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Earl of Flanders. King Henry, who was their Guarantee and Umpire, went in March 1 182. to make Peace between them ; but before he went over,
he made his Will near the Sea-fide, (perhaps at Portsmouth.) which is extant in Gervas, p. 1439. and oidered one Cory to be reported in his own
Treafury, cm- in the Church of Canterbury, and one in the Ticalury at Winchefler,




Vol. I.

1 1 Si.


p. 1151.


Henry /«ui
DiJJci n n
among his


JV1. Pa, is.


whole Royal Family. Young Henry was exceedingly dif-
fatisfied to have the Title of King without the Power.
The Kin;; his Father, who had all his Lile been a Slave
to his Luft, had not loft his amorous Inclinations, though
he was in his fiftieth Year. He was fallen in Love with
Alice of France, defigned for his Son Richard; and moft
Hiftorians intimate, the young Princefs was too conde-
scending. Richard demanded Leave to confummate his
Marriage (1); but more to have a Pretence to com-
plain, than from a defire to efpoufe a Princels fufpected by
all the World of a criminal Commerce with her future
Father-in-law. Geoffrey being now in his four and twen-
tieth Year (2), was tired with being under the Guardian-
fliip of the King his Father, who on the fpecious pretence
of Protection, with-beld Bretagne from him. John was
ftM more difpleafed to have nothing fettled upon him,
whilft his Brothers were fo well provided for. However,
as the King fhowed a great Affection for him, it was very
probable, before his Death he would provide for- a Son he
lb tenderiy loved. Queen Eleanor was ftill a Prifoner,
notwithftanding the interceffion of her Sens for her Re-

Henry was not ignorant of the Sentiments of his three
eldeft Sons (3). Though he carefully concealed his Fears,
he was apprehenfive, that another Confpiracy, like the
former, would rob him of the Crown in his old Age. To
fcreen himfelf from their Practices, lie believed the belt
way would be, to fow Diffention among them, left their
Union fhould one day prove fatal to him. For th3t pur-
pole, he hinted to his eldeft Son, that his Brothers ought
to do him Homage for the Dominions they polTeil'ed, or at
leaft, bore the Titles of. The young King gladly embra-
ced this Propofal, and refolved to demand Homage of his
Brothers. But thev were bv no means difpefed to com-
ply. Richard affiimed, the Duchy of Guienne, which
was to be his Portion, was not a Fief of the Crown of Eng-
land; and in that he was very right. Geoffrey had not
altogether the fame reafon to be e.xcufed, fince he knew,
the Duchy of Bretagne held of Normandy. But it was ne-
ceiTary the King fhould refign Normandy to his eldeft Son,
otherwife he could have no Right to demand Homage.
Mean time the Father had no Intention, to divert him-
felf of that Duchy before his Death, in favour of a Son,
whole Ambition was too well known to him. And there-
fore, Geoffrey eluded his Brother's Demand. He feigned
however to remain refpecliully attached to the King his
Father, though he privately held with his Brother Richard
whole cafe was the fame. Young Henry, whom the
King his Father had politickly engaged in this Difpute,
foon difcovered his Motive. However he ufed a profound
diffimulation. Whilft he pretended to be incenfed with
his Bi others, he took private meafures with them to be-
reave the King of the Supreme Power, which he had long
wiflied to be inveftcd with. But God permitted him not
to purfue the execution of his unjuft Defign (4). A Dif-
temper which took him out of the World (5), in the

1 1 83.
Death /
King Henry
the Sen,
H it!.
p. (2 .
I5n mpt.
Diato. '
M. Paris

zSth Year of his Age, freed the King his Father from
the impending Danger. The young Prince was now gone
to Guienne with defign to ftir up the Gafcons to revolt,
when he was feized witii a flow Fever, which conftrained
him to remain in the Caftle of Martcl in Quercy. As
foon as he perceived his Illnefs grew daily more dangerous,
and that probably he fhould never recover, he exprefled
great Concern for all he had done or projected againft the
King his Father. He even defired to fee him, to give him
proofs of his Repentance. Before he died, he had the Sa-
tisfaction of receiving a Ring fent him by the King in
token of his Pardon. If Hiftorians have not aggravated the
Prince's Repentance, it appears to have been very fincere.
He fried abundance of Tears upon receiving the Ring, and
finding himfelf then at the point of Death, caufed himfelf
to be laid on a Bed flrewed with Afhes, habited in
Sackloth, with a Cord about his Neck, and in that pof-

ture gave up the Ghoft (6). The Father's Tendernefs 11S3.
was renewed when he heard of his Son's Death. Trhoagh
he had no reafon to be pleafed with him, he fhowed an
extreme Concern for his Lofs. But in all appearance, he
was foon comforted.

This young Prince was certainly endowed with excel-
lent Qualities, perhaps he would have behaved more to
his Father's Satisfaction, had he been lefs indulged in his
Childhood. The King's extraordinary Fondnefs, no
doubt, helped to fpoil him; or on the other hand, the
Reftraint he was under, after his Coronation, caufed him
to confider his own Father as an Enemy. And this led
him into fundry Plots to dethrone him, till at length
Death made him lee things in another light. Margaret
of France his Wife, by whom he had a Son which died
an Inlant, was fent home to King Philip her Binther
who married her fome time after to Beta King of Hun-

g"n (?)■

The Death of young Henry put a flop for a while to the 1 r 84.
Troubles that were going to difturb the Real Family. Hoved.
Richard, though naturally impetuous, remained fome
time in quiet, to fee how the King would behave to him
fince he was become his Heir apparent (8).

During this Tranquillity arrived at Court HeracliuSj, The Patri.
Patriarch of Jeri/falem, who was come to entreat the " r ■'-' "' J c "
King's Aid in behalf of the Chriftians of the Holy-Land. ™ m ™ ni
He prefented to him the Keys of the Hoh-Sepuleher, tmAdcmands
Tower of David, in token of their defire of having ' /v /"' r i' 1
him for their Sovereign, as being Grandfon to Fulk of An- rv' om pt.
jou, King of J 'erujalem. Before an Anfwer Was given Diceto.
the Patriarch, Henry convened an Afiembly of the Barons £ :rv "f"
at Clcrkenwclntw London, where that Prelate defcribed with j v {. p ar ^.
tears in his eyes, the Calamities the Chriftians of Pale/line
groaned under. Then he endeavoured to perfuade the
King, that he had an undoubted Right to the Crown o(Je-
rujalem. But this Compliment was too giofs, fince it was
notorious that Fulk, Grandfather to Henry, wore that
Crown in Right of his fecondWife; whereas Geoffrey,
Father to Henry, was born of the firft. To this Ha-
rangue the Patriarch added a Letter from the Pope, ad-
drefled to all Chriftian Princes, to exhort them to affift
their Brethren in Pah/line. Henry asking the Opinion of T'-
his Barons upon the Patriarch's Propofal';, was told it was '
judged, that he ought not to venture his Perfon in an Ex- -
pedition of that nature, but that a Supply of Money would M- Paris.
fuffice. The King followed their Advice, and furnifhing f?i = rvj -
the Patriarch with a confiderable Sum (9), contented him-
felf with giving his Subjects leave to take tlie Crofs, without
embarking himlelf in the Enterprize. Purfuant to the Abundtmu
King's Permiffion, the Archbifhop of Canterbury (10), fe- °' '?_'/£
veral Earls, Barons, Knights, with a Woild of People ^ f Crufadt
of a lower Rank, prepared for this Voyage. But the Heed.
Patriarch willing to make his Court to the King, told
him, when he took his leave, that he fhould have pre-
ferred his fingle Perfon before all the Englijh that weie en-
gaged in the Crufade (it).

The Pope was not pleafed with Henry's refufing to

take the Crofs. Nay, he fhowed his Refentment by de- The Pope
nying him, in his turn, certain Requefts which he would r"' lsa
have granted, had he not been diiTatisfied. However prince John.
not to difcourage him entirely, he gave him leave to Hoved.
crown his youngeft Son Prince 'John King of Ireland, to
whom he fent, for that purpofe, a Crown of Peacock's
Feathers interwoven with Gold. In granting this Favour
he expreflv referved a Penny from ever)' Houfe in Ireland
yearly, and feveral other Advantages, procuring in ex-
change for his Leave, which coft him nothing, a confi-
derable Addition to his Revenues. As foon as the King
received the Pope's Anfwer, he knighted Prince John, , . m j,
and fent him Governor into Ireland, not daring to have i. ... ■, -f
him crowned there, left Richard fhould make it a pie- Ireland.
tence to ask the fame favour in England: 'John was very ; .".. .."
well received in the Illand, where he was confidercd as it ..d.

M. Paris

(1) In 1177, a Pope's Legate threatned to lay all Henry's Dcminions under an Interdict unlets he would let his Son Ricbard marry Alices Whereupon
/.'. 'try .vent over into Normandy, and had a Conference, September 21. at Ivri, with the King of France ; and requil sd h r. t > h.s Son R 'chard,
the Town (.1* Bury, Sec. according to the Articles of Marriage 3 and to his Son Henry le Veiein Franc is, as had i'.' n ffipu I sn them ; but Lewis:
refilled, and Henry laid, his Son Richard fhould not marry Alice However the two Rings entered into a Treaty of Peace, which fee in U ■ — "• p. 570,
57'. &'•

(2) King Henry his Father knighted him at Wood/loci. Augnji 6. 117S. Brompt. p. 1138. Diceto. p. 6co. Htrveddu p. 5S0.

(3) He went over to Normandy, upon that account. Hoved- p. 615.

(4.) King Henry convened about this time a great Council, or Parliament at Bificp's Wahham, neai jyittcbefier, and in their prrfcr.ee, and with thek
approbation, granted Money for the Crufade, via, forty twothoufand Marks of Silver, and five hundred of Gold J and then Mareh the 3d. 1183, went over
from Portfmoutb to Nortnatidy. Diceto. p. 613.

(5) J une rr. in 1183. Gcrtas. p. 14.63. *

(6) He was buried at firft in the Church of St. Julian at Mans, but afterwards removed into the Cathedral of Bt)M. Dieeto. p. G iS. Bnmpt.
p. 114.3.

(7) This Year, September 10. King Henry did Homage to King Philip at a Conference between Gifirs and Trie, tcr ail Lis Dominions in France.
Hoved. p. 622.

(8) This Year the King of France, and the Earl of Flanders, renewed again their Quarrels about the Vtrmandtu\ but King Henry made Peace between
them a fecond time} alter which he returned to England, j'une 10. or II. and fent an Army againll the ii r e!jh, who i.ai made lome. lncarlijns. Get vat.
p. 1465, 14.66, Diceto p. 619. Htrved. p. 622.

(9} Fifty thcufand Marks of Silver. Gervas. p. 14.74.

(10) Kanulpb the Jufticier, the Archbifhop of Roan, Bifliop of Durham, &c. Hived, p- 629.

(rij Brcmpton fays, that the Patriarch gave the King very hard Words, when he went with him to the Sea fide; and upon the King's ftill excu-
fing himfelf from going to the Holy-Land, becaufc his Sons would rebel againft him in his Abl'ence ; the Patriarch m gr.Jt Anger repl :.

'■the Drill they came, and t: the Devil thy would go.. This he laid, relieving on an o.d St ry of a certain Counted of Anjtm, the King s
great Grandmother, who being reckoned a. Witch, was laid to' have flown out of a Window, while 6k was at Ma,s a.ainft liar Vv'i.l, and was neyei Iccn
afterwards. Bnmpt. p. U4.5.

1 the

Book vir.



He is re-

<Jk- Camd.

Urban III,
Pope, and


raija 'Trou-
bles in


lie makes
War <witb
tie Bretcns.

Henry pre-
pares to
cbajlife bin:



Death cf


Duke of




M. Paris

Tie Affairs





the future Sovereign. But fuffering himfelf to be guided
by the Advice of fome young Perfons that attended him
thither, he fo alienated the hearts of the Irijb, that the
King was forced at length to recall him (1).

Pope Lucius III. dying this Year, Urban III. his Suc-
ceflbr, appointed the Archbifhop of Canterbury his Legate
in England. Baldwin, a Cijlercian Monk, was then Arch-
bifhop, having fuccecded Richard, who died in 1 184 (2).

The Affairs of Ireland created the King little uneafi-
nefs, in comparifon of that caufed by the violent Temper
of his Son Richard. This young Prince having lain quiet
ever fince his elder Brother's death (3), was at length
weary of a ftate fo little agreeable to his Humour. He
had been in Guienne, where he had taken upon him to
rule with an abfolute Authority, without any regard to
the Orders of the King his Father. In this he was fup-
ported by the Gafcons themfclvcs, who chofe much rather
to have a Sovereign of their own than depend on the
Crown of England. After Richard had laboured fome
time to gain that Province to his interefts, he went into
Poiclou, and drawing fome Troops together, made war
upon the Bretons, who had difobliged him. Geoffrey his
Brother, who was then in Bretagne, furprized at this un-
expected Attack, fpeedily levied a fmall Army, and gave
him battle. But as his Forces were inferior in number,
he was eafily defeated. Richard would have purfued his
Undertaking, if the dread of his Father, who was pre-
paring to come and chaflife him (4), had not obliged him
to retire into Poiclou, where he pretended to (land upon
his defence. In the mean time, Henry perfectly knowing
his Son's Temper, which could not be tamed but by
force, had prepared an Army fufficient to take away all
his hopes of Refiftance, but before he proceeded to Ex-
tremities, he fent him word, it was his abfolute Com-
mand that he fhould not concern himfelf any more with the
Affairs of Guienne, which he could not enjoy till after the
death of the Queen his Mother, and upon that condition,
would leave him in poffeffion of Poiclou. And if he refufed
to obey, he would not only compel him to it, but like wife
difinherit him of the Crown of England. Richard, ter-
rified at thefe Threats, and the King's great Preparations,
thought fit to comply with his Will. But as this Submif-
fion was forced, he was uneafy in his mind, the Effects of
which foon became vifible. The Example of William the
Conqueror, who preferred his fecond before his eldeft Son,
feemed in fome meafure to authorize the King thus to
threaten Richard. Accordingly the young Prince could
not forbear being concerned, in a dread of being fupplanted
by one of his Brothers. This conlideration made him
keep fair with the King his Father, and endeavour to curb
his natural impetuofity. But he was freed in part from
his Fears by the death of his Brother Geoffrey, at Paris,
where he was gone to aflift at a Tournament (j). This
Prince, who had a Daughter called Eleanor (6), left Con-
Jlance of Bretagne his Wife big with child, who was
quickly after delivered of a Son named Arthur (7).

Henry was very defirous of having the Guardianfhip of
thefe Infants, for a pretence to keep Bretagne. With this
view he took a Journey thither, in expectation of obtain-
ing the Confent of the States. But Con/lance his Daugh-
ter-in-law, ftrongly oppofed it. She affirmed that being
Mother of the Children, it belonged to her to take care
of their Education. Moreover, fhe maintained, they had
no claim to any thing till after her Death, fince their
Father was Duke of Bretagne only in her Right. But
Henry as Grandfather, pretended to have an unqueftionabe
Title to the Guardianfhip of his Grandchildren. The
States of Bretagne, who were more afraid of his Power
than convinced by his Reafons, were in great perplexity.
Juftice and their own Intereft required, that Conjlance, to
whom the Duchy belonged by Inheritance, fhould have
the Government. But on the other hand, it was dange-
rous to fend away the King without fome Satisfaction. In
ihort, they found an Expedient with which the King was
well enough pleafed, becaufe he faw it would be difficult
to obtain more. The Duchefs was made Guardian of her
Children, and it was decreed, That all Orders and pub-
lick Acts fhould run jointly in her's and her Son's name ;
but with this Provifo, that nothing of moment fhould be
tranfacted, without the Advice and Confent of the King of

2-| t


England. Before he quitted Bretagne, Henry caufed the
States to fwear Fealty to young Arthur as their Sovereign.
He was apprehenfive in cafe Conjlance fhould marry again,
and have Children by a fecond Husband, fhe would prefer
them before thofe by the firft.

Henry would not perhaps have been fatisficd with what Pfc lip forms
he had obtained of the Bretons, had he not been afraid that •''' f"' »•
Philip King of France, would have interpofed in the af- Henry.
fair. This Prince though very young, was meditating
grand Projects. He could not help ihowing fome uneafinefs,
that fo many Provinces of his Kingdom fhould be poffeffed
bythcEngli/h. Since his acceffion to the Throne, lie had
formed a defign to wreft them out of their hands, and
make ufe, for that purpofe, of all opportunities that fhould
offer. Purfuant to this refolution, he imagined, the Dif-
fenfion between Henry and his Son Richard, prcfented him
with a favorable Juncture, which he fhould not neglect.
He was perfuaded, thefe Princes being divided and unarm-
ed, and not fufpedting they were going to be attacked, he
might very poffibly take from them fome Part of their Do-
minions in France. In this Belief he made extraordinary ,l f—mn
Prepaiations, upon fuch Pretences as ferved bed to conceal l"
the real motive. As foon as he was ready to act, he fum-
moned Richard to appear and do him Homage for Poiclou,
and required King Henry to reftore the I'cxin with all Mar-
garet's Dowry, his eldeft Son's Widow. But for this "«
once he found he had taken his Meafures wrong. For
Henry and Richard uniting for their common Intereft, Died
kept him fo well employed, one in Normandy, the other in '
Guienne, that he was forced to fue for a Truce, which was
granted him for two years.

Having experienced how difficult it would be to compafs 1 1 87.
his Ends, unlefs he fomented the Difcord between Hen- '.' ,,:I 'P /'-
ry and Richard, he did not long defer his Endeavours. J^' R '~
To fucceed the more eafily, he ordered it fo, that during H^ved.
the Truce, Richard came and paid him a vifit at Paris'- L^'-'j-
where he feemingly gave him a very hearty Welcome,
and even admitted him to his Bed. Thefe CareiTes
wrought a fudden effect in the mind of the Englifu Prince,
who never once fufpected the motive. In a little time
he entertained fo ftrong an Affection (or Philip, that he
imparted to him all his Reafons for being diffatislied with
his Father. Philip improving this opennefs, pretended to
pity him, and have his Intereft very much at heart. He
wondered with him, that the King his Father fhould treat
him fo harfhly, and after crowning his elder Brother in a
lefs advanced Age, fhould refufe him the fame Favour.
He artfully hinted, there was reafon to fear, he had formed
a defign to place on the Throne his youngeft Son John, of
whom he was very fond. From thefe confiderations it
was natural to infer, a Neceflity of taking care to pre-
vent fo unjuft a Proceeding. Richard received theil-
marks of affection with that earneftnefs and confi-
dence, that Philip was in great hopes of attaining his

Mean time, Richard's, long Stay at Paris m de his Fa- Cmplaim
ther extremely uneafy (8), who never ceafed fendincr for °f Wrha.d
him (9). He was quickly fenfible, his Sufpicions were not "f^ 1 "
groundlefs. At the time the Truce was about to expire, Hoved."
Richard, without quitting the Court of France, openly
complained of his Father's preventing him from confum-
mating his Marriage with the Princefs defrgned for his
Wife (10). But as Henry might recall him on pretence
of folemnizing the Nuptials, he had another excufe ready.
He pretended to have private intelligence that the King
defigned to apprehend him, and keep him in cuftodv,
in order to place with the more eafe his younger Son on the
Throne. Thefe Proceedings of Richard threw Henry
into great perplexity. He perceived, this Affair might be
attended with ill confequences, unlefs a means was found
to draw his Son from Philip. But this was no eafy mat-
ter, if Richard himfelf was unwilling. As the main bu-
finefs therefore was to gain his Son, he privately difpatched
a trufty Meffenger, who made him fenfible, he had im-
prudently fallen into the King of France's fnare, whofe
fole Aim was to fow drffenlion between him and his Fa-
ther, in order to make an advantage of their Mifunder-
ftanding. Richard being prevailed upon by thefe Remon- He ntimu
(trances, fuddenly left the Court of France, and returned *"*•
to the King.

(1) This Year Queen Elcanorwas releafed out of Prifon, lays Gervafe, p. 1475. Though others fay, it was net till after Rietard the Firll's A.cejScnto
the Crown. (2) He died Feb. 16. 1 184. Gervas. 1 46 5.

(3) He had been very (tirring in 1176. See Brcvtpton, p. 1115, &c.

(4) Hewentover, and gathered a great Army together. Hived, p. 630.

(5) Our Hifterians fay, that being flung from his Horl'e, he was unfortunately trampled to death before he could be taken up. But the French Writers,
who fhould knew bed, tell us he died of a Fever. He was buried in Notre Dame Church.

(6) The King of France demanded the Guardianfhip of her from King Henry, but could not obtain it. H.v;d. p. 633.

(7) The new Year (he married again Rarmlpb Earl of Cbejlcr, whom King Henry Knighted, and gave him the Earldom of R^bmir.J, and all Breta<rr.e
with her. Br:mpt. p. I 149. Hoved. p. 637. '

(3) He went over this Year into France, and had a Conference with King Pbilip at Val. St. Rcmi. Hoved. p. 634.

r J^ endi "6'° eome to the King his Father, he paired through Cham, and carried oft' moil of his Father's Treaiure that was there. Honed, p. 6ce.
• ' k f v ' nB 1 H '"0' a nd Pbihp hsd, in the beginning of this Year, a Conference at Cifirs, in which Philip furrendred to Prince RlVrWthe Places ft-pula'ed
:n the Articles ot Marriage, and Henry fworc. to deliver AJicc to him. Hmed. p. 63 1.

No. XIII. V j..





Vol I.

i] i% J' rf T,,e Truce he ' M Z expired, the two Monarchs took up
Teiui i .., ". /. Arms a gai"- But juft as they were renewing their Hoftili-
'*< araens. ties their Animofity was fufpended for a while, upon the
H.oved. melancholy news that the City of JirufaUm was taken
( ., . °" Sahdin Sultan ot Babylon, and that Guy de Lufignan,
Broir.pt. the laft that fwayed the Sceptre of that Kingdom, was in
the hands of the Infidels. As the Union of the Chrifti-
ans had formerly been the means of conquering the King-
dom of Jerufalem, their difTention was the caufe of its
Deftruflion, after fubfifting near a whole Century. This
News, which threw the Princes of Europe into great con-
fternation, was particularly fatal to Pope Urban III, who
( ^ died with Grief. He was fcon followed by Gregory VIII,
Pcft _ his Succcdor, who fitting in the Papal Chair but three

Months, made room by his" Death for Clement III.
; ■ f The two Kings o( France and England were very fen-
lib.) ai.Lctcd with the Christians late Lofs in the Eaft.
1 heir zeal being rouz'd upon that occafion, they re-
' '"folved, with one confent, to drop their private Quarrel
:. for the caufe of God (for fo it was term'd in thofe
f Paris, days) and meet at Gifors (i), to confider of means to
hovuT remed y th] s Misfortune. At this interview, their firft
bulinels was to renew the Tiuce. Then the two Mo-
narchs, as well as the Earl of Flanders, who was prefent
at the Conference, took the Crofs, diftinguifhing them-
lth.es by three different colours. Philip chofe'a Red,
Henry a White, and the Earl of Flanders a Grey, Crofs.
1 hofe of their Subjects that engaged in the Crufade imi-
tated them in this diftin&ion of Colours (2).

But the Zeal Ihown by the two Kings was not long-


Quarrel be-


Their Ardour won gave place "to an Animofity
i.) much the more furpriiing, as the occafion was of little
,t'L7lif moment - p ™ ce ^chard, who was to be in the Expedi-
Tholoufc. tlon t0 th e Holy Land, having occafion for a Sum of
D,«to. Money, came to Poiclou to raife it. Whilft he was em-

c°n C t P lo >' ed in this Afihir > one of Raymuhd Earl of Tholoufe's
Officers, palling through his Territories, and giving him
fome caufe of Bifgufr, he committed him to prifon. °Ray-

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