexander VI. 233

March. Pressure on Florence 233

Savonarola forbidden to preach by the magistrates . . . 235
Charles VIII. threatens a General Council . . . . 236

Isolation of Savonarola 237

Attacks of the Franciscan preachers 238

The ordeal of fire proposed 239

April 7. The ordeal 240

„ 8. Arrest of Savonarola 242

Delight of Alexander VI 242

Trial of Savonarola 243

Perplexity of Savonarola's followers 244



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xvi CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME.

PAGE

May. Papal Commissioners sent to Florence 24^

„ 23. Execution of Savonarola 245

Importance of Savonarola 246 >

CHAPTER IX.

ALBXANDEB VI. AND THE PAPAL STATES.
1495-99.

Alexander VI.'s measures to secure Rome 249

Feb. 19, 1
1496 / ^^®^*^^^ of four Spanish Cardinals 249

June. War against the Orsini 250

Jan. 23, 1 D^f^at of the Papal forces 260

1497. J

Feb. 5. Peace made with the Orsini 261

March 16. Recovery of Ostia 261

Submission of the French Cardinals 262

Flight of Giovanni Sforza 263

June 14. Murder of the Duke of Gandia 264

Alexander VI. 's projects for reform 266

Abandonment of projects for reform 267

Doubt about the murder of the Duke of Gandia . . . 263

July 22. Cesare Borgia crowns Federigo of Naples 269

December. Divorce of Lucrezia Borgia 269

Disorganisation in the Curia 261

July 1498. Peace between the Orsini and the Colonna . . . , 262

Nepotism of Alexander VI 263

August. Marriage of Lucrezia Borgia with Alfonso, Duke of BiSeglia 263

April. Accession of Louis XII. of France 264

Negotiations of Alexander VI. with Louis XII. . , . 264

August 17. Cesare Borgia renounces the Cardinalate 266

Cesare Borgia in France 266

Dec. Remonstrances of Milan and Spain 267

Feb. 1499. Venice joins the French alliance 268

Oct. Louis XII. captures Milan 269

Lucrezia Borgia 270



APPENDIX.



1. Paul II 273

2. Letters of Pomponius Lsetus to Rodrigo de Ar6valo, Castellan of S.

Angelo, during his imprisonment 276

3. SixtusIV 284

4. The Synod of Florence 287

5. The attempt at a Council in 1482 288

6. Innocent VIII 294

7. The deathbed of Lorenzo de* Medici 296

9. Correspondence of Alexander VI. with Bajazet II 300

10. Savonarola . . 306



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^






BOOK V.

THE ITALIAN PKINCES.

1464-1518.



VOL. ni.



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CHAPTEE I.

PAUL n.

1464-1471.

So long as the struggle against the coneiliar movement con- CHAP,
tinued, the objects of the papal policy were determined ; it > \ —



was only when the papal restoration had been practically
achieved that the difBculties of the Papal position became
apparent. Nearly a hundred years had passed since there was
an undoubted Pope who had his hands free for action of his
own ; and in those hundred years the central idea on which
the Papacy rested — the idea of a Christian Commonwealth of
\ Europe— had crumbled silently away. A dim consciousness
\ of decay urged Pius II. to attempt to give fresh life to the
\ idea before it was too late. The expulsion of the Turks
} from Europe was clearly an object worthy of united effort, and
I the old associations of a Crusade would set up the Papacy once
! more as supreme over the international delations of Europe.
'. But Pius II.'s well-meant effort for a Crusade was a total
; failure, and only his death prevented the failure from being
; ludicrous. He left unsolved the difficult problem. In what
• shape was the Papacy to enter into the new political system ^
[ which was slowly replacing that of the Middle Ages ? A still
' more difficult problem, as yet scarcely suspected, lay behind,
! How was the ecclesiastical system which the Middle Ages had ^
I forged to meet the spirit of criticism which the New Learning
i had already called into vigorous life.

Some sense of these problems was present to Pius II. as he Conclave
lay upon his deathbed ; but few of the Cardinals were so farseeing. August ^^*
Pius II.'s corpse was brought to Eome, and his obsequies were ^^^»
performed with befitting splendour. Then on August 24 the

B 2



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f



4 THE ITALIAN PRINCES.

BOOK twenty Cardinals who were in Eome entered the Conclave in the



Online LibraryM. (Mandell) CreightonA history of the papacy during the period of the Reformation → online text (page 1 of 32)