M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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mund having notice of it, ordered, by way of Reprifal,
two Poiclevm Gentlemen to be taken "up, as they were
going by Tholoufe, in their return from a Pilgrimage to St.
James of Compoftella. Thefe violent Proceedings caufiix*
a very warm Quarrel between the two Princes, Richard
took occafion to revive the Pretenfions of the Houfe of
Poiclou to the Earldom of Thcloufe. This furnifhed him
with a Pretence to enter Earl Raymund's Country with
a powerful Army, where he became mailer of Moijfac,
and feveral other Places. Raymund finding himfelf thus
engaged in a War, of which he did not queflion but the
King of England was the Author, demanded the Afiiftance
of France. Though Philip knew better than the Earl of
Tholoufe, and was very fenfible, Richard might poilibly
undertake the War without his Father's knowledge, he
pretended to believe it done by Henry's Orders. Accord-
ingly, under colour of aflifting the Earl of Tholoufe his
Vailal, he made a Diverfion in Berri, and took IJoudun.
•ncWcrn lhlS Was the 0CCanc " 1 of the f,em Rupture between the
* lW id b"~ two Kings, when they feemed to breathe nothing but Death
twit* Phiiij and Deftruftion again!! the Infidels (3).
;" ^ 1! ->;- The beginning of this War not being remarkable, it
Bum r r. w 'i" bc needlefs to relate the particulars. It is fufficient to
J-., wd. take notice of the Confequences, which proved very fatal
f^lt <■ to the Kin S of 'England. Whilft it was vigoroufly profe-
the A.r- ,f cuted on both i.des, all on a fudden, and when Henry
France " leaft expected it, his Son Richard left him, and went to
hn " ■!'• the King of France. Very probably, this was effbaed by
Philip's Intrigues, which the Hiftorians have not taken
r , care to unfold. Be this as it will, Richard pretended to
, have two occafions of complaint againft the King his
Father. The firft was, that he detained from him the
Princefs Alice, and had offered Philip, who prefs'd him to
have the Nuptials folemnized, to marry her to Prince
John upon more advantagious Terms. Whether this was
Cen *>- tact, or Philip had told him a Falfity to fet him at va-
riance with Henry, he believed, or feign'd to believe, that
a Projea was formed to deprive him of his Birth-right,
and place his younger Brother on the Throne. The other
occafion of Complaint was, that Philip offering to con-
fent to a Truce, Henry refufed it, affirming it was better
to conlude a Peace, and adjuft their refpective Pretenfions



Tb ^dTnT e r"f I 64 ,'" ; their A x P editi °" *> the Holy-Land. . 1 8.9.
This d.fpleafed Richard, and his reafon was, becaufe by
a Peace, he would have been obliged to reftore his Con
queft upon the Earl of Tholoufe, whereas by a Truce he
would have kept poffeffion.

As much as Richard's Defeaion difquiered the Kin- his ' »8o.
father, fo much did it rejoice Philip, who, from = that Hcm >' ""«
time had a great Advantage over his Enemy. In with- ll'r '"
drawing, Richard fet againft the King pari of his Pro- ^
vinces in France, and thereby almoft difabled him to GenBS '
maintain the War For this reafon Henry haftened to
the utmoft of his Power, the Conclufion of the Peace U\
butPhntp propofed fuch hard Terms, that they could
not be accepted He required, that the Marriage between
Richard and Ahct mould be confummated, and the Prince
crowned before his Father's death, that his Rio-ht to the
Crown might not be difputed for the future. Henry could
not rehfh thefe Conditions. His Love for Alice would not
i utter him to fee her in the arms of another, and perhaps
there were very flrong Reafons againft his giving her to

n 1 11 £" r ° ther hand ' he had experienced to his
coi tire ill Confequences of crowning his eldeft Son Henry
to be willing to run the fame hazard for one who feemed'
no lefs dangerous than his Brother. This firft attempt
failing, Henry made another Effort (5) for a Peace, but
found that Philip, grown more untraceable, added a new
Article. He demanded that Henry mould carry Prince Gcrvafc -
John to the Holy-Land left in Richard', abfence he fhould rJo'vet 4 -
leize the Crown, in cafe their Father died in the Expedi-
M°"' ■> H T y oftended at PUMP'S interpofing thus in his
hamily-Aftairs, broke off the Negotiation. This Rup-
ture confirmed Richard in his Sufpicion that his Father
intended to deprive him of the Crown, and eive it to his
younger Brother.

All hopes of Peace vanifhing (6), Philip received Ph;,; P '<"
/w.Ws Homage for all the Provinces in France belong- S,*£
mg to the Crown , of England, pretending Henry had !n-™£ "

cuned the gudt of Rebellion, in warring againft his So- G ' nlk -
vereign. Hoved.

This Step being taken, the Effufion of Chriftian Blood , Hcnr >"'' *-
was renewed with greater fury than ever, and the Zeal F^fr't'l
expreiled againft the Infidels infcnfibly cooied. Acnrf hy *** **
under a great diladvantage in this War (-) Moft f his Hovcd -
Subjeas m France had abandoned him 'and joined with Ll"
hi Son. This Revolt was fo general, that keeping his
CbriJlmasztSaumur, he had the mortification to feehim-
ielf attended but with three or four Nobles. His Vexation M - P»».
was farther mcreafed by the ill Succefs of the following
Lampain H,s I roops, every wheie defeated, were at "< " <™y
length reduced to fo (mall a number, that it was not in' !vl,r '/'-
his power to continue the War. His Affatrs being in this M^fe r.
wretched condition, he defired the Pope to interpofe his' /j <^<.
Authority and procure a Peace. But this method proved $f-
inefiecluaL Indeed, the Pope fent Legates into France, **' ' "«'
who threatned Philip with Excommunication, in cafe he
prevented the King of England from accomplifhin- his
^°u W 'r- , VJ lefe Menaces had "ot the expeaed Effea.
I he French Monarch fiercely replied, the Pope had no PhUip-, s»
right to intermeddle in the Affairs of the Kingdom, efpe-'-> ,; ' ; ''
aally when the bufinefs in hand was the chaftifin/ a fe''
Vaflal who had audacioufly taken up Arms againft him p. 6«
Adding, with an infulting air, He did not queftion but that
the Smell of [the King o/England's] Sterlings made the Le-
gates talk in that Strain (9). Henry dreading the Confe- Henrv „
quences of fo unfortunate a War, and finding the Pope /; '""'-' -■■"•
could do him no Service, was forced at length to ac-rce to'tr'""'
the Terms Philip was plcafed to impofe upon him, the r^V
principal of which were thefe (9) :

That all Henry's Subjeas, as well Englijh as French, n^ r . ; ,
Ihould fwear lealty to Richard; and that thofe who *»* P'aVt,
had fided with the Son, fhould not return to the Father D;cet '-
till within one month before he let out for the Holy- Hov£

La " d - P- 653.

That the two Kings, with Prince Richard, fhould
meet at Vezelay in le Nivcrnois, in order to begin their
Journey.

That all the King of England's Subjeas fhould have
free Paffage all over France, paying oniy the old Cuf-
toms.



(1) Fc:wecnGiVjsnd Trie. Gtrvas. p. 1520.

(z) At'ctr which King Henrv came tn Fr~/,> - / -**a i.-j a * v i ir ™ —

, ikfl ,. throughout iW, Z puhbgul fhSeft-„ ^' 7 7' - 9 X ***? TT ■ "^ + 6 ^ Ml " hh Rc,urn - hc fi « »

hiffl Prcfents: Inch as , £ hJd. « " Z "i td u f h '1Z "^ ^ '"^Ti 'T ^'u '", ^'t"' and °' e ^^ in Y ' rh ' M '^ d * »

VearuSS, all^i/Wwasgrkvoufly opP «fiH S iht'rLt^, ^^i.^rS'&S? J*7? P " ^ ?*""* c " m ^^ t^t during the

h Jew, in gtglmJ fixty thoufand Po un d s . r .5-0 W* ( °' ^^ '° r lh ' ^""^ Thc E " g '' Jh ^ aboVC fcwn ^ thcuUnd r " undi £ ^'* "»

14 I y f ;j Ja i- l f Umc ,f •' 1 . 0Ut ' f%Hfl '9; "S8, between iS,»,W«,°and" 4,W. M p. 649,

l5 l At another Conftrena near laFtru h,,,..,J, nWbitjmii,. ll8 o. £M. p . 6 ' P *^

(6) At that firft Conlerence, they agreed upon a Truce till Jmnary 14. rig,. 'ff^J - c .„

7 He burnt M»™, becaufe hc ua S afra.d of being bef.eged in it. BrJ^f. ,Z ? ' ^'

M Tb "k t 1 ' t0 ri T\ ?T ""° Ue , h K H h hlS Sword ' if hc hjd »« been hindred. M. P«/., p. ,49.

(u; 1 his ft.ee was concluded abut the latter end ot /,■ m The li,i! 4 ,.,-1 T , , «■. * , , ' ". ,s , „ .

fated ■fhould ch.le, and that Ihc fhould U ma.rltd tolri™ .at **£ t^J^^J^T^ ^"^ f ° '"' ^'^ ! " fi « whom ™

That



Book VII.



5. HENRY II.



2 43



gence '



nth



Richard.

Bicmpt.

He cuijes b,

Hon:.

}it dies at

Chinon.

Brompt.

Hovtd.



- 1189. That Henry fhoull be obliged to pay the King of France
twenty thoufand Marks, for the Damages fufkined in the
War (0,

That all the Barons of the King of England ihould fwear,
that in ca(e he violated the Treaty, tiiey would aifift the
King of Franc? againft him.

That the Cities of Tours and Alans fhould remain in
the hands of Philip, till the King of England performed
all thefe Articles.

It was with extreme reluclancy that a Prince of fo high
a Spirit as Henry, ftooped to fuch hard Conditions. The
remembrance of the Advantages, he had all along obtained
over France before this fatal War, inftead of comforting
him, ferved only to render his Cup the more bitter. Upon
this mortification followed another, which he could not
Henry finds refift. He difcovered, that during the late War, his bc-
Bah bad" l° ve<jl Son John held intelligence with Philip, and was con-
ttld intiUi- ccrned in all his Brother's Plots to dethrone a P'athcr who
had ever fhown a tender Affection for him. His Grief
threw him into fo violent a Paflion (2), that he curfed the
day of his Birth, and uttered imprecations againft: his
Sons, which the Bifhops then prefent could never bring
him to revoke. Shortly after he fell fick at Chimin, and
perceiving his End was at hand, cauf'cd himfelf to be
carried into the Church before the Altar, where after con-
feffing himfelf and exprefling fome figns of Repentance,
lie expired. His Eyes were no fooner doled but his Dome-
fticks all left him, nay fome had even the Infolence to
flrip him and leave him quite naked in the Church. His
Corps was removed to Fontevraud, where he was buried
according to his own Order (3). An extraordinary Acci-
■oachof dent rendered this Removal of his Body very remarkable.
Ruriaij. His Son Richard coming to meet the Funeral Pomp, in
order to attend his Father to his Grave, upon his ap-
proach, the Blood in great abundance guflied out of the
mouth and noftrils of the Corpfe. Richard, though na-
turally very hard-hearted, was fb moved at this Sight, that
he burft out into Tears, and openly accuied himfelf of be-
ing the cccafion of his Father's Death.

Such was the end of Henry \\. one of the mod illultri-
ous Princes of his Time, both for greatnefs of Genius and
extent of Dominions. The mixture of Vices and Vir-
1150, 1151. tues, in this Monarch, makes it difficult to give him a ge-
neral Character that perfectly agrees with him. He was va-
liant, prudent, generous, politick, ftudious, learned, and of
an exalted Genius (4). On the other hand, he was ex-
ceffive haughty, of an immcafurable Ambition (;), and a
boundlefs Luft. Never fatisfied with Love or Empire, he
fpent his whole Life in purfuit of new Conquefts in both.
He attempted the Chaftity of all that came in his way,
not excepting the Princefs defigned for his own Son (6) :
Failings which in great meafure balance all his noble En-



1 180,



Hovi d.



Vis Corps

bleed at tb



Brompt
P • ' ' 5 *
HuvtJ.



Character of
Henry H.
Brompt.
p. 1044,



Urompton,
p. 1151.



dowments. In the beginning of his Reign, which was
one of the happieft for fome Years, there was not in Eu-
rope a King more feared or refpc&ed. Encircled with
Glory and Honour, which feemed to promfie him great
Profpcnty, he was looked upon as the happieft Prince in
the world, before Beckett Affair interrupted his Felicity.
But that fatal Quarrel, which created him fo many troubles,
being followed by DilTentions in his Family, he beheld the
Happmefs, which till then had attended him, turned into
Misfortunes. However, if this Prince was unhappy, his
Misfortunes fell only on his own Head and not on his
Kingdom, which had never been in fo flourifliing Condi-
tion as in his Reign. By his acceffion to the Crown,
England became one of the molt powerful States in E
and began from that time to be on a level with France, to
which before it was very much inferior. Befides the l..i, e
and rich Provinces annexed in his time to the Englift.
narchy, the Conqucft of Ireland is what gives a great Luf
tre to his Reign, and ought to render his Memory dear to
the Englijh. He died on the fixth of July in 1189, and in
the 57th Year of his Age, after a Reign of thirty four
Years, eight Months and twelve Days (7).

Of the five Sons he had by Eleanor of Guienne his "" ''•""/"'
Wife (8), Richard and John only furvived him: Geof-
frey, his third Son, left a Son and a Daughter, of whom
I fhall have occafion to fpeak hereafter. Matilda, his H v '' a>
eldeft Daughter, married to the Duke of Saxony (o) died
immediately after him. Eleanor was Wife to Alphonjo Kin°-
of Cajlile, and Johanna to William II. firnamed the Good
King of Sicily.

Befides his lawful IfTue, Henry had two natural Sons by " '•
Rofamond Clifford; William firnamed Long-Sword, who W 1 "'
was Earl of Salisbury, and Geoffrey, who was Archbifhop
of York. By a Daughter of Sir Ralph Bleivct, Henry had
alfo another natural Son called Morgan, who being elected
Bifhop of Durham, could not obtain the Pope's Confirma-
tion, becaufe he refufed to take the Name of his Mother's
Father.

Some HiiTorians relate, that in the Reign of Henry II. Il " P"'
there was found in the Church- Yard of Glajfenbury Ab- .'','",
bey, a Grave containing three Bodies laid one upon ano- th, -
ther, each in a Coffin by it felf. It was pretended, the-*" 1 "" ;l "
firlt. was Guinever's, fecond Wife of the Great Arthur /g, '..' '"""
the fecond, Modred'% his Nephew ; and the third, Ar- b,
thur's diftinguifhed by a leaden Crofs, with this Infcrip- P- ' l S l >
tion, Here lies the illujirious King Arthur in the Ijle of Ava- &c *
Ion. What is further aliened, that his Legs were a third
longer than thofe^ of the large!! Men, and that there was
the diftance of a Span between his Eye-brows, renders this
Relation fomewhat fufpicious. However this Difcovery,
real or pretended, ferved to undeceive fome weak people
among the Wcljh, who ftill expected the Return of their
Heroe.

6. RI-



(j) Thirty thoufand Pounds to the King of France, and twenty thoufand to the Barons of that Kingdom. Gcrvas. p. le.44.

(2) Brompton fays, that his Grief at this, was the occafion of his Death. Brompt. p 1154.

(3 ) He was interred in the Choir of the Nunnery which he himlclf had founded, with defign to be buried there. A (lately Tomb has been fince erected
for him and Eleanor his Queen, as alio for hs Si n King Richard and his Queen, at the Charge of the 1 aiiy Abbefs 'Jeanne Baptuie de Bourbon n'tu
Daughter to King Henry the fourth ot France ; their Effigies in Brats, which before lay in other parts of the Church, being removed and placed totcther in enc
Monument. See SandfbrtVs Geneal WJi. 'j' the Kings of England, p. 64, 65.



(4) He was very mild towards thole that hunted 111 hi; Forefts, only imprifoning them. He was very bountiful to the Widows and Orphans. There beinff
Famine in Mans and Anjoti, in 1 176, he fupplied ten thoufand People with Food out of his Stores, from April r, till the Corn wa ripe, He never laid any

Wrecks, and laid heavy Penalties upon any that Ihould plunder upon that cccali



1 Fa



any

.As. Br.nitt.



heavy Tax or Tribute upon his Subjects- He took care to
p. 1152. Diceto. p. 5S z, 5S9.

(5) He faid in his Profpcnty, The whole World teas hut fitjjielent for one Great Man.

(6) An Hiftorian fays, he had a mind to marry her, and applied to Hugo the Pope's Legate, in crder to be divorced from his Queen Eleanor. Br:r-pt.
p. 1151. (7) Seven Months and four Days, fays Hoveden. p. O54.

(S) William, his eldeft Son, who died in 1156, was buried in Reading Monartery. M.Paris, p. 96. Concerning Henry and Geoffrey, See page ^40 241.

(9) Henry Duke of Saxony, King Henry's Son-in-law, having been accu fed of Treafon againft the Emperor Frederick, was condemned to Banilhmcnt for three
Years, and deprived of his Dominions. Some Years alter the Emperor reftuied to him that part of them, containing at this Day the Dutchics of Hanover
Zell, and Wolfembuttlc. From this Duke Henry by Matilda, is delcended his [relent Majefty KingGtOKG re.

I. King Henry held his great Councils or Parliaments, at the following Peaces: In 1154, at Chriftmas, at Bermendfey. (Gcrvas. p. 13 — .) In Ilec ac
Wallingfird. [Id. p. 1378.) In 1163, a Parliament. [Hoved.is. 492. M. Burn. p. 100.) another itWoodftock. [Hovcd. p. .193. M. Paris, p. 101 I 'one
at Clarendon. 'Homed. Gcrvas. ibid-) one at Northampton. OBob. 13. [Hovcd. p. 494. Diceto. p. 537.) In 1164, a Parliament, at Wcftminftcr. [Brompt.
p. 105S.) In 1 166, a Parliament. (/If. Weft. p. 249.) In 1170, at Windfir, and afterwards at ffeftminfier. 'Brompt. p. 1060. H.-.eil. p. 518.) one at
Chriftmas. [Hinted, p. 520, 521.) In 1171, one was held. [Gcrvas. p. 1390.) In 1173, cne at Wcftminftcr, in April. [Gcrvas. p. 1424.) I n n- "[




-iid }f :-..: '.
[Brompt. p. 1 1 27.) J

II. Remarkable Occurrences .• King Henry brought into England the A r.gevin Fafhicn of wearing fhort Clerks, or Mantles, fir which Rcalbn he is f, >me-

times called fhort or Court -Mantle. Bron.pt. p. 1 150 About 1 176, London-Bridge began to be built with Stcne, by Peter Coleman a Pncfl. The Km."

contributed to the advancement of fo gocd a Work : A Cardinal, who was then Legate here, and the Archbifhop of Cant., I:.. , , gave one thoufand Marks
towards it TheCourfe of the River was, for the Time, turned another way j by a Trench caft tor that Purpofe. beginning at Batterfea, and end,-

Rotheritb. It was thirty three Years in Building. Stew's Survey. Pail. I. p. 53 I n 11-S. King Henry hid the Foundation of Warwick Caftle.

Stotu's Chrcn. p. 1 52 In 1 177 the Je-.es obtained pcrmiflion to have a Church-yard near every Tcwn, where they lived : Before, they had but cne

in England, namely at London. Brompt. p. 1129. 1152. Hovcd. p. 56S.

III. The two firft Branches of the Royal Revenue being fpoken of already; namely, the Demeans of th« Crown and Efchears, the third Branch is the
Feudal, and other Profits ariling from thence, as Reliefs ; upon the Death of his Anccftor, every Heir that held his Lands by Barony, or Knieht's Service -was
oblige I to pay a Sum of Money to the King, on his taking poffeflionof the Inheritance. Thefe Reliefs were at firft uncertain till Magna Charta, when an
Earl paid one hundred Pound, a Baron one hundred Maiks, a Knight, for one Fee, five Pounds. Here it muft be obferved, that fome Baronies were
much larger than others, and fo of the Knight's Fees. This difference arofe from the lelpective Charters of the Feoffment. Fcr if the King o

a Man of forty Knight's Fees, to hold by Barony j or ten Knight's Fees, to hold by Barony ; the Tenure was Barony in each Cafe. So allb if the
t '"I e l' C j " u Ia " ° f tw ™ t J r Carues of Lr ' nd ' t0 hc!d b y the Service of cne Knight i or forty Carues, to hold by the Service of one Knight ; the
J-correc bad m each Cafe, one Knight's Fee. For this reafon, at certain times, a Diftinaicn was made between the Baronies, and Fees of the
old, and thole of the new Feoffment ; the old being commonly larger than thole of the new. Notwithftanding this difference, the Relief cf the Barcny
or Fee, whether it was a greater or lcffer, was the fame. But when two Baronies came to be veiled in one Man, he was charged with a Relief tor
ri na f" J n. •' Pwflt ' Was fl ' ar '!l h 'P and Marriage. During the Nonage of the Heirs of the King's Tenants in Caplte, the Kina could difpofc
ol the Cultody and Marriage of them to whom he pleafcd, which railed him a great Revenue. A fourth Branch of the Revenue, was the yearly Ferms of
the Counties. From the Reign of William I. the King ufed to let out the fcveral Counties, upon a yearly Fcrm or Rent, cr commit them to Cuftodv
The termer or Committee, was ufually (tiled Sheriff. Mod, if not all the Counties, as appears by the Revenue Rolls, were thus let at Ferm in Kinj
Stephen , Reign. When a County was let for more than formerly, the Improvement was called Cnmcntum, the Increment j which was femetimes an-

fwered



24-4



The H ISrO RY of ENGLAND.



Vol. I.



1 189.

n. Thought
af marrying
Alice.



and fh^'WS
no 'jcahujy
c.fb:s Bro-
ther John.
Diccto.



He dots Ho-
mage to
Philip, and
is er-.ivned
Duke if
Normandy.
Hcved.
Gervas.
R. Diccto.
Brcnpt.



He retcafes
t ,* Queen

b \ Metier.
Hoved.

Brunipt.



6. RICHARD!. Sir named Coeur-

de L 1 o n.




S foon as Henry was laid in his Grave, Richard's
Complaints were eafily perceived to be only Pre-
tences to colour his Rebellion. He had earneftly
defned Leave to confummatehis Marriage with
Alice of France, and complained of the King his Father's
great Injuftice in obftrufting his Happinefs. And yet,
when this pretended Happinefs was in his power, he
thought no more of it. On the other hand, his Jealou-
fies and P'ears on account of Prince John his Brother,
vanifhed on a fudden. Inftead of returning forthwith into
England, as he would certainly have done, had he been
apprehenfive of his Brother's cabals, he ftaid above a
month in France (1), after Henry's Death, without hav-
ing the lealt Uneafmefs on that Account. His firft Care was
to do Homage to Philip, and thank him withal for the Pro-
tection he had granted him. This V i (it procured him the
Reftitution of the Places conquered by that Monarch du-
ring the late War (2). After that, he went and received
the Ducal Crown of Normandy at Roan (3), where he
remained fome time, (howing by that he was not afraid his
Abfence might prejudice his Affairs in England. And in-
deed, fo far were the Englijh from difputing his Right to
the Crown, that his Orders were executed as if he had
already received it. The firft he fent thither was to re-
leafe his Mother Queen Eleanor, who languiflied in Prifon
fixteen Years. At the fame time he entrufted her with
the Adminiftration of the Government during his Ab-
fence, and impowered her to releafe what Prifoners {he
pleafed (+). The Queen, being taught by her own, to
pity others Misfortunes, ufed with pleafure, for the Relief



of the unhappy, the Power given her by the King. Nay, ,,$0,
{he was obferved, during the refidue of her Life, to
omit no opportunity of exercifing her Charity to fuch as
were debarred the Sweets of Liberty, the Value of which
{he had but too well learnt, during her long Confine-
ment.

Eleanor's Companion for Prifoners was very natural. u t h a nijht%
But Richard's treatment of thofe that had, foi his fake, from his
expofed themfelves to his Father's Refentment, was very ^'['"j'J^
furprizing (5). Inftead of rewarding them, as they ex- w ;,bbiir.,
peeled, he forbid them ever to appear in his prefence. At hove*.
the fame time he affected to load with Favours all that had ^' ^'^
rcfifted his Solicitations. Hence was feen an Inftance of p . U54..
what has been often remarked, that fuch as make ufe of
indirect means to compafs their Ends, deteft in their
hearts the Inftruments they employ, and approve of the
Conduit of thofe that are not to be diverted from their
Duty.

After Richard had fettled all his Affairs in France, he He is cmvn.
came to London (6), where he was folemnly crowned (7) ed at Lon-
by Baldwin Archbifhopof Canterbury, who adminiftered to^ on p icrto>
him the cuftomary Oath (8). From William the Conque- e Er vafe.
ror, there was no King but what had taken the fame Hoved.
Oath ; though not one had been careful to perform it. w"p^.
This the Archbiihop took the Freedom to reprefent to Ri-
chard, conjuring him withal, in the name of God, to be
mindful of the Vows and Oaths he had juft taken in ac-
cepting the Royal Dignity. Richard made anfwer, that
by God's afliftance he would punctually perform them
all (9).

The






fwered in Palfreys, Hawks, S?f. 2. The yearly Ferms of the Towns, Burghs, and Gilds. It is to be remembered, that from the Time of the Conquejl, the
Cities and Towns weie inverted either in the Crown, or the Clergy, or the Baronage. Some of th#fe Towns the King was pofleiled of, as part of the original
Inheritance of the Crown; others by antient Elcheat, juft as his other Lands. When the King was feized of a City, or Town, in Demean, he was Lord of
the Soil, vim. of all the Land within the Site and Precinft thereof, of all the Burgage Hc.ufes, Shtds, Stalls and Buildings, Herbage, Profits cf Fairs and



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