M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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the Camp with great fury, had like to become Matters of it.
Agricola, upon notice of their maich, made all poffible
hatte to the Relief of the Legion. But for fear of being
too late, he order'd the Horfe to go before and maintain
the Fight, till the reft of the Army came up. He ap-
pealed at Day-break in Sight of the Enemies, who feeing
him advance, would have retreated, but not having time
were fore'd to continue the Fight. The Battle was fierce
and obttinate. The Romans, that were almoft defeated
in their Camp, vigoroufly endeavour to repair their Dif-
grace, at the Sight of their Companions who were coming
to their Affiftance. And thefe, feeing the ninth Legion
in danger, rufh furioufly upon the Enemy to relieve them.
lie Iflanders Both fought with fuch Courage and Bravery, that the
art defeated. £ nem y began at laft to give ground. The Fens favour'd
their Retreat, otherwife the War had been terminated by
that fingle Battle (i).
They affemble This Defeat, tho' confiderable, difhearten'd not the
Inlanders. They imputed their Misfortune to Chance and
other Circumftances, rather than to the Valour of the Ro-
mans, and refolv'd to try the Fortune of War once more.
Having convey'd their Women and Children into the
Towns, they came together from all Parts, and form'd a
more numerous Army than the firft, with a Refolution
ftoutly to defend their Liberty.

But whiltt the Romans are preparing in the Winter to
withttand the Efforts of their Enemies, and even to attack
them, a Cohort of Uf.ppians, levied in Germany, form a De-
lign to return home, and execute it with that Secrecy ami
Expedition, that it could not be prevented. A Captain
and fome Roman Soldiers, placed among them to difciplinc
them, were killed, left they fhould oppofe the Defign.
Which done, thefe Germans ieize upon two (2) fmall V ef-
fete, kill one of the Pilots, and compel the other to con-
duct them, threatning to ferve him as they had done his
Companion : After which they fet (ail before their Inten-
tions could be known. They had laid their Meafures fo ill
that they were quickly in want of Provifions, and ledue'd
to the Neceffity of eating fome of their Comrades. Thofe
that remain'd alive, ignorant of the Art of Navigation,
were driven afhore on the Coaft of Frifeland and made
Slaves (3).

Upon opening the next Campaign, Agricola orders his
Fleet to row along the Coaft, to keep feveral Places in awe.
At the fame time he marches at the Head of his Troops,
taking for Guides fome Natives of known Fidelity, that
were acquainted with the Ways. When he comes near
the Grampian Mountain, he fees the Enemies drawn up
to the Number of Thirty thoufand, befides Volunteers,
who flock'd together to beat a Battle, of which Liberty or
Slavery was to be the Iffue. Upon the Armies approach-
ing each other, Galgacus, Commander of the Iflanders,
represents to them, " That being at the Extremity of the
" Lie, they have no Refuge left if vanquifh'd, and there-
" fore nothing but Victory can deliver them from perpe-
"■ tu.il Bondage." On the other Side, Agricola exhorts his
Soldiers " to do their Duty, by the Confideration of their
" paft Victories. Particularly he fets before their Eyes
" their fad Condition, if after being defeated, they are
" fore'd to feek for Shelter among the Britons, who for
" fifty Years together have felt the Force of their victorious
" Arms." Whiltt the General is yet fpeaking, the Sol-
diers by their Looks difcover their Eagernefs to fight, and

J! Cohort of
the Roman
jinny de-

lid peri fly




Galgacus tb
Britiih Gene- ;
tal prepares
for Battle,

Speech to his

their Hopes of Victory. The Army was ilnwn up in"'' 1
fuch manner that the Auxiliary Foot were to bear the firft -' '
Shock, in order to prevent as much as poffible the Effu-
fion of Roman Blood. The Legions were plac'd in the
Rear to fupport the Auxiliaries in cafe of Repulfe. Gi.l-
gacus had rang'd his Men on the Side of a Hill, that his
whole Army might be vifible at once to the Remans, and
ftrike them with the greater Terror. The Horfe were
drawn up on the Plain at the Bottom of the Hill, and the
Chariots ran between the two Armies. Agricola appre-
henfive of being furrounded by thefe Multitudes, widened
his Front, though he thereby weakened it, rejecting the
Advice given him of ordering the Legions to advance.
Then alighting from his Horfe, full of Courage and Hopes,
he went and headed the Legions. They fought fome time
with Darts, the Iflanders being unwilling to quit the Ad-
vantage of their Poft. Befides, their little Targets, and
unwieldy pointlefs Swords, were not fo proper for clofe
fightiiiG:. But Agricola found means to compel them to it,
by detaching two Cohorts of Batavians, and as many of
Tungrians, who fell upon them Sword in hand. The
Iflanders, unufed to that Way of fighting, could not long
withftand the Charge of thefe warlike Troops, who pref-
fing them with the Points of their Bucklers, foon broke
their foremoft Battalions and began even to afcend the Hill.
Thofe that followed them, animated by their Example,
fought with the fame Bravery, and without giving the
Enemies time to rally, overthrew all that withftood them.
Mean while, the Britijh Horfe began alfo to give Ground,
and their Chariots were fore'd to drive up the Hill to affift
the Foot that were in extreme Diforder. Tho' the Cha-
riots at firft fomewhat daunted the Romans, yet did they
but little Execution by reafon of the unevennefs of the
Ground. The Hill being pretty tteep, the Charioteers
had no Command of the Horfes, and ran without Distinc-
tion over Friends and Foes according as they came in their
way. The Foot that were potted on the Top of the Hill,
and had not yet engaged, feeing the Romans hotly purfuing
their Victory, now made a Motion to furround them, be-
caufe of the fmallnefs of their Number. But Agricola per-
ceiving it, detach'd four Squadrons oi Horfe, who not only
withftood the Chaige of the Foot, but entirely routed them.
Then falling upon the Enemies in Flank that were ftill on
the Plain, made great Slaughter of them. This Action 7Z '" Romans
compleated the Victory. Galgacus finding it impoffible tof"-'^'' ,
renew the Fight, retreated with the remains of his Troops.
He loft Ten thoufand Men in the Action ; but on the fide
of the Romans there fell but Three hundred and forty: A-
mong whom was Aldus Atticus, Captain of a Cohort,
who by the Heat of Youth, and the Unrulinefs of his
Horfe, was carried into the midft of the Enemies. The
Conquerors pals the following Night with Joy and Glad-
nefs, and the Vanquifh'd with Lamentations and Sorrow,
taking Advantage of the Darknefs to eicape the Purfuit of
the Romans. Far from any Thoughts of rallying, their
Flight was fo hafty, that when Day appeared it was in
vain to purfue them (4). Agricola feeing they were entirely
•difpers'd, the Summer almoft fpent, and unfafe to fend
his Army to wafte the Enemy's Country, marched back
into the Territories of the HorcjUans (5), from whom he re-
ceived Hoftages. He march'd flowly, to ftrike Terror into
the Britons, and in Expectation of his Fleet, which havincr
alarm'd all the northern Coaft, returned about the end of
the Summer, and anchor'd in the Port of Trutulum (6).

Domitian, now Emperor upon the Death of his Brother Domitian
Titus, receives the News of this Victery with a teeming , ''"" Vj A 8""
Satisfaction, tho' inwardly he. repines at the Reputation c ° a '
Agricola gained by it. Envy not nattering him to continue
him in his Poft where his Fame might ftill have an addi-
tional Luftre, recalls him on pretence of promoting him
to the Government of Syria. But after caufing the Senate
to decree him a Statue crown'd with Laurel, he fends him andpoifai
out of the World with a Dofe of Poifon. In this manner *»«■
he rewarded the Service that great Man had done the Em-
pire. This unworthy Emperor could not bear the Fame
of a General whole noble Actions reproach'd him with the
imaginary Triumph decreed him as Conqueror of the Ger-
mans, in which he had caufed Slaves to be dilguifed like

Agricola gave the finifhing Blow to the Liberty of Bri- Britain is
tain. By his Valour and prudent Conduct, all that Part of ^'^'p"
the Ifland lying South of the two Friths, was reduced to-.'-.,."

there is a Reman Camp in Sir John iMWce/m's Ground at Locbo*e,
Alfo near this Place is a fmall Village call'J Blair, which in the

(1) This Battle was fought, according to Cordon, in the County of Fife ; fbl
two Miles from Lochlcven, and a large Morafs near it, and formerly a Wood,
old Language fignifies a Place of Battle. Horjley, p. 44.

(z) Tacitus fays, three. Vit. Agr.

(3) Tacitus i.y', ifter a ftrange Adventure failing round 'Britain, they were taken firft by dxSeevi, then by the Frijii. And being bought and fold, fome
of them at laft in tr article were brought to the Coaft where the Romans were, who told the Adventure, and were afterwards lanrjus for it. /.-. . -.:.'. Agr.

(4) Mr. 6Wm foppofes this Battle to be fought in Suatbern, half a Mile from the Kirk oi Cancric, there beinga remarkable Encampment in that Place,
(c) Mountaineers or Highlanders. Camden places them in Ejk-daU. But his Annotator thinks they (hould be placed between South- Ejl and Ntrtb-EJi

in Angus. SeeCtvnden, p. 845.

(6) Some n ad it f bamitifis, moft probably it (hould be Rhutufenfis for Rutupenfs or Rituptnfis. So that when Agr'm'.a's Fleet, (that lay in the Toy du-
ring the Battle) arriv'd here, having gone North about by the Orcades, 'tis plain they had faiPd quite round the Ifland, becaufe they had lail'd before from
Pertui Ritupcnfu to Tay. For Tacitus iiys, Trtttulafm Por'tum tcnuit, undc proximo latere Britannia leilooimsi redierat. Vu. Agric, c. 3S.

1 a Reman

Book I.



The Britons
begin to be

Policy of tb,
•with regard
ft eonquer'd

Ceu tit lies.

a Rowan Province. As for the northern Parts, they were
left to the Inhabitants as a wild uncultivated Country, not
worth the conquering or keeping. Only ftrong Garrifons
were plac'd in the Fortrefles built on this Side the Friths.

Tho' the Lois of their Liberty feemed to be an irrepa-
rable Damage to the Britons, it was in fome meafure re-
paired by the great Alteration for the better in their Cuf-
toms and Manners, after their being fubject to the Empire.
In a fhort time they were feen to lay aflde their rude and
favage ways, and affiime the Politenefs of the Conquerors.
Arts and Sciences, little regarded by the Britons before this
Revolution, flourifh'd among them as much as in any
other Part of the Roman Dominions. In a word, from
mere Savages the Britons were become polite and civiliz'd,
an Advantage the moil northern Parts of the Ifland have
not yet attained. After this Reformation, they made but
faint Struggles for the Recovery of their Liberty, being plea-
fed, for the mofl part, with their Servitude. It mult how-
ever be noted, that a great many chofe to lofe their Poflef-
fions, and retire into the North among the Pitts and Scots,
rather than live in Subjection to the Roman Yoke. Thefe
were the Men that joining with thofe that afforded them
Refuge, made continual War with the Romans, in mainte-
nance of that precious Liberty their unhappy Country had
loft. They fpared not even their Countrymen, whom
they looked upon with Horror for being pleafed with their
Slavery. Thefe were the Men that with tile Pitts and
Scots obliged Emperors themfelves to come over in Perfbn
and oppofe the Efforts of their invincible Courage.

As for the Subjects of die Empire, they endured all the
HarJ/hips that are the ufual Lot of the Vanquished. Ex-
orbitant Taxes were laid upon them on numberlefs Preten-
ces. Their Eftates were taken from them and given to
the Veterans, that were continually coming to fettle in the
Ifland. The Flower of their Youth were made Soldiers,
and difperfed in the other Provinces of the Empire. Such
was the Roman Policy. They fent away whole Bodies le-
vied in a conquered Country, into other remote Regions,


trefTes between the two Friths; Adrian being informed of
thefe Commotions, appoints Julius Seoerw Governor of
Britain, but before he has time to perform any thing, he
is fuddenly recalled and employed elfewhcre (3); Mean
time, the Caledonians continuing to infeft the RomanTitii- cr
tories, the Emperor refolves to go over in Perfon and fub- 1 >'■
due thefe fierce and troublefome People. As foon as they
hear of his Arrival, they relinquifh the Country they were
poflefled of, and retire to the North. Adrian however ad-
vances as far as York, where he meets fome of Agricola's old
Soldiers, that had been with him in the northern Parts.
The Defcription thefe give him of the Country he intend-
ed to conquer, diverts him from purfuing his Expedition.
Befides that the Bogs and Mountains he was to pafs,
would have engaged him in a War more laborious than
honourable, he ealily perceived, that, fhould his Underta-
king be crown'd with Succefs, it would procure no great
Advantages to the Empire. Wherefore he comes to a Re-
folution to leave to the Caledonians all the Country between
the two Friths and the Tine, in hopes by thus enlarging
their Bounds to keep them quiet. But at the fame time He farts tie
to fecure the Roman Province from their Incurfions he Roman Pn -
caufes a Rampart of Earth to be thrown up, covered with IhN^bZn
Turf, from the Mouth of the Tine to Sohvay- Frith. This Countries by
Rampart was eighty Miles in length, and ran quite crofs " Ra "'t"" ! >
the Country from Eaft to Weft, by which he fecured the
fouthern Parts, leaving the Caledonians all the Lands be-
tween the new Rampart and the Ifthmus that parts the
two Friths (4). Having thus fettled Matters in the Ifland,
he returns to Rome, and is honoured with the Title of Rc-
Jhrcr of Britain, as appears by fome Medals.

After thefe laft Irruptions of the Northern People, there Enmity be.
was all along a mortal Enmity betwixt them and the fou- "«A
thern Britons. Thefe laft finding themfelves entirely fepa- f^™* 4
rated by Inclination and Intereft from the reft of the Inha- tora. " ""
bitants of the Ifland, were the more forward to embrace
the Cuftoms and Manners of the Romans. Afterwards by
means of the Arts and Sciences, they came by decrees ca- ^W™

11 r 1 - • n c% i • . >. 1 ... r* ,. J . to . . more Clvl.

1 or Inftance, the Britons into Pannonia, the Batavians in- P-ible of being inftructed in the Chrijlian Religion, which iZ'd.
*,* Tll....:~ .u„ ^ :_ A _ n •, • ._ 1 .._ ^i_ __. . v:n .t — r 1 • ^l to i

to Illyria, the Germans into Britain, to keep them at a
Diftance from their own Country. By thus draining the
conquered Nations of their main Strength, they difabled
them from revolting, and at the fame time made ufe of
them to acquire new Conquefts.
5. After Agricola's Departure from Britain, we have but a

LacullusjSo- Mender Account of what palled in the Ifland till the Reign

*vernor o l


of Adrian. We only know that Sallujiius Lucullus was
fent thither by Domitian, to whofe Sufpicions or Jealoufy
he quickly fell a Sacrifice. 'Tis to be prefumed, the Sub-
jects of the Empire were quiet, and the Inhabitans of the
North fufFered to enjoy their Liberty in Peace. The Ro-
man Hiltorians mention alfo in the Reigns of Nerva and
Trajan fome Commotions in the Ifland that were quickly

Arviragaj appeafed ; but the Particulars are unknown. It may like-?

Bri'fonf tbc wife be obferved in this Interval, the Romans after their
Conquefts, fullered Kings to be in Britain ; for they glori-
ed in having fuch for their Subjects. Juvenal fpeaks of
King Arviragus, who reign'd in fome Part of the Ifland
under Domitian ( 1 ).

In the firft Year of Adrian (2), the northern People, a
mixture, as fuppofed, of Pitts, Scots, and Britains, but
confounded by the Roman Hiltorians under the Name of
Caledonians, made an Irruption into the Roman Province.
Their firft Exploit was to demolifh fome of Agricola's For-

Sat. IV.
v. lit.


Julius Se-
verus madt
Spartian i:

till then was fcarce known in the Ifland.

How ftrong foever Adrians Rampart might be, it was The Northern
not fufEcient to prevent the Inroads of the northern People. Pa P lt dc -
Indeed, they behaved peaceably as long; as there were Ro- ^' yA dr,ans

^ J 1 1 • .■» 1 ° , - , ^ liamfart,

man i roops enough on their Borders to defend the Ram-
part. But the Moment thefe were removed, as it fome-
times happened, being wanted elfewhcre, they began their
ufual Ravages. Nay, in the Reign of Antoninus Pius (5), Ca P !t "j'" '"f
not fatisfied with their Booty, they deftroyed the Rampart AM ° n '£-
in feveral Places. Antoninus being informed of it, and fear- Lollius ih-
ing their Boldnefs, if not curb'd, would carry them to ticus raijes
greater Undertakings, orders Lollius Urbieus to go and quell a "" thcr
them. The new Governor, (having firft fubdued the Bri- aml ""' ! '
gantes, who endeavour'd to fhake oft' the Roman Yoke) in
order to put a flop to the northern Irruptions, raifes ano-
ther Rampart on the Neck of Land between the two Friths,
where Agricola had formerly built his Fortrefles. Thus the 1 40,,
Inhabitants of the North were confined within narrower
Bounds than before. By means of this Rampart and a Camp
'at a little Diftance where Troops were kept ready to
march on occafion, he compelled the Caledonians to remain
peaceably in their Country. Tho' Antoninus was never in
Britain himfelf, this Expedition, as done by his Orders,
and under his Aufpices, gained him the Title of Britan-
nicus (6).


Thus Ij be read according to Roger Gale, Ejo;

Neptuno ic Mi/.crvK templum pro falute domus divinae ex au&oritate
Tiberii Claudii Cogidubni regis legati Augufti in Britannia collegi-
um iairorum & qui in eo a facris funt de luo dedicaverunt donante
aream Pudcnte Pudentini filio.

(0 Under Plautius and OJIorius, in the Reign of Claudius, fome Place' (fays Tacitus) were given to King Cogidumts, who continued faithful to
the Romans. Over what People he was King does not appear; Camden thinks the Rcgm ; Dr. Gale the Segontiaci. However, there was lately
lound at Cbicbeficr a very curious lnfcription, relating to this Cogidur.us. The Stone was found in a Cellar under the Corner Houfe of St. Mar-
tin s-Lane ; it is about two Foot nine Inches broad, and very near three foot leng. It is BOW liiv d in the Wall of the Houfe where it was found*
The lnfcription, fomewhat defae'd, is as follows :








The Stone in digging up was broken in four Parts, ol" which one is not taken up, lying under the Foundation of the next Houfe. See Philo-
sophical Tranfactions, N. 379.

(2) Here is a Gap of above thirty Years, from the Year 85 to 1 17, during which it is fuppos'd the Remans loft much of their Conquefts here.

(3) Prijcus Lianius luccreds Scvcrus in the Government of Britain, in the Year 120. Severn was recalled to go againft the Jews. Dion. 1. 69.

(4) Adrian's. Wall or Vallum was entirely of Earth. The whole Work confided of the following Parts. I. The North Agger; 2. The Ditch;
|. The principal Vallum ; 4. The South Agger. The Ditch at Harlow-Hill, where the original Breadth and Depth is very apparent, me'afures near nine
*oot deep and eleven over. The Height and Thicknefs of the Vallum and Aggers cannot be exactly known. The Diftance of the North Agger irom the
Ditch is about 24 Font, and That of the South Agger was originally thirty, tho' lelTen'd at prefent by the fpreading of the Earth.

(5) Here is another Gap of iS Years, from 120 to 138.

(6) From Antmimu's building his Wall in 140 to 165, we meet with nj Occurrences, nor from thence to 1S3. Antminus's'WM, like S evens' s, had
a Series ol Forts or Stations, which arc fuppos'd (fome at leaft) to be prior to the Wall, and the fame that were built by Agricola. This Wall reaches
froni 1 the Frith ofFmb to the Frith of Clyde, as appears by Infcriptions. It begins at Caer-ridden, and runs through Mumilk, Falkirk, Camelon, Rougb-
Cajile, Dick's Houfe, Cajlle-cary-firt, fVefierwxd-firt, Cro-aiy-hiH, Barbill-firt, Aucbindavy, Kirkintilloch, Cahttr, Bemulie, New Kirk-fatrick, Cajl/e-bi.'l-
firt, Duntocber, O/d Kirk-fatrick, ending at Dunglajs near Dumbarton, where ftood the old City of Alchub, afterwards Bimbritton, i. e. the 'Town of the

Britons. Ikrjlcy (who had it fmvey'd) takes the Wall to have been near forty Roman Miles, that is (allowing icurtccn Roman to thirteen Englijh) a little
above thirty-ieven or' our Miles. By the Infcriptions ihowing the Part that was raifed by the Cohorts of the Legit Secunda, tec. the Number of Paces
■•■'« .nt to 39726, that is thirty-nine Reman Miles, and feven Hundred and twentv-fix Paces. It was built of Turf, upon a Foundation of Stone, four
rards thick. To this W u .h belongsa

ngs a great Ditch, larger than that of Seve 1

the South-fide

•■ ■-(?- ~ fo* t^.^v.., »t..gw .....»• uiah ui wevc.m*, Ull Ult Jiiuiii-imt' HI WI1M1 HJS LUC II

itile f the Valium t iirgc military Way well pav'd, and is in feveral Places very magnificent and beautiful. How th
Dike or Grabam'x Dike doe! net apj :ar. It is laid that Giabam i-n the Highland Tongue fisnifies Black, then Graham''

f which was the main Ag-cr, Valium or Rampart, and

s Work came to be call'd Grimes's

; D.k: v.iil be the fame as the Black




Vol. I.

Marcus Aureliu

SucceiTor gave the Government of were at the two Extremities of the Empire, and confe-

quently, while lie marches againft one, there was Danger
of the other's making too great a Progrefs. He judges it

Calphumius Britain to Calphurnius Agricola. This Governor checks
Agricola >s t | ]c Infolenee of the Caledonians, and ftrengthens the Em-
maJc Cow- r , s Dominion over fuch of the Britons as feem to bear

Capitolin. in their Yoke with the moll Reluctance. It was in the
Reign of Marcus Aurelius, that Lucius, a Britijh King,
embrac'd the ClmjUan Religion, which had been long
before planted in the Ifland ; but for want of due Culti-
tivation, had taken no deep Root. I mall fpeak more
largely of this King in the State of the Britijh Church.

Dunn g the Reign of Commodus, Succefibr of Marcus
Aurclius, there were great Commotions in Britain. The
JVfoithern Men taking up Arms, cut in pieces the Raman
Army, commanded by an unexperienc'd General, and make
great Ravages in the Province. All Britain was in Danger
of being loft, if the Emperor had not fpeedily fent Ulpius
MaraUus, a General of great Reputation. The new
Governor defeats the Rebels in feveral Encounters, and by
his Conducft puts an End, in a very lhort Space, to this
dangerous War, that had made his Matter extremely un-
eafy. During his Stay in the Ifland, he obferv'd that the
Want of Dilcipline in the Roman Army, was the fole
Foundation of the Boldnefs of the Northern People, and
the chief Caufe of the Advantages gain'd by them oyer
the former Governors. He undertakes therefore to bring
it to its antient Stri&nefs, which he happily accomplifh.es.
til ^varied But his Services were repaid with Ingratitude.^ The Em-
hy tbt Em- peror, not content with depriving him of his Government,
was upon the Point of putting him to Death. This un-
worthy Prince, like Domitian, could not behold diftin-
o-uifhed Merit without Sufpicion and Envy.

Marcellus no fooner leaves Britain, but the Army mu-
TheAnny tiny upon Pcrennis the Emperor's Favourite, breaking or
mutiny on calling home all the old Officers, and putting his Crea-
" !of tuxes in their Place. The Mutiny is carried (o far, that

Lucius a
Bi'itiin King
becomes a


Troubles in
D. Camus,


and .:bcrs x

Ulpius Mar-
cellus is Co-

■ s s .



great a frogref
neceffary therefore to ufe Difiimulation with Albinus, mak-
ing him believe he is willing to fhare the Empire with him.
This Offer being accepted, Severus draws all his Forces Pe^enniu:
together, and goes and fights Pefcehnius, who at length 'u,' 1Ja "
vanquifh'd and (lain in Battle; after which Severus confi-
ders how to get rid of Albinus likewife. He tries firft to
affaiTuiate him by Villains hired and fent into Britain for

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