M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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out for Spain to fetch Blanche of Cajlile her Grand-daugh- liament, and demanded an Aid of three Shillings upon "J"^'
ter, who was to be married to Prince Lewis. As the every Hide of Land, for the Dowry of Blanche of Cajlile ™Jned'-witb
Kingdom of France was then under an Interdict, fhe con- his Niece, according to his Agreement with Philip. This/™, diffi-

demand met at firft with great oppofition. People could Jr-J".
not underftand what bufinefs the Englijh had to pay the M p^
Dowry of a Spani/h Princefs, to marry her to a French
Prince. Neverthelefs, as it was the firft Aid he had de-
manded, it was not thought proper to deny it. But it
was confented to with fo much reluctance, that he ealily
faw how difficult it would be for the future to raife Mo-
ney upon the People, unlefs he rendered himfelt abfolute.
And this, it is pretended, he began from that time to la-
bour to effedt.

Mean while, Geoffrey his natural Brother, who was Tee Archit-
Archbifhop ot York, making light of the Confent of the ;*'/"/ Vork
States for this Tax, forbad the Colleftors to levy it with-|^'*
in his Diocefe. Nothing could be more groundless than the Snh/idy.
the Archbifhop's Pretentions. He had no right to oppofe Hoved.
what was refolved by the Body of the Nation. But he M
was a turbulent and ambitious Perfon, who wanting to let
himfelf forward, would have been very glad to find himfelf

duelled the young Princefs to Roan, where the Nuptials
were folemnized. All the Articles of the Treaty being
executed, except the delivery of Berry and Auvergne, to
the Prince of France, John faithfully performed his En-
gagement. Thus the two Courts parted, in appearance,
in perfecT: Union.

Mean while the Emperor, offended at the Peace made
without confulting him, fent AinbaHadors to the King his
Uncle to upbraid him, and to demand withal fome Jew-
els, left him by King Richard in his Will (4). But as
John had no farther occafion for his affiftance, he found
Reafons or Pretences to difpenfe with giving him f.uis-

If John faithfully executed his part of the Treaty, Phi-
lip was no lefs punctual to perform whatever he had pro-
mifed. He beheld with a fceming Unconcern, the Progtefs
of the King of England, who taking advantage ot Arthur's
Weaknefs, difpofielled him of all the Provinces that were

M. Paris, p. 199. Hoved. p.
Ann. Burt, p. 2$S. Hoved.


(1) May 22. Hvescd. p. So?. (1' Thirty thoufand.

(3) She was Daughter of Aiphr,r.jus VIII, ar.d Eleanor Daughter of Henry II. Rapist.

(+) A; alio the Earldomsof York and PoiBcu, which he laid the late King Richard had given him.

(cl M. Paris lays, the King ot France advil'ed King 'John to marry her, p. zoo.

(61 IJabelta was crowned at Wejhnin/hr, OcJober 8. M. Paris, p. 200. An. If avert p. 166.

(7) In October, Hailed, p. 810. and ordered, That Wine ot Ptnitou ihoold not be f"ld in England for 3bnv<: twenty Sellings per Tun; Win? of Anjta
not above tour and twenty .Shillings ; and French Wine not above five ar.d twenty Shillings. And by retail, that Pcidcu Wine lit. old not be .old abc »e Four
pence a 'Juan , and White-wine, Six-pence. But this Older being found too drift, it was afterwards initiated, and People were allowed ro fell Red-wine
Si* pence a Quart, and What E'ght-pence. Hroirf. p- 796, 797. Ann. Burt.n. p. is,"-


Book VIII.

7. J O H N.




feeonded. John never expected to meet with oppofition
from that Prelate, after the fignal fcrvicc he had done
him during Richard's abfence, in delivering him from
Prifon, and openly efpoufing his caule againft Longchamp.
But however, notwithstanding the reafon he had to be
difpleafcd with him, he was willing to ufe him gently,
and therefore was contented with requiring him to attend
him in France, imagining that, by his abfence, this affair
would fall to the ground. But the Archbifhop refilling

gious contempt, the refuf.u not being foftened with the leaft 125c.
civility (;). Innocent III , who fat then in the papal
Chair, having refolved to deprive Princes of their Qiare
in the elections of Bifliops and Abbots, had taken mea-
fures beforehand to caufe the King's nomination to be
rejected. For this reafon doubtlefs, finding themfelves fe-
cure of the Pope's protection, the Canons ihowed ft) little
regard for their Sovereign.

Some time after, John received a frefh mortification. a ",'
to comply with his orders, furniihed the King with a Hubert Archbifhop of Canterbury, who had cxpreffed torn
pretence to feize his Temporalities. This punifhment great an attachment for him, loft it when the rights o(J ^f-] f p r '.

the Clergy, and the privileges of his See, came to be i'J'f,,[„, '"
fupported. Hitherto there had been no Synod held in M. Pari ■
England without the King's licence. This was a defc- H o V 'o
rence paid the King without being thought injurious to p
the Church or Clergy, iiut it feems Innocent III, moun-
ting the papal Throne at thirty five years of age, form-
ed the project of depriving Prince, of every thing that
looked like jurifdiction over the Church. Hiibert, inform-

was not capable of humbling his daring fpirit. He ex-
communicated the Sheriff' of the County of York ( 1 ),
with all his Officers employed in levying the Tax, and
laid his whole Diocefe under an Interdict, becaufe the
People were not forward to fupport him. He flattered
himfelf that the whole Kingdom would be ready to de-
clare for him. But when he faw no body ftir, and him-
Z»l<Z~" - 1 felf left to ad alone, he fought means to be reconciled

it irawred

11. 8ll.

M- Paris.


j4h titter.

tvjeen tie

to the King. The prefent juncture was favourable to ed of this defign, and directed by the Pope, began the

him. John, being about to be crowned with his new firft to difregard the King's commands. He not only

Queen (2), thought it unbecoming, at fuch a Scafon, to convened a Synod without asking his lew, but even

retufe a Brother the pardon he defired. held it notwithftanding the King'; pofitivc prohibition by

Immediately after the King's Coronation, Hugh Bi- his Jufticiary (S). Probably, the little refentment ex-

fhop of Lincoln dyed at London, with the reputation of prefled by the King at this boldnefs, was veiy prejudicial

fandity. t0 him afterwards. It was cafy to fee, that, terrified by

Since the death of Richard, the King of Scotland was the example of the King his Father, he refolved to avoid

very importunate for the restitution of the two Counties, all occafions of quarrel with the Clergy. His enemies

to which he b'vl claim. He had been often amufed with made a very ill ufe of this knowledge on more important

En'sUnlw general promifes, that were never performed. At length, occafions. Hubert, not content with thus flighting the 1201.
Scotland at finding there was no hafte made to content him, he orders of his Sovereign, endeavoured to equal him in H " h "\ m "

Aft- Pub.
T. I. p-121
lA. Talis.

of treating by Ambaffadors, he believed he fhould do bet-
ter by talking in Perfon with William ; and for that
purpofe defired him to come to Lincoln (3), where he went
The King r/ himfelf to meet him. Before the Negotiation began (4),
Scotland dm J /j n required William to do him homage. To which

U« m nv, ta •£ * . °

homage to






openly threatned to do himfelf juftice by force of arms, fome meafure, and even to furpafs him in magnificence. &,„
Whereupon, John could no longer reftife to fet about this Whilft the King was celebrating the Feaft of Chriflmafs M. Paris-
affair, which began to make him uneafy. But, inftead at Guilford with great folemnity, the Archbifhop affected M °t, c,l ' Wc rt

to do the fame thing at Canterbury, with fuch pomp and
fpendor that the King was piqued at it, ar.d confidered it
as a fort of Bravado. To punifh in fome meafure the The IGntii
Archbifhop's vanity, he caufed himfelf to be crowned crnv "" 1 e

/-. , -|L/*1 • r ■ i • third tint.

again at Canterbury, with the (ole view or putting him M . p r

William confenting, the ceremony was performed on a to a very great expence. But this petty revenge ferved Ho«d.

Hill (5), without the City, in the prefence of the Archbi- only to fhow, how much the King dreaded to attack di- An- Burton.

{hop of Canterbury, who adminiftred the Oath of Fealty redly thofe who were in credit.

to the valla! King. It is not known for what Lands If the Treat)' John had made with France, gave his Tie EngliOS
William did this Homage. As the Scotch Writers have Subjects an ill opinion of him, his behaviour after his c" difcn-
not pofitively determined the matter, the Englijh infer it return into England did not help to undeceive them. Knightcn
Rmath af- was for the whole Kingdom of Scotland. But this infe- Molt of the Barons were not over-fatisfied of the good-
■*■ rence is not altogether juft. Befides, it is unlikely this nefs of his title to the Crown. If they had taken the
Prince fhould voluntarily return to the Vaftalage, from Oath to him, it was upon condition he would reftore
which he had been freed by King Richard, before his the privileges of the Nobles and People. But in vain
departure for the Holy Land. And indeed it does not ap- had they expected the performance of this promife, ever
pear there was any alteration in this refpect, fince Richard fince he was clear of the War, wherein he was at firft
by an authentick Charter had renounced his right of So- ingaged. On the contrary, they faw him daily ufurping ?*« Rtajmi
John thiftt vereignty over Scotland. Be this as it will, the Homage an arbitrary power, which made them apprehenfive of z'fff'^^f
aft tie King being done, the King of Scotland would have moved his defign upon their Liberties. They were now highly dif- Hoved.
^"Scotland! a ff a ; r> but the King had the addrefs to refer it till ano- pleafed with the aid he had obtained by a fort of com- Fa-
ther time, pretending he could do nothing without the pulfion. After that, he was feen to ta'-e a progrefs into M ' i>i "''
confent of the States (6). He even obliged William to the North, where on pretence of trefpaffes on his Forefts,
fwcar he would not marry his Daughter without his ap- he had, contrary to the privileges of the People, arbitrarily
probation. exacted large fums from the northern Counties. To all
M.Paris. Whilft thefe two Monarchs were at Lincoln, the Body this he added frefh occafions ot complaint, by debaucb-
Hovid. of Hugh, late Bilhop of that Citv, being removed thither ing their Wives and Daughters, without regard to the
Diccto. from London, they both went forth to meet it, and for quality or merit of thole that were difhonoured by
fome time bore the Coffin on their fhoulders. thefe actions. All thefe things together bred in the minds
It was here likewife that the Ci/lercians, who refufed of the Barons a prejudice againft him, which induced

Tie Kiii^

rtccnrs tie to pay the late Tax, font to the King twelve Abbots, who them by degress to take meafures to avoid greater evils,

^7 %v"r fr"' n § P r °ff r ate at his Feet, humbly implored his mercy, which they believed themfelves threatned with

Huv'cd?" The King, ftruck with the fight, fell on his Knees and began to h

They Ttt tftiia
hold private conferences, where they agreed"/;' 1 *' 5

asked their blelTmg, promifing them to found an Abbey mutually to affift each other, in cafe anyone fhould oc'^f' 1

for their Order. Some time after he performed his pro- oppreffed. At thofe conferences it was refolved to em- Hovcd.

mile, and built the Abby of Bowley, cailed by fome Beau- brace the firft opportunity, to let the King know they An> Barton.

lieu in HampJiArc, which he endowed with the privilege never intended to fubmit to an abfolute power. An op- Hoved.

of fanctuary, and with large revenues. portunity prefented fooner than they expected. The An - Burro. -

TheCcmis ' ' le tefpeft mown by John to the Body of the Bi- PoicJeviw revolting, and the King defigning to go and chaf-

»f Lincoln fliop of Lincoln, and his condefcenfion for the Cijlercian tife them, fummoned all the Barons to appear with their

"''".'; „'l'' !rFl Monks, were not fufficient to gain him the affection of the arms at F:rtJ?nouth (y), to attend him into Fiance. The
1»»'l,7bj Clergy. He fancied, the Ecc'ehafticks, prepoflefled in his fa-

the King.


vour by the late proofs of his attachment to the Church,
would induftrioufly decline ail occafions of creating him >i;.-

Barons looking upon this as a favorable juncture, ailemblcd
at Lcicejler on fome pretence. A few days after they fent it~ r ,fu[i
this meffage to the King, That before they went over with 1 an tdtim
cafineis. But it was not long before he was lcnfible his him, they exported he Jhould re/lore to them their privilegi!, ,'.' ;,' "' c '
proceedings had not the effect he expected. The See of purfuant to his promife before his Coronation. John was Hovcd.''
Lincoln being vacant, the King, according to the cuftom of an impetuous temper , more capable of being govcr-
ot his Anceltors, recommended a Perfon to the Canons of ned by Counfels, agreeable to his Pafiions, than ot hear-
that Church. But though the Prince's nomination had kening to fober advice. Several of his Mihifters advi-
till thenajpeen always regarded, this was rejected with outra- fed him to gi\e the Barons fome Satisfaction, or at leaft

(1) Jjmn tit P'tcrTti. Hcftd. p. Sir. (i\ They were crowned, Ort-J-tr S. Hwid. p. S i r . See Note (6

(3) At a Parliament rwlden these, Brompt. p. i?S:t. H - fent the following Perfons to him with a Safe- conduct ; Pbilif, Bilhop ■
B<£°t, Earl of Acjolt ; 1 enry dc Bcbutn, Earl ot Hertford ; David, Earl of Huntington; Rcg.r dc L^fci, Conlhble 01 Cktfta ; «'./
Robert dr R-f, t the King of Scotland's Sons-in-law ; and Rotcr: Fuz- Roger, Sheriff of Nortbumtrrl. !r j; freed, p. Si 1.

(4) Which was on Nvvemb. 2 z, in the prefence of ihc qreat Men of both Nations, and in the Sight of all the Peop e. Bromft. p. i:Sj
See what perlons were witnclTes of ihis Homjge in Hoved. 'ibid. f 5 j Since called Bore bill*

;dj U du.im demanded all NortbumberUmd, Cumberland and WeflmoreUnd. Hcved. p. 811.

1 i ') Uiveden fays, the King would nominate one himfelf, and lae Canons infilled upon a free EU-ftion, p. Si 6.

;, p. 262.

11 Durham ; Roger
Uam de Vefci, and

Hoved. p. 811-

(%) Gaffrtf Fhx.!pr, Earl '.f Effex, lined, o. S*6,

(9) By Wbitjutiude, with HjuVs and Aiaii. tdtiti. p gi8.




Vol. I.


fome fair promifcs till their heat was fomewhat abated.
But he was not fo wife or fo fortunate as to follow their
wholfome advice. He was fo provoked at the infolence
of the Barons, that, without confidering he was going to
draw on himfelf their hatred by his violent meafures, he
demanded of them their Caitles as pledges of their Fi-
Ht attacks c j e ]j t y # At the fame time he marched himfelf, at the head
tioZZi,. of fome Troops, againft Beauvoir Cattle, which he took
in a few days(i). This firft fuccefs terrifying the Ba-
rons, who had not yet taken any meafures for their de-
fence, they faw themfelves under a neceffity of fubmit-
ting, and, having put their Children into his hands as
Hoftages, came to Portfmouth. Whether John pretended
to goand chaftife the Pohftevins, in order to have a pre-
tence to raife Money upon the Nobility, or was afraid to
leave the Kingdom at fuch a juncture, he difpenfed with
the Barons attendance, for two marks of Silver upon
every [Knight's] Fee. However, he fent the Earl of
Pembroke (2) with fome Troops into Normandy, and fol-

He dfifl-fis
iLitb their
M. Paris.
An. Burt.

verfions and entertainments with his new Queen, without 1202.
the leaft fufpicion of danger. He was roufed out of this
fupine careleilhefs, by Philip's haughty treatment at a fecond
Interview near Gaillon. The French Monarch, whofe
matters were ripe, talked very high. He demanded for Philip fim-
Arthur all King Johns Provinces in France, with reafon- "'"" -H""*

/•••(-.•- i-' appear be-

able fatisfachon for the Earl of Marche ; and in cafe ofy„, ,be
refufal, fummoned him to appear before the Court of Peers, Court of
and abide by their judgment. John was extremely fur- jZ^jcr.
prized, to hear him talk in fo different a (train from what dims bis
he had done at their late Interview. As' he did not think Citation.
his affairs were in fo bad a fituation, as to be obliged to
purchafe a Peace upon fuch hard terms, he refufed to
comply with Philip's demands, and difdained his citation.
His refufal furnifhed the King of France with the pretence Philip/a-
he wanted to invade Normandy, where he took feveral fade, Nor-
places(j) before John could oppofe his progrefs. m"p > ' "■

Towards the middle of Autumn, Philip fatisfied with Arthur Mo-
llis firft Campaign, returned to Paris, where he celebrated «'«»*» XSg

of Frr

lowed him in Perfon(',)> as foon as he thought he might the Nuptials of Mary his eldeft Daughter with Arthur. ' *™
. . . . ,• r . «:- „:_ .1 u.. »„ :..n.:c. u:_ c . i„_._u: "««£«.

do it with fafety.

Upon his arrival at Roan, Philip defired to have a
conference with him, in which he gave him fuch marks
of efteem and friendfhip, that a Prince of greater pene-
ikty crnfirm trat ; on than John, would have been deceived. At this In

p. 819.
An. Burt.

His aim was thereby to juftify his prefent undertaking,
under colour of maintaining the caufe of his Son-in-law.
A few days after, Arthur departed, attended with two Goes to
hundred Lances, to take upon him the command of the Pwflou ;
revolted Poiilevins. When he came near Poiilou, he was andbejieget

cr terview the Treaty was renewed, and feveral great Lords informed, that Queen Eleanor his Grandmother was in Mirabel,
of both Courts were reciprocallyjnade Sureties, who pro- Mirabel with a weak Garrifon, upon which, refolving to M n ,w"l' a .


mifed to ferve againft the aggreffor, in cafe of a rupture furprize that place, he marched directly thither (6), and

between the two Kin"s. But fuch engagements, though foon became mafter of the Town. But it was otherwife

very common in thofe days, were hardly ever obferved. with the Caftle, where the Queen was retired.
And therefore Princes have long fince ceafed to give The refiftance he met with, making him fenfible it M. Paris.

one another the like Securities, which they have fo of- would be difficult to carry the place with fo few Troops,

ten found to be unferviceable. Before they parted, the he called the Earl of Marche to his afliftance, who ran

two Monarchs agreed to contribute the fortieth part of to the expedition, as to a certain Victory.

their Revenues "to the Holy War ; and exhorted the Mean time, King John, who had received intelligence J<*M'« «•

wealthieft of their Subjects to follow their examples, of his Mother's danger, was marching day and night to 1". p/174-

Philip not content with carefling John in an extraordi- her relief. His fpeed was fuch, that he approached his An. Waver,

nary manner, defired the favour of his company for fome enemies before they had made any great progrefs in the Ml Weft -

days at Paris, where he lodged him in his own Palace. Siege. However, it was in their power to retreat, but

In fhort, he omitted nothing to convince him he had a the anirrofity of the two Leaders againft John, made

real affection for him (4). them refolve to give him Battle. The fuccefs anfwered

Intrigues of The friendfhip which the two Monarchs had mutually not their expectations. Upon the firft onfet, John routed ranquijbet

Phil.p a- ("worn to preferve, feemed indeed likely to prove firm and the Poiiievin Troops, and drove them back to Mirabel, A " h "'' ani

gninjl John. ] a rjj n g ? f lnce their engagement was entirely voluntary, where he made a great (laughter (7). This Victory was *££aur

And yet, it quickly appeared, that Philip's carefTes to rendered (til! more compleat by the taking of the Duke -w,tb Elea-

his pretended friend, were only to enfnare him. At the of Bretagne, the Princeis Eleanor his Sifter (8), the Earl ™*"

p. 828.

Philip in-
-jite, John
to Paris.

again/1 birr.
M. Paris.

— " (S — 1 * * — — — •" ~ " •" - •— — — - \ /, — - — * ~ a

of Marche, and two hundred Knights, who fell into the >J "'
hands of the Conqueror. John believed he had reafon to
rejoice at fo favorable fuccefs. But the ill ufe he after-
wards made of it, rendered it fo fatal, that it would have
been better for him to have been vanquifhed. Arthur was Arthur it
immediately fent to Falaife, and the Princefs Eleanor his finite Fa-

Sifter to Briftol Caftle. in" England, where (he was con- ^'noTo
fined forty years. Some of the French Writers give ano- Briftol.
ther idea of this action, and fay only that Arthur was Mezerai.
furprized in Mirabel, from whence it may be inferred
that he went not out to fight his Uncle. But King John's Aft. Puk,
Letter to England after the Victory, extant in the Col-

very time he was giving him all thefe marks of affection,
he was projecting to deprive him of all his Dominions in
He hints, i? France. Hugh Earl of Marche was his inftrument to
the Earl of begin to bring matters to the point he defired. This Earl
could not without extreme concern, fee King John in pof-
feffion of a Lady that was defigned for him. To this
was added a deep refentment of the injury received.
Thefe things gave room to prefume, he would eagerly
emb.ace any opportunity of being revenged. Philip form-
ing his fcheme upon the Earl of Marche's inclination,
fpared no pains to excite him to revenge, affuring him
of a powerful afliftance. As foon as the Earl was fecure

of the protection o r France, he began by fecret cabals to letlion of the Pullick Ails, (hows that it was fomething
corrupt the Poiilevins. He fucceeded fo well, that in a more than a furprize, and confirms what the Englijh Hif-
fhort time they were all ready to rebel againft King John, torians fay of it. Philip was fo confounded at the news
for whom they had no affection. Upon "which Hugh, ap- of Arthur and the Earl of Marche being made Priibners,

Philip and plying himfelf to the young Duke of Bretagne, gave him that he raifed the Siege of Arqites, begun fome days be-

garl Hugh. tQ un derftand, the time was come, that he might with fore (9), and returned to Paris.

eafe wreft from his Uncle the Provinces he had feized. John was very impatient to fee the Duke his Nephew, John goan
Arthur being informed by the Earl, that the King of in order to perfwade him to renounce the protection of £" la ' r<; '.
France had in^a^ed to fupport him, was of opinion, he France. He hoped by that means to deprive Philip cf the
ought to embrace fo favorable an opportunity. The Brc- pretence, he perpetually ufed to involve him in Wars.
tons, his Subjects, readily joined in the Confpiracy, by To that end, he immediately went back to Normandy,
reafon of their wood opinion of their Prince. They ima- not at all queftioning but Arthur, in his prefent condition,
eined his name was a good omen, and for no other rea- would gladly embrace the opportunity of being reconciled
fon verily believed, he would gain as great a reputation as to him. Upon his arrival at Falaife, he caufed him to He tries in
i 201. the famous Arthur, whofe name he bore. Thus the love, be brought before him, and in a very kwid and obliging - ""'"» £•"*

Afitcmt / "- jealoufy and refentment of the Earl of Marche, the ambi- manner, endeavoured to perfwade him to relinquiih the King J^'p"^

ttrvstmU. t j on Q f j rt f jur ^ an d the avarice of Philip, confpired to of France. He reprefented to him, that Philip, under colour p. i 74 .

not, Kings. King John's ruin. Mean while, he fpent his time in di- of protecting him, had only his own intereft in view, and, M. Weftm.

Arthur I'Jins '


(1) But William dc Aubeney, the Owner of it, giving his Son for an Hoftage, remained in pniTelTion of the Caftle. Roved, p. 8 iS This year Wil-
liam de Stttteoille war made .Sheriff of Torkjhtre. Ibid.

(2) William Marefiall, Earl of Striguil and Pembroke, and Roger de Lc.fi i Conftable of CbeJIer, with two hundred Sold'crs. Ufed. p. St 9. .He alb
delivered to Hubert de Burg, his Chamberlain, one hundred Knights or Horl'emcn, to defend the borders of England and Wales. Ibid.

(3) In Wbitjun Week. Ibid

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 111 of 360)