M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Markets, Pleas and Perquinte^s of Courts j in a word, of all Iffues, Profits and Appurtenances, of the City or Town of any kind, that was not alienated by
hiinfelf or Anceftors. For fomctimes the Crown thought fit to grant fome Part, or Profit, to a private Perfon or Monaftery. Such a City or Town, was
commonly Qult&Civitas Regis, Villa Regis, Burgus Regis \ and the Men, Homines or Burgenjes Regit. The yearly Profit, made by the King, of his Cities and
Towns, was paid him fcveral ways. The 1 flues of fome were included in the geneial Ferms of the County where they lay, and were anlwercd by the Sheriff.
Sometimes the King committed them to Femurs, or Cufiodes, difti net from the Sheriffs. In a word, fumetimes the King let his Town to th« Townfmen, at
rum for Y"ears, or in l\e Ferm, that is, perpetual Ferm for ever, fince Feodum, Fee was ufed in England, to lignify a perpetual Eftate, it has been ufed to de-
note perpetuity in Office and in Rent. Thus inheritable Offices have been called Offices in Fee. When a Town was put to Fee Ferm, the Tenure was Burgage,
Particular Burgage, Tenements lying in the Town, as well as the Town itfclf, were faid t > be Co holden. In procefs of Time, moft oi the Towns and Burghs,
cane to be let to the refpeftive Townfmen orBurgeflesat Fee Ferm. To the Ferms oft he Towns, maybe referred the Ferms r>r yearly Payments to the Crown,
by the Gilds and Mtjlercs. The word Gild, ligmfies a Company, Society, Brotherhood, by which laft Name the Religious Gilds wcrt called, that wire founded
tor Devotion and Alms D'-cds, as the fecular Gilds were chiefly for Trade and Aims-Deeds. Thefe Gilds could not be fet up without the King's Warrant. The
Gilds of Goldfmiths, BOcbers, and others, were amerced in London, to the Crown, as Adulterine, in the Reign of Henry II. There was alio in former
Times a fecuhr Gild, called Gilda Mcrcatoria, a Merchant Gild, From thefe Gilds, perhaps, fprungthe Practice of gildating or embodying whole Towns. In
time, the fcveral Gilds of Goldfmiths, Salters, feff. were ftiled Coiporations or Companies. All thefe Gilds pad a yearly Ferm to the King. As for the Meftera,
it is to be obferved, that this Word has no relation to the Word Myjleiy, as it there was, as it is vulgarly laid, fome Myfteiy in every Trade For though
Myftery has been ufed for many Years part for a Craft, or Occupation, the true derivation is from the Gallic Mijlcra, Mejiera, or Mefticr, fignifying a Trade-
Thus we find in Edivardlll. the Mi/fere of Taylors, Armorers, and others. The other three remaining Branches of the Revenue, will be the Subject of the
next Note on the Coin.


King Henry lid's Coin is the fame with thofe of his Predeceflors, giving him full-faced, with a Scepter in his Right-Hand, a Crown of a Row rf Pearls of
ii\c Points, with a Crofs railed upon the Middlcmoft, and this Infcription, HENR1CUS. REX. on the Rtverfe, a double-lined Crofs, terminating zt
the inner Circle, and four Pellets in each Quarter : Which on fome are conjoined by a fmall Stroke, in fr»rm of a Crofs. DODELM. ON. W I N C •
{IV. ichefter) N1COLE.ON. LUND.one there is, ILGEH. ON. LUND. THOMAS ON. EVE [York) REN AU D. ON. EVE.
Whether his Son Henry, who died before him, coined any Money, is uncertain, but he had a great Seal. There appears to be in this Reign a foreign current
Coin, called a Bezant, of* the Value of two Shillings. For CreJfiHn, the Jeiu of Winchtfier, was amerced one hundred Marks, and he paid inftead thereof
onehundred Bexants, whxh were accepted by the King, mere gratia. £"ag. Rot. Hen. II. Rot. jo.a. Sudbantcfcira. This Coin was fo called from being
coined .it Bizantium, or Conftantinople , fays Nieolfon, H-jl. Lib. p. 252.

( ! ) The firft thing he did there, wjs to imprifon Stepbm de lours, Senefchal of Ar.jw, till he furrendered the Cafties and Treafures, whxh the late King
had committed to his Cuitcdy. Hoved. p. 654. Brompt p. 1154.

(2) The Place where they met was between Cbaumont and Trie, on jfuly 22. Philip infifted upon the Reftitution of Gifcrs, and other Places ; but, inflead
of them, King Richard agreed to pay Philip four thoufand Marks of Silver, befides the twenty thouiand his Father Henry had engaged in the late Treaty to
pay Hoved p. 6^4. Brompt.

(3) This was on July 20, the third Day before his Interview with Philip. Hoved p. 654. He did not only rece : ve the Ducal Crown j but, as Hoveden eX-
reffes it, w<" gut with tbe Sword of the Duhdutn of Normandy, (for that was the Form of Inveftiture) by the Archbiihop of Roan, in the pretence of the
Bifhops, Earls, and Barons ot Normandy. Hcved. ibid. Brompt. p. 1 155.

(4) He alio gave her whatever King Henry I. and Stephen had granted to their Queens for a Dower ; befides what Henry II, her Hufband, had allowed her.
Brw.pl. p. 1 169 Hoved. p. 663.

(c) He reftoml Robert Earl of Leieefler, and others to their Eftatcs, of which they had been deprived by his Father. Hoved. p 6^4. Brompt. p. 1156.

(6) He landed at Port/mouth, Augufi 13, (or, according to Gervafe, at Southampton, jiugufl 12. p 1^49.1 being attended by the A'chhiihop of Canterbury 9
and the Bifhrps of Rochejler, Lincoln, and Cbichcjhr. From thence he went to PYincbcfter Auguji 15. where he to.k an Accou.tt of his Father's Treafure.
Hoved.?. 655. Brompt. p. 1156. M. Pan's, p. 152. Diceto. p. 646.

{7) September 3. Brampton, p. 1 1 57. Diccto, p. 647. Gervafe fays he came to London, September 10, and was crowned the nth, p. 1549-

(8) The fecend Day after his Coronation he received the Homage of all the great Men. Hoved, p. 657, 653. Brompt. p 1 16c.

(9) It may not be amils Irom Hovedcn and Diceto (who were Eye-Witneffcs) to fet down the Cercmonits at large, fince we may learn from hence
the whole Form of an ancient Coronation 1 The Archluihcps of Canterbury, Roan, "Triers, who came over with the King' and Dublin, with other B.Jhcps
and Abbots in rich Copes, and having the Crofs, Holy Water, and Cenfers carried before them, received the Duke at the Door of h-s Prhy-Chamber, .aid
conducted him with a iolemo Proceflion to the Abby-Church of Wefmhflcr, In the middle of the Bi/hops and CIe*£y went four Barons, each cany.ng a


Book VII.




Some Jews



/. 4-




j. J 17 1.

<Ibt Ardor
cfthe Chri-
fianifor it

Philip puis
Richard in
mind of til
p. 660.
•Aft. Pub.
T. I. p. 63
M. Paris.

*The Meant
stfed by
Richard to
raife M'ney.

The ceremony of the Coronation was fomewhat dif-
turbed by the maflacrc of fume Jews, who by ftriving too
eagerly to get into the Church to fee the folemnrty (r),
gave occafion to the People to fall upon them and kill feve-
ral before their fury could be reftrained. But the Authors
of this diforder were not fuffered to go unpunifhed. The
King ordering ftricl: Inquiiition to be made, the Chief
Ring-Leaders were defetvcdly put to death (2).

It is no wonder, the People ihould fall on the Jews up-
on fo flight an occafion. Since the news of the taking of
Jerufalem was fpread over Europe, nothing but vengeance
was breathed againft the enemies of Chrift. Though
the Jews were not concerned in the late revolution in the
Eaft, their not being Chriftians was fufficient to render
them odious. At fuch a juncture, they would doubtlefs
have found themfelves cxpofed to worfe Perfecutions, if
the preparations for the Crufade had not at length turned
the fury of the People againft the Saracens. This Zeal,
efpecially in France and England, ran fo high, that the
number of the Croifes was prodigious. Everyone gloried,
either in lifting himfelf to go in perfon againft the Infidels,
or in advancing money for the War. Richard bound
himfelf by the like Vow before his Father's death. He
renewed his Engagement at the late interview between
him and Philip, where thefe two Monarchs agreed to
join their Forces, and go to the affiftance of the Chrifti-
ans of Pale/line. Richardwzs fcarce on the Throne, when,
for fear ol forgetting his Promife, Philip fent to put him
in mind of it (3). There was no need to ufe much folli-
citation to incline him to that Undertaking. Far from
deliring to be excufed, he thought of only preparations for
his Journey, neglecting for its fake all his other affairs.
Whether this proceeded from a pure Principle of zeal and
devotion, or from an eager defire of acquiring Fame, I
dare not determine. However, if it be allowable to judge
by the Character of Richard, it is to be prefumed Glory
had a greater (hare in it than Religion.

As this Prince had grand Views, and intended to lead
a powerful Army into Pale/line, it was neceflary to raife
vaft Sums for its maintenance. Accordingly, he was
wholly intent upon that, till the time came to begin his
voyage. The late King left in his Coffers above a hun-
dred thoufand Marks (4J, and Richard drew little lefs
from the Treafurer and others, who managed the Revenues
in the late reign. But thinking thefe Sums infufficient
for the Charges of his Voyage, he ufed all manner of


ways to increafe them. He fold almoft all the Crown- J 189,
Lands to fuch as would purchafe them. The Bifhops and Bro ''' ■'■
Abbots having the moft ready Money, made a greater ad-
vantage of this opportunity than others. The Bifliop of H '■' *
Durham purchafed the Earldom of Northumberland for him .
fell and Succeftbrs (5); upon which the King jeftingly c.
faid, He had made a young Earl cf an old Bifliop (6). But
this new Dignity was nor capable of fatisfying the Prelate's
ambition: He gave moreover one thoufand Marks to be
Jufticiary during the King's ahfencc (7). As Richard
evidently appeared to be unwilling to omit any means that
might procure him ready Money, to did,.; the Expences
of his intended Voyage, the King of Scotland thought he
fhould improve this opportunity (8/ To that Purpofe, he ">=•"•
offered him ten thoufand Marks to deliver up Berwick and " oml '
Roxborough, and defifl from his claim to the Sovereignty m. ,
of Scotland. Richard, very readily accepting the offer,
gave up the two Places, and by authenticfc Charter, dif-
charged the King of Scotland, and his Succeftbrs, fiom the
Homage extorted from him by Henryll.

Many People were uneafy at thefe Alienations. Nay, HVhird f
fome took the liberty to reprefent to the King the ill con !
fcquences thereof. But he ffopped their mouths with this
reply, / would fell London it/elf could I meet with a
Chapman able to purchafe it. The Turns amaiTed by thefe
extraordinary ways, not anfwering yet to the vaftnefs of
his projects, he bethought himfelf of a new Expedient toHovefc
augment them. As multitudes had haftily and unadvised-
ly engaged in the Crufade, he obtained of the Pope a
Power todilpenfe with fuch as repented of their Vow (9),
by which means he railed very great Sums. After practi-
fing thefe general methods, he piocccJed to exact Money
from the richeft of his Subjects. He borrowed of thole
who led an unblameable lift; but for fuch as gave him
any handle, he threatened to call them to a ftrict ac-
count ( 1 o), and forced them to prevent it by Prefents. It Ri
was by this means that he compelled Glanville, a rich'*'
Lawyer, whom he had committed to prifon, to purchafe
his Liberty with fifteen thoufand Pounds Sterling (11).
Though he had refolved to leave the Great-Seal, in his
abfence, with Longchamp his Favourite, lately made Chan-
cellor, he demanded of him however a large Sum to con-
tinue him in that poft (12). Whilft he was thus heaping
up Money, the Clergy were zealoufly labouring to procure
him Soldiers ; the Pulpits refounding with the great me-
rit of ferving in the Holy War. The Confefibrs enjoined



golden Candleftick, with a Taper ; after whom came Geoffrey de Lucy, bearing the Royal Cap, and John it Marjhal next, with a maffy pair of Gold
Spurs : Then William Earl of Pembroke, with the Royal Sceptre : Alter him William Fitz-Patnck Earl of Salisbury, with a golden Red, having a Dove
on the Top : Then three other Earls, David Brother to the King of Scotland, as E3rl of Huntingdon ; Prince John Earl of Lancajler and Derby ; with
Robert Earl of Lciccjhr, each bearing a Sword upright, the Scabbards richly adorned with Gold: Alter them fix Earls and Barons bearing a checkered
Table, on which were laid the Royal Robes, and other Regalia: Then came William Mandevil Earl of Albemarle and Effex, bearing a large Crown of Gold fet with
precious Stones : Then Duke Richard himfelf, (between the Bilhupof Durham and Batb) over whom a Canopy of State was born by tcur Barons: Then followed
a great Train of Earls, Barons, Knights, &c. In this Order he came into the Church, where before the high Altar, laying his Hand on the Evangchlts
and Relicts of Sa nts, he took a folemn Oath, " That he would obferve Peace, Honour, and Reverence to Almighty Gcd, his Church, and her Miniftert, all
" the days of h.s Life ; That he would exercife upright Juftice and Equity towaids the People committed to his Charge; and that he would abrogate and
" difannul all evil Laws and wrongful Cuftoms, and make, keep, and lincerely maintain thofe that were good and laudable." Then they put off all h s Gar-
ments from his Middle upwards, except his Shirt, which was open on the Shoulders, and put on his Shoes which were of geld Tiffue, and the Archbifliop anointed
him on the Head, the Breall, and the Arms ; then covering his Head with a Linen Cloth, he fet the Cap thereon which Geoffrey dn Lucy carried ; and when he
had put oil his Wairtcoat, and on that his Dalmalica, or Upper Garment, the Archbilhop delivered to him the Sword of the Kingdom ; which done, two
Earls put on his Spurs, and he was led, with the Royal Mantle hung on him, to the Altar, where the Archbilhop charged him on God's behalf, Nor
toprefume to take upon him tbi: Dignity, except be refolved inviolably to keep the Venn and Oatbs he had juji then made I To which the King anl'wercd.
That by God's Grace be ivculd faithfully perform them all. Then the Crown was taken from belide the Altar and given to the Archbilhop, who let it
upon the King's Head, delivering the Sceptre into his Right-hand, and the Rod Royal into his Left. Thus crowned, he was brought back to his
Throne with the fame Solemnity as before. Then Mai's began, and when they came to the Offertory, the King was led by the Bilhops of Durham and
Bath to the Altar, where he offered a Mark of pure Gold, as his Predeceffois were wont to do, and afterwards was brought back to his Throne by the
fame Bifhops. After Mafs, he was attended, thus royally arrayed, to a Chamber adjoinng in like Proceffion as before: Whence (after a ftiort Rep >fe)
he with the fame Proceffion returned into the Choir; and having put off his heavy Crown and Robes, he went to Dinner. At the Coronati n-Feaft,
which was kept in Wefiminfter-Uall, the Citizens cf London were his Butlers, and thofe of WincheJIer ferved up the Meat. Then the Archbilhops and
Bilhops fat down with the King, whilft the Earls and Barons ferved in the King's Palaces, as their Places and Dignities required. Hoved. p. 656.
Diceto. p. 647. Ralph de Diccto, (who was then Dean of St. Paul's, and in the Vacancy of the Bilhoprick of London aflifted at the Coronation, and
delivered the Cbrifm or confecrated Oil, with which the King was anointed) has thefe remarkable Words jufl before his Account of the Coronation,
" Richard Earl of Pciflw, being by hereditary Right to be made King, [prcmover.dus in Regem] after a folemn and due Election by the Clergy and
«' Laity, took a threefold Oath, 6fc." By which Words it ihould feem that the Kings in thofe Days were not confidered as complcatly Kings, till they were
actually crowned, though the Cuftom be otherwife now. Dieeto. ibid.

( 1 ) They came to bring the King Prefents ; though Orders had been given, the Day before, that neither Jews, nor Women, (hculd be at the Coronation,
Hoved. p. 657. Broniplon, p. 1 1 59, I 160. M. Paris, p. 154..

(2) The Example of the Londoners was followed the next Year in the Towns of Norwich, on February 6 ; Stamford, March 7 ; St. EJmvnJJtury,
March iS ; Lincoln and Lynn, where the Rabble rofe upon the Je-zus ; but their greateft Fury was exerted againft them at Tort, March 16, where rive
hundred Men, betides Women and Children, having prevailed with the Governor to let them into the Caftle to avoid the Rage of the Populace ; the
High-Sheriff came and required them to deliver it up, which they refufing to do, the People drew up in a Body and attacked the Cattle. At laft the
Jems offered a great Sum of Money to go off with their Lives; but the People denied to give them quarter. Upon which an antier.t Rabbin propofed the
killing themfelves lather than fall into the Hands of the uncirewneifed Chrijlians. This Motion was unanimcufly agreed to, and their Method in putting their
tragical Refolve in Execution, was thus: Every Matter of a Family cut his Wile's and Children's Throats firlt, then difpatched his Servants, and con-
cluded with the Slaughter of himfelf. WiU.of Newburgh, 1. 4. c. 9. BiMs.p.651. Brompt. p. 1171, *c. It is Itrange ■ (fays Tyrrel, Vol. II. p. 4-1.)
to oblerve the prepofterous Zeal of fome of our Menkilh Writers, who do not only excufe but applaud this Barbarity, becaule (lay they) it ferved to deitroy
the Enemies of the Chriltian Faith.

(i) He fent to him, in November, Rami Earl of Perche ; who adJrcffed himfelf not on.y to the King, but alio to the Earls and Barons of England;
whereupon King Richard affembled a Parliament at London or Wcfiminfter, to confider of this Affair. A'. B. This is the firlt time the Word Parliamentim
occurs in the anticnt Hiftonans. Brompt. p. 1 166 hoved. p. 660. ,..»,«* c jm- d

(4) Brompton fays, there was found in his Treal'ury above nine hundred thoufand Pounds, befides Jewels, SV. p. 115b. M. Paris, p. 15a.

(5) He bought it only for Life. »»W p. 658. M. Paris, p. 155. . ... . „ , „ , „ .. , „ „ .

(6) He likewife bought the Manor of Sedgefeld, with the Wapentake, and fettled it upon the See of Durham. Brompt. p. , ,62. M, Pens, p. 154.
The Bifhrp of Winchefter bought alio of the King the two Manors of Weregrave and Means. Brompt. 1162. Beved. p. b j9 .

(7) J!ai>/nby miftake fays Ten. See Brompt. p. 1161. M.Paris, p. 154.

(8) He came to Richard at Canterbury, in December. Brempt. p. I 167.

(9) The Bifliop of Norwich paid him upon that account a thoufand Marks. Brompt. p. 1 175. Hs-.ed. p. 66S. _ '

( 10) By this means he fqucezed a great deal of Money out of the Sheriffs and Bailiffs ; and thole Sheriffs that would not pay fo m-icb as the King exacted
of them, were turned out, and others put in their room. M. Paris, p. I 54 The King alio made a new Seal, and ordered all Perrons to have their Char-
ters or Grants renewed. M.Paris, p. 156. . .

(11) This was Ranulpb de Glanville, whom Henry II. mule Jufticiary of all England, and who lately refigned that Office. Cnjus fafiattd (lays Hczcd.n)
conditer funt Leges fubfenpta- quas Anglicanas vocamus ; alter which he gives us the Laws of Ed-ward the Cmf/jjbr and WtUiem I, as it cheie had never been
brought into any regular Form before his Time. The Book that now carries his Name has kept ihe fame Title in its feveral Editions, viz. TraSatas ae Leg!-
bus & Confuetudinibus Rcgni Anglia, tempore Regis Henrici II- "imp fltia, e\c. In which we have Forms of luch Writs a; were then ^and are moftiy ft. 11,. in
ufe, upon all the feveral Occafions there treated an, He is laid to be the inventor ol the famous Writ of Aliize, or de novel Diffojm. He died in 'bis Voyags

the Holy-Land, being verynged, (<*) Three thvuland Pounds.

No. 13. Vol. I,




Vol. I.

1 1 S9.

Richaid wi-
eafy on at -

M. Paris.

Give! him
fix Eart-

d ■■ .

no Penances but what tended to promote the grand defign
of recovering the Holy-Land. By thefe means the Army
Toon became very numerous, and fo much better provided
with all things, as there was not an Officer 01 commun
Soldier but what furniflied themfelves with Neceflaries.

Amidft the King's fatisfaction to fee the Preparations
for his Voyage in fuch forwardness, there was one thing
that cave him difquiet. As he fhould probably be long
abfent, he was apprehenfive his Brother might take ad-
vantage of his Abfence and feize the Crown. He would
fain have carried him along with him. But as 'John fhowed
no inclination for the Voyage, he would not compel him
to make an involuntary Vow. To Irce himfelf from this
perplexity, he refolved to load with Favours the young
Prince, whofe Ambition was not yet known to him. He
imagined the Grants he mould make him would engage
him to a srateful return. Accordingly he inverted him
with fix Earldoms ( 1 ). Carnival, Dorfet, Samerfet, Not-
. 1) tingham, Derby, and Lancajler (1), and gave him to wife

' ■ Avifa, Hcirefs of theHoufe of GloceJier. The Archbifhop

''* of Canterbury forbad the Marriage, by reafon of their being
too near a kin (3). But there was a fort of neceffity for
it. The late Earl of Ghcejier, Father of Avifa, for rea-
M Paris. f° ns unknown, made Prince John his Heir. This Settle-
ment would infallibly have caufed a gieat Law-Suit, in
which there was danger of the Prince's being call, and
from thence taking occafion to raife difturbances. The
death of his Wife, daughter of the Earl of Mortagne (4),
made the King eafy in that refpect. By her death a very
natural way offered of reconciling the two Parties, by join-
ing them in Marriage. And therefore, the Archbifhop's
Prohibition, though founded on the Canons, gave place
for once to reafons of State (5), and John became alfo
Earl of Gloce/ler in right of Aiiifa, his wife (6). Mean
time, though Richard had, in a manner, fhared his King-
dom with his Brother, he would not fuffer him to have
any hand in the Government during his abfence, left he
Hoved. fhould make him too powerful. Nay, led by this Fear,
Brompt. j lg cau f e j n ; m t0 ("wear to go and remain in Normandy;
bongchamp but before his departure releafed him from his Oath. To
/fclt/Dur" Longchamp his Favourite he committed the Regency (7),
jointly with the Bifhop of Durham (S). Longchamp was

ham made
M. Paris.


a Norman of mean extraction, who, by his intereff with
the King, was become Bifhop of Ely, High-Chancellor,
and the Pope's Legate over all England. All thefe Dig-
nities together with the Regency, rendered him the moft
powerful Subject that hadpver been in England. A Hiftorian
therefore very juftly gives him the Titles of Prince and
Pontiff of the Englijh, fmce all the Power fpiritual and
temporal was united in his Perfon.

After Richard had taken all neceflary care for the go-
' vernment of the State, he was willing to fecure its Tran-
quillity, by renewing his Alliance with the Kings of Scot-
land and Wales. To that end, he defired thefe two
Princes to come into England, in order to adjuft every
thing that might occafion Difputes ; and thereby take
from them all pretence of difturbing the Peace of his Sub-
jects. The former, who had reafon to be fatisfied, made
a ftrict Alliance with him, and as fome affirm, font
his Brother David to attend him in his Voyage with a
Hoved. thoufand Scotchmen. Griffin King of Wales font into Eng-

land his eldert Son Rees, but fome Difference in point of
Ceremony ariling, that Prince returned without feeing the

King (9). However, as Richard's Affairs with the Weljh 1 189,
were of no great moment, that Accident caufed him noc
to delay his Voyage ( 1 o).

Every thing being ready for his Departure, Richard , tro
palled into France (11) with all his Troops, and marched He goes im
for Marfeilles, where his Fleet had, orders to expect him. F™ ■ ', ". '
The two Armies of France and England joined zxVezelai, al v
according to agreement. As foon as the two Kings ar- M. Park,
rived there, they renewed their Alliance, and obliged^ 1 ™ -
themfelves to protect: and defend one another upon all vinifauf.
occafions. They agreed moreover, that all Quanels in Brompt.
their abfence between their Subjects fhould be fuperfeded Dicct0 -
till their return. The Eifhops that attended them thus Ch.Mailmd
far, promifed to excommunicate all that fhould attempt
to difturb the Peace of the two Kingdoms. After the two They fart
Monarchs had concerted whatever was thought neceflary "' Lions,
to accomplifh their defigns (12), they marched together D '" c ™|j|'
as far as Lyons (15), where they parted. Philip took the m. Par.

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