M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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the lofs of their Hair.

After their Recovery, Richard appeared more eager than lloz .
ever to purfue the Conquefts upon the Infidels. But Phi- Philip n-
lip refolved to return to France, his Weaknefs caufed by "" m Hj *-
his late Illnefs fcarce permitting him any more to enter B " "
upon action. But he had another and no lefs powerful Dicctc.
Reafon, which was, his extreme Impatience to take pof- Ho
feffion of Artois, fallen to him by the Death of the Earl
of Flanders. He imparted this Refolution to Richard (8),
who feemed very much furprized at it, fearing that Philip
in returning to Europe, had fome defign upon his Domini-
ons in France. One of the Articles of their Agreement
was, that neither fhould defert the Caufe without the
other's Confent. Richard infifted upon that Article, and
refufed to agree to Philip's departure, before they were



-loved.
M. Pari,



(1) March 12. D.ceto, p. 660. M. Paris, p. 163.

(2) Jmci. Dt'ceto, p. 661. . M. Paris, ibid.

(3J This City furrendercd, July 12. Upon what Terms, fee in Arm. Burton, p. 151. Brompt. p. 1205. Diceto, p. 661. The Siege is laid to Lift above two
years, ana the Author of Richard's Travels to "Jerufaltm affirms, tli.it three hundred thoufand Pilgrims penihed in this Siege. Among whom were many
Princes and noble Perfons, viz. Conrade Duke of Scrvia, and feveral foreicn Earls ; Baldwin, Archbiihop of Canterbury ; Ralph de Gtanfille, Chief Juftice of
England ; William de Mandevil, William Earl Ferrets ; and fome whofe Pofierity ftill flounih, as Ingelram de Ftcnnes, Ancettor of the Lord Say and Seal; the
Lord Dacrei ; Tbeephilut Clinton, Earl of Lincoln, whole Aims retain the Badge of the Holt ll'ar, Stars, Crefeents ami Crcjjes \ as alfo St. J'.hr., Min/bul, 'lilney,
•""•/•'. P'g", Laibumt, Mtntibray, Talebat, Aijlet, Ice See Brompt. p. 1191. Hw'd. p. 6S5. Vtmjauf. p. 33+. The 13th of 'J^y, Aem was equally
divided between the Kings of England and France; the Perfon appointed by the King of England to fee it dune, was Hugh de Gurnay ; and by the King of
France, Dre^c de Marlon J each of them was intended with one hundred Scldiers. Brompt. p. 1206. The Earls and Barons that attended the two Kin^s in thi»
Expeditit n, delired, they might be Sharers in the Gains, as well as in the Labour ; but receiving no Satisfaction, molt ot them were forced to fell their Arms,
and uuirn h^me. Bi.tnpt. p. 1207. Halved, p. 696.

(4) By the Perfuafum of Conrade Marquis of Montferrat. Brotnpt. p. 1202.
; I The v. ^ris of the Agreement were, Vp'n the Saracens in the Land 'f Ifracl. Brotnpt. ibid.

,1 ) Ivinj Richard told him, If yon will give me the half of Flando-, and of the other Dominions you have acquired by the Death of the Earl of Flan*
I'-, I .illo will give you half of Cyprus. Brompt. p. 1202. Hived p. 693.

(-) Called by the H.fti-rians Arnaldta. Brompt, p. 1201. Heed. p. 693.

i s ) "J"b zo - b y the Biihop of Beauviit, the Duke, of Burgundy, U' igo dc Amiens, anJ ffill'tm de Merltrw, HovtJ. p. G96,

a Mailers



Book VII.



6. RICHARD I.



251



1192. Mailers of Jerufalem. However, as hecouM not conftrain
fhWf'sOaib n j m t0 {\ n y t he l e ft him to do as he pleafctl, upon his
ViiiiijHi. taking a folcmn Oath, in the prefence of the Bifhops and
gronipt. principal Officers of both Armies, not to attack any Place
Hoved. belonging to Richard, either in France or in England, till
forty days after the return of that Prince into his own
Hovcd. Territories. Upon quitting Pale/line ( 1 ), Philip left ten
thoufand Men under the Command of the Duke of Bur-
gundy, publicity ordering him to pay the fame Obedience
to the King of England as to himfelf (2). But in all like-
lihood, he gave him other Inftructions in private. This
Mczerai. Jliezerai does as good as own, when he fays, Richard
would have become Mafter of Jerufalem, if the Duke of
Burgundy's Jealoufy had not nbftructed it.
IlklnrJW A little after the King of France's Dcpaiture, Richard
Armpit! anc * S"!"d' n e exhibited a Spectacle of Horror to their Ar-
, tu mies, by commanding the Prifoncrs each had in his power,

Hovcd. to be put to death (3). It is difficult to determine
Vimfauf. which of the two Princes was the firrt Author of this Bar-
Htmingford. barity. Some Hiftorians lay the blame on Saladine, others
accule the King of England. Thefe lift feem to me to
have mod reafon. The Saracen Monarch refufed to per-
form the Articles of the Surrender of Acres (4), whereas
no other reafon is alledged that could induce the Infidel to
this Cruelty but his natural Fierccnefs, though he appears
upon other occafions to have been a very generous Prince.
Thus much is certain, the Duke of Burgundy, following
Richard's Example, ordered alfo what Captives were in his
hands, to be beheaded. I do not pretend to determine
what may be the Law of Arms, with refpect to Prifoners
whofe Sovereign refufes to perform a Capitulation, or how
far Reprifals may extend. But methinks one can hardly
be miUaken in faying, that whoever goes to the extent of
his Power, on fuch occafions, is in danger of committing
a very great Injuftice. Be this as it will, Inihnces of the
like Barbarity are very rare in Hiftory.
Thi Siege 0/ After the departure of the French, Richard held a great
6/W°" « ^ ounc '' °f ^ Var J where the Siege of Afcalon was relolv-
"Vinifaut; ' et K5). To execute this Project, he marched along the
Brompt. Sea-Side, whilft his Fleet, freighted with all manner of
Stores, rowed in fight of the Troops, and fupplicd them
with NccelTaries. Sa/adine having intelligence of the
Croifes Defigns, ported himfelf advantagioufly in their way,
With an Army of three hundred thoufand Men. What-
ever difproportion there might be between their Forces,
Richard refolved to attack him thus ported. He was fen-
fible, could he defeat that Army, not only the taking of
Afcalon would be the Fruits of his Victory, but even the
Siege of Jerufalem would become much lefs difficult ; on
the contrary, if he declined the Fight, fuch a numerous
Army of Infidel: would continually obflruct the execution
Richard oh- of his Defigns. Purfuant to this refolution, he approach-
es^ ««' ed tne Enemv > and drawing up his Army, undauntedly
Saladmc. marched againft them. James de Avefnes commanded the
Eiompt. Right Wing, the Duke of Burgundy the Left, and the
ans ' King headed the main Body. Saladine had concealed part
of his Army, on his right fide, behind fome Hills which
prevented the Chriftians from feeing them. As he ex-
pected great matters from this Ambufcadc, he refolved not
to lofe the advantage of the Ground. Accordingly, with-
out ftirring from his Port, he waited for die Enemy to
attack him.
P,[,riptimof The Right Wing of the Chriftians beginning the Fight,
\'mi" ! i' l ^ e ^ aracens rece ' ve d James de Avefnes with a Refolution,
which, fupported by the Superiority of their Number, put
that Body in fuch a Diforder that it could not be repaired
for a confiderable while. James de Avefnes was flain in
ftriving to revive the Courage of his frighted Troops, and
R. Diceto. bring them again to charge. At the fame time, the Duke
of Burgundy furioufly attacked the right Wing of the Sa-
racens, which, purfuant to the General's Orders, retreating
as they fought, caufed the Duke to advance, with more
Courage than Conduct, a good way beyond the Body of
the Army. Saladine, finding all in good order on his
left, and that the Duke of Burgundy with his left Wing
was detached from the reft of the Army, ordered the
Body that lay concealed to move forward. Thefe Troops
defcending down the Hills in great multitudes, furrounded
the Wing commanded by the Duke of Burgundy, and made
a terrible Slaughter.



.It lay then upon Richard to lave the Honour of tin; n ,:.

Chriftians, and repair their Lofc He had fought or .
fide with better Succefs, and though he had met with a
ftout Reliftance in the Body that oppofed him, had com-
pelled them to retreat in diforder. He was (till purfuing
his Enemies, when he was informed of the ill ftate of his
Right Wing, and the danger of his Left. Upon which
he- gave over the Purfuit, and m , hing to the J kike of
Burgundy's Relief, fell upon the victorious Troops of Sala-
dine, in order to wreft from them a Victory of which
they thought themfelves lure. On this famous occafion
he was leen to perform fuch aftuniftring Acts of Valour,
that thofe who envied him mod, could not but admire him.
Some tell us, he was perfonally engaged with Saladine, and Brompft
demounting him would have taken him Prifoner, had not '• l "S"
the Saracens ufed their utmoft Efforts to refcue him out
of his^ hands. Be this as it will, thus much is certain,
that Richard's Valour lb altered the ftate of the Battle,
that Saladine faw himfelf obliged to reinforce his Right
Wing, with part of the victorious Troops of the Left.
This motion, which could not be done without caufino-
fome diforder, gave the Right Wing of the Chriftians time
to come to themfelves. Finding thev were not fe w .,,-
roufly prefled as before, they quickly rallied, and felling
furioufly on the Saracen Troops that oppofed them, forced
them at length to take to Plight.

Mean while, Richard maintained the Fight on the left,
with a Firmnefs that feempd more than natural, in fpite
of the Superiority of his Enemies, who had drawn all
their Forces againft him. He was however in danger of
being over-powered by Numbers, had not his Right Wing,
which met with no farther Refiftance, come to his AS,
Then the Saracens, finding they were attacked in Flank
by the frefh Troops, began to break their Ranks with
luch confufion, that it was not poffible tor Saladine to rally
them. The Chriftians taking advantage of their diforder,
prefl'ed them lb vigoroufly, that they entirely routed at
length that prodigious Army. Thus Richard'by his Va- Broii
lour and Conduct, obtained a complete Victory over the
Enemies of the Chriftian Name, of whom forty thoufand
Jay dead in the Field of Battle. James de Avefnes was
the only Officer of Diitinotion that was flain on the fide
of the Chriftians.

After this important Victory, Richard continued his R < :
march to the maritime Cities of Afcalon, Joppa and Cif-fi" ,ht
jarea, which Saladine thought fit to abandon, after demo-
hfhing their Walls. It was of the utmoft confequence */« •■•
to the Chriftians to repair thefe Cities, and erect Mag*- ■.
zines for the Army, when they fliould be farther advanced d.
into the Enemy's Country. This probably, was the fole i: -'- d '
reafon which obliged the victorious Prince to ftay fome
time at Joppa. Some however have taxed him with not
improving his Victory, by marching directly to JcrufaUm.
But I can't tell whether he is to be blamed upon their
Authority. There are fo few capable of judging rightly of
thefe matters, efpecially when the Circumftances are but
imperfectly known, that I do not think it Prudence to
pals one's Verdict thereon.

During Richard's ftay at Joppa, an Adventure hefel .4 r ■' <"
him, which had like to prove very fatal to him, and from ,
which he was delivered by a fort of Miracle. One d..v, \ ■
being tired with hunting, as he lay afleep under a Tree, F- ll l'.>
with only fix Perfons about him, he was rouzed by the
hidden Approach of fome Saracen Horfe, who weie near
the Place where he flept. As they were but few in num-
ber, he had no manner of dread upon him, but immedi-
ately mounting his Horfe, rode after them ; which they
perceiving, feigned to fly before him, and by that means
drew him into an Ambufcade, where he faw himfelf fur-
rounded on a fudden by a fquadron of Horfe. He defended
himfelf a long time with a wonderful Bravery, without anv
thoughts of retreating, notwithrtanding the number of
his Enemies. At length, Four of his Attendants beino-
killed, he was upon the point of being flain or taken,
when William Dcfpreaux (6), one of his Company, cried
out in the Saracen Language, / am the King of England.
At which Words, thofe that were upon Richard left him
to have a hand in the taking of Dcfpreaux, whom they
imagined to be the King. This Device gave Richard time
to ride off" full fpeed, whilft the Saracens content with their




. , . ; r .-.w«M.. 8 mcic .-unuuiom wtiL- nui Willi 111a ^iypiuuauou wouiu iiui. pciiorni uiem. upon wn:cn It IS IlKay t\:cv^ra l\ -pj> wn|i bc-

ncadingtnc Turkijh Captives. Hmeden fiys, to the Number of five thoufand ; but Vimjauf lexicons but two thoufand fcren hundred, p. 5+ 6. BrrmX.
(5) King Richard made Bertmv.i Vtrim, and Stephen de Muacbanit Governors of iisro ; and kit there his Wife BeramttVa, and his S:iler 7«Mu &c.
(.0) De Purcdlii at Parcel. Brirr.pt. p. 1241, ii jo .



aucceiSj



s-



The H IS70 RY of ENGLAND.



Vol. f.



1 192



Brompt.
j.. H30.



He takes rhi

great Bnh\ -
Jon Caravan
Vinifatif.
R. Diceto.
Hovcd.
M. Paris.
Eiompt.



He ecmet
muhn view
•/"Jerufaleoi,

and putt ojf
tbi Siege till
■ ' tying-
Hovcd.

Brompt.



71 1 Dates rf

Anuria and
Burgundy
rf, I, rt.
Hoved.
M. Paris.
Brompt.



The Kalian
Tr.ops rcfttfc
lu feri-e any
hngcr.
Hovcd.
Vindication
<cf Richard.



Richard
rnak'sa 'Truce
\vitb Sa.'a-

rimc.

Hovcd.

C. Vinifauf.



Article, 4
the Truce.
G. Vinifauf.
1.6. 2.S.
R. D.ccti.
Brc.mpt n.



Vini auf.
li. c aS.



Succefi, conducted their Prifoner to Saladine. Dcfprcaux
had the Prudence not to difcover himfelf till he came
before the Sultan, to whom he ingenuoufly con felled what
he had done to Cave his iMafter. Saladine commended his
Fidelitv, and did him a great deal of Honour. But as he
was very fenfible Richard would never fuffer one that had
done him fo fignal a Service to remain long a Captive, he
let his ranfom lb high, that he procured ten Emirs, or
Saracen Princes, in exchange for that faithful Servant.

As foon as the maritime Places were fufficiently repair-
ed, Richard marched to Jerufalcm, which he had re-
lblved to befiege. In his way he had the good fortune
to meet the Babylon Caravgn, carrying to Jcrufalem a
prodigious Quantity of rich Merchandizes and Provifions
of all kinds. The Caravan was guarded by ten thou-
fand (1) Horfe, who finding themfclves near the Chriftian
Armv, would immediately have retreated. But Richard
taking with him five thoufand chofen Horfemen, fell
upon them with great Fury, and putting them to Flight,
became mafter of the Caravan. He took on this occa-
fion three thoufand loaded Camels, and four thoufand
Horfes or Mules, with an ineftimable Booty, which he
ordered to be distributed all among his Soldiers. After
this happy Succefs, continuing his March to Jerufalem,
he came to a Hill, from whence he had the Pleafure to
furvey that famous City, the taking of which was the
chief End of his Expedition. Meantime, as the Country
round was deftitute of Forage, he faw himfelf under the
fatal NecelTity of deferring the Siege till the Spring. This
Delay furnilhed his Enemies, and thofe that envied him,
with a Pretence to defert him. The Duke of Aujhia
led the Way, and the Duke of Burgundy quickly follow-
ed him, not being able to bear the Thoughts of contri-
buting any longer to the Glory of a Prince whom he
confiiiered as the King of France's Rival (2). His Death,
which happened at Acres as he was going to embark, pre-
vented not the French Troops from failing to Europe. The
Retreat of the Germans and French ; the Marquifs of
Montfcrrat's Refufal to affift with the Italian Troops in a
Conqueft to which he laid claim, but was deiigned for
another ; the News Richard received of what paiTed in
England; his Apprehenfions that Philip would take ad-
vantage of his Ablence and declare War againft him (3) ;
the decreafe of his Troops, as well by Sicknefs as Battles ;
all thefe reafons were but too capable to make him think of
retreating, and were fufKcient to juftify his Truce with
Saladine, without regarding the vain Declamations of thofe
who confidently blamed him fordeferting the Caufe, when
within View of Jerujalcm(^). It is eafy to fee, that
with the few Troops that remained, it was not poffible
for him to accomplilh an Enterprize of fo difficult a na-
ture as was then the Siege of that City. During the whole
Winter they had found time to lay in all manner of Stores,
and the Garrifon was little inferior to the Chriftian Army.
Saladine having notice of Richard's Defign to retire,
thought it his Intereft to haften the Departure of fo for-
midable an Enemy, by offering him a three Years Truce.
All the principal Officers of the Chriftian Army, joyfully
embraced this Offer. Every one was glad, after fo many
Hardships, to go and enjoy fome Repofe in his own Coun-
try. Richard therefore accepted of the Truce which was
propofed upon thefe Conditions: That the City ot Ajca-
lon lhould be difmantled, and not fortified again by their
Party during the Truce : That Joppa or Jaffa, and
Acres or Ptolemais, fhould remain in the hands of the
Chriftians, with the reft of the Cities they were pollefled
of in Palejline : That the Chriftians fhould have Liberty
to go in Pilgrimage to Jerufalcm without charge, and free
Commerce throughout all Saladine's Dominions. The
Treaty being concluded, Richard fent Saladine word, that
he might depend upon feeing him again, to try once more
to recover the Holy Land out of his hands. The Sultan,
with a Politenefs that favoured not of the Barbarian, re-
plied, That, if it mujl be his fate to hfc that Part of his
Dominions, he had rather it fhould be to the King of England,
than to any other Monarch in the World. Thus ended the
famous Crufade, which had drained France and England
both of Men and Money. It proved of very little Bene-



(I y



fit to the Eaftern Chriftians, whillt it ruined thofe of
Europe, by the prodigious Sums therein expended. But
that was not all ; it became the occafion of deftrucfive
Wars between France and England, as we fhall fee pre-
fently.

Richard, fearing that in his Abfence Saladine would TO* Mar.
break the Truce, alTemblcd the principal Officers of the if'
Army, in order to elect a Creneral capable of command- dccied Gene-
ing the Troops defigncd to be left in Palejline. The '"' "I :
choice fell upon the Marquifs of Montferrat, to RiJiard's^tjfff
great furprize, who had openly declared againft him, Brompt.
However he gave his Confent, and facrificed his private
Refentment to the publick Good of the Chriftians.
Shortly after the Marquifs was (tabbed bv two Villains, He is aja£i-
fent for that purpofe bv the Old Man of the Mountain : "f' d : , ,
f or that was the Appellation given to the Head or chies
Mafter of a fort of People inhabiting about Antioch, cal-
led Chaffins, or fome fuch Name. The Old Alan of the
Mountain always kept in his fervice a fet of People devo-
ted to his Will, whom he difpatched into all parts of the
World upon the like occafions. Hence the French called
him the Prince of the AfTaffins, or perhaps the word
AITaiTin is derived from the Name of thefe People (5). As VSulfinC
the Author of this Murder was at firft unknown, ici-J 1 ^
chard, becaufe he was no Friend to the Marquifs, was by
fome fufpected. But the Marquifs himfelf was fo far
from fuch a thought, that, juft as he died, he ordered
his Wife to deliver into the hands of the King of En-
gland the City of Tyre, of which he was in pofleffion.
After the Death of the Marquifs of Montferrat, RichardHenry EaA
fo ordered it that Henry Earl of Champagne, his, as well as^^^.Ca
the King of France's Nephew, was chofen in his place, in tisPUe.
After which, he cauled him to marry Ifalella, the deteafed's Gibla.
Widow, who brought him for her Dowry the Titular r^l^.
Kingdom of Jcrufalem. As {ot Guy cf Lufignan, the). 1.
King made up his lofs of an empty Title with the real Brompt.
Donation of the Kingdom of Cyprus, though he had fold
it before to the Templars. Upon the repeated Complaints
of the Cypriots, to whom the Tyranny of their new
Matters was become infupportable, Richard thought he
had a Right to revoke the Sale. Whether this was con-
fident with Juftice, is needlefs now to inquire. It is
fufficient to obferve, Guy was put in pofleffion of his
Kingdom, which remained near two Centuries in his
Family.

The Affairs of the Eaft being thus fettled (6), Richard Richard em-
impatient to return to England, embarked at Ptolemais, i f rks fi r
from whence he failed to Carfu, an Bland fituated at the m. PariBi
Entrance of the Adriatic/: Gulph. Probably, his defign Hoed,
was to land fomewhere in the bottom of the Gulph, and g D'"* 9 -
continue his Journey by Land through Germany. How- ™ a ?*fl'b;s
ever fome fay, he was driven againft his Will by ftrefs^' 7 '-
of Weather into thofe Parts. Whatever his Defign Kcm" 1 " 10 "'
might be, he was expofed to a violent Storm, which/, jhip.'
forced him on the Coaft of Ijlria, and from thence hc-'" r -" k ' d " iar
tween Aquileia and Venice, where the Galliot, he was onf, [n s ' l ^f rhr
Board, fplit upon a Rock. It was with great difficulty Daminim cf
that he efcaped this Danger, to run immediately into ,/e Dutu "J
another. Whether he was ignorant of the Country, or r. ''"'!"

a , ' brompt.

for fome other unknown realon, he entered the Territo- Gems.
ries of the Duke of AuJir'ia, and took the Road to Vienna. M - Paj&
If this was not done through Ignorance, it will be difficult
to dive into his defign. Belides that this was by no means
his way to England, it was great Imprudence to hazard
his Perfon in the Dominions of a Prince, whom he had fo
mortally offended at the Siege of Acres. However this I' d;fi;vcri,
be, he continued his Journey difguifed like a Pilgrim, '"*"'• a '" 1
well knowing he had every thing to fear from the Duke's S X £.„£-«
Refentment, fhould he chance to be difcovered. His lavilh Art. Pub.
Expences, and the Indifcretion of fome of his Attendants, J,, 1 '/' 7 °~
were the occalion of a Rumour's being quickly fpread HemingforA
that the King of England was in thofe parts. The Duke M. Paris,
of Aujlria having notice of it, caxtfed the pretended Pil- Bropjpmu.
grim to be watched fo narrowly, that he was feized (7)
at a fnaall Village (8) new Vienna (9). The News reach-
ing the Emperor Henry VI, he fent and demanded the
Prifoner of the Duke of Aujlria, who delivered him,
upon AlTurance of having a large Share of his Ranfom.



(3) M. Paris fays Saladine bribed him to go away, p. 16S.
.„~rd with Calumnies, and had a Conference, January 22, 1 192, between Gifors and
.-.mandy, his Silter Alice, but the Senefchal refilled to fend her, though Pbil.f (hewed him
the Convention made between King Richard and him at Mejfina. After that, the King of Franc; gathered a large Army together, and wouU hive invad-d
N-.imandy; but the gnat Men nl his Kingdom would n?t Jet him. HctcJ. p. 712, 717. Bnrnpt. p. 1236.
c '— ■ tcb Hiftorian ha*, raft m.iny falfe —



• (1) Hsueien fays eleven thoufand, p. 716.

(3) Immediately after his Return to his Dominions, he loaded King Ricbc
Trie, wherein he demanded of IVilliam Fitz-Ralpb, Seneichil of Nm —




(7) December to. Diceto, p. 668. Brompt. (8) Called Gynacia. M. Paris, p. 171. M.Wti

(9) Having travelled fome time with his Attendants like fo m3ny Pilgrims with their Hair and Beards grown ro a cre?t length, he di.'miffed tl
talcing Horfe u ith one Servant came to the Village, w here fending 1 ut his Servant to buy Pravifions, he wa i IcnoWn by one belonging to the Duk
and b-in; feijed, was forced by Tortures to tell where th- King was, who was taken as he lay aflsep. Hrjcd. p. -<;. M. Paris, p. 172.



M. IFefl. p. 25S.
Ted them all, and
Duke of Au,tr:a t



Thus



Book VII.



6. RICHARD!.



3S3



1193. Thus Richard, whofe Fame filled the whole Earth, and

whofe noble Actions had exalted him above all the Princes

of his time, loft his Liberty, and faw himfelf in the power

of the moil fordid and ungenerous of Princes.

The EfftFJi The News of Richard's Imprifonmcnt quickly flew

of the King • Europe, and particularly into England, where itcaufed

Jntpl I "inert r-f n ■ r\ rt I • a It 1

in England. a g r eat Coniternation. Queen Eleanor, ins Mother, im-
Hovcd. mediately took all poffible care to prevent this Accident
?.' ","'•. from occafioning fome fatal Revolution. She reprefented
R.Uiceto. to the principal Barons, that they could not give the
King more effectual Proofs of their Fidelity, than by op-
poiing, to the utmoft of their power, the Attempts of
Prince John, whofe ill defigns were no fecret. That it
was ncceflary to begin with this, in order to preferve the
Peace of the Realm ; and that afterwards other Affairs



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 106 of 360)