M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

The history of England : written in French (Volume 1) online

. (page 112 of 360)
Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 112 of 360)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


(4.) In order 'to eftablilh a lading Peace, it was agreed between them, That if either of the two Kings went about to renew the War, the Barons of both
Kingdoms, who were Guarameesof the Peace, ihould immediately join and declare againft the Prince that iVuld attempt to break it, timed, p. Si;.

M. Paris, p. 206. Ann. Burton, p. 262. This year Walter de Lacy, a powerful Nobleman in Ireland, under pretence of holding a Conference With

John de Curd Earl of U/fier, fell upon him, killed abundance of his Men, and purlutd him ; the Earl, in his flight, being invited by Hugh, Brother to
Walter de Lacy, to take flicker in his Caftle, was there detained Pril'oncr. But his adherents wafted the Lands of Walter and Hugh dc Lacy, till the
£arl was relealed. However, on Good-Friday following, when the fame Earl was ttoing unarmed and barefcot in Pilgrimage to a Church, he was ttca-
cheroufiy taken Prifoncr by his own people tor a fum of Money, and delivered to Hugh de Lacy, by whom he was fent Prifoner to King Jobn: Who
thereupon bellowed en (hit. Hugh de Lacy the Earldom of Ulfter, and Lotdfkip of Ccmmgbt, which belonged to Join de Cures, ha ing been conquered by him
in the Rcien of Henry II. Hived, p. 8x3. ,_-.,.. .

(5) Butavant, Augi, Gurnets, Sec. M. Pan,, p. 207. (6) Wtth Jeefrey de Ltz.tr.an. At-.. Wtroerl. p. 167.

(7) He entered the Caftle w:th the flying Tioops. M. Pari,. This Viftoty King John obtained on Ang. I. A. Margan, p. 13.

(S) She was called the Beauty of Bretagne. M. Paris fays, moft of the Nobility of lotclou and Ar'y.u were made prifoner! in this cattle, p. 1 7$., Twi
and twenty of them were imprifoned in Corf caftle, and there ftarved to death. An. Margao, p. 13.

(9) He beficged it lor about a Foitnijhtj and in his return to Paris, burnt (evejal Villages and Msnaftniei, fa. M. Paris , p. i'-.



3



by



Book VIII.



7. [OH N.



65



1202. by his Conduct hitherto, it was cafy to fee what he was
to expect from /ucji a Proteclor. He tried to make him
fenfiblc, it was equally his Duly and Intereft, to adhere to
an Uncle, who found his own advantage in iupporting
him, and dclired nothing fo much as to live in a good Un-
derftanding with him, and gave him marks of his Affecti-
on. In fine, he bid him confider that in his prefent Cir-
cumftances, his good or ill Fortune depended entirely on
the Perfdn that was fuing lor hi-; I'i icndfhip. The young
Prince, who was not yet well infirutSted in the maxims of
Politicks, the chief of which is. Diflimulation, could not
to conceal his Sentiments. Inflcad of accepting the
v , , offers, he took the freedom to upbraid him with
ufttrping the Crown of England, as well as the Provinces of
France. Without confideririg that lie lay at his Mercy,
he was fo tranfported with Paffion, as to threaten, that to
the hi/l A loir Life be would never eeafe feeking occa-

/;;;.' to be revenged. Alter fo plain a Declaration, John
defpairingoi overcoming his obftinacy, ordered him to be
conducted to Roan, and confined in the new fewer un-

r. coggftil. j er t ] le carc f Robert de Vipont. It is pretended, that,
purfuant to the advice of fome of his Counfellors, the
King intended to put out his Eyes, and render him unca-
pable 0!' having Children, in order to free himfelf from all
uneafinefs on his account, but was difappointed by thole
who were to be the Agents. However this be, a few
days after the young Prince was brought to Roan, he
difappeared on a fudden, and it could never be known
for certain what became of him. The King's Friends re-
ported, that Arthur, endeavouring to efcapc out of Prifon,
was drowned in the River Seine. But very k\v gave
credit to this report. On the contrary, it was the gc-
• neral opinion, the Prince was murdered by the command

''"''••:• of the King his Uncle (1 1. There are even fome Hifto-

VV. Bub'.



■'



Duke's
;,. Pans.



f) 1 1. Id.



He iifif-

pr.i'S.
It. Paris,



J hn



them ampie Juftice. Ti -

to the Bretons, who burned with defirc to revenge the
death of their Duke. Guy de Tbouars, Huiband of 1
deceafed Duchcfs, and Guardian of JBice her Daughter,
aflembled the Nobility of Ufitagru at Vannet upon thi :
occauon. At this Meeting it was unanimoufly rcfolved to
apply to the King of France for Juftice. Purfuant to th
Rcfolution, the Bifljop of llames, and another Lord we.
commiflioncd to carry their Complaints to Philip, who "
gave them a very gracious Anfwer. He appeared more Bret '
incenl'ed againfl John than the Bretons themfelyes, and
openly declared, that ncitlicr Honour, nor Juftice, nor
Confcience would fuffer iiim to let fuch a Parricide go un-
punifhed. To fliow his Threats were not in vain, he ' "«"/«»-
himfelf demanded Juftice of the Court of Peer:, before*™
whom he difplayed the barbarity of the Murder committed fW
on the Body of the Duke of Bretagne, in a Place held < I ' : ''-' ■
the Crown of France, and of which the King ol ,,/ A "' M " 8 '™'

his Vaffal was accufed. It was not difficult to obtain what-
ever he dcfired. The Court ordered John to appear be-
fore them, and anfwer to what was laid to his Char]
Upon the receipt of the Summons, John immediately dii n rri,
patched Ambail'adors to Philip (5), to reprefent to him, ylr
that their mailer could not come to France without a Safe-
conduct ; to which the King anfwercd, He nay come in P
Peace. But when the Ambafladors demanded aSafe-o
duel; .for his return, he roundly told them, that depended
on the Sentence which Jhould be faffed upon him. Then tl
Ambafladors remonfl rated, their mafter w;;s not onlv
Duke of Normandy, but alfo King of England ; and tl
he himfelf fliould think fit to c:cpofe his Perfon to fo ma-
nifeft a danger, the Barons of the Realm would never
confent to it : What is it to me ? replied Philip ; is not
the Duke of Normandy my Vaffal ? ]f he has thought fit to



' a . nans (a) who relate the Circumftances of his death. They acquire a higher Title, ought I -upon that account to ■'
tcil us, that John himfelf, in a very dark night, came in Right of Sovereignty ! The Ambafladors plainly percei' 1



;i Coat to the foot of the Tower where his Nephew was
in cuftody, and caufing him to be brought before him,
itabbed him with his own hand, and ordered his Body
to be thrown into the Seine, fome Leagues below the
Town (3). In whatever manner this Prince's death hap-
pened, it is certain John never fully cleared himfelf of it.
There was fo much the more reafon to believe him guilty,
as he made no Inquiry into it, which he fhould have done
with great ftiiclncfs, had he not been concerned.

The fame year, the Pope demanded a fortieth part of
all the Ecclefiaftical Revenues in England, towards- the
charge of the Holy War.

Immediately after the death of Arthur, John returned
into England, and caufed himfelf to be crowned a fourth
time (4), after which he repaffed into Normandy. He
found, the report of the Duke of Bretagn/s murder was
every where fpread, with Circumftances very injurious to
his Reputation and Honour ; and yet he was in no hafte
to difcover the manner of the Prince's death. For which
reafon all the World was convinced, he himfelf was the
Author of that barbarous deed. The Bretons efpecially
complained of the tragical death of their Sovereign. They
',1'J'pX'' maintained, if John did not kill him with his own hand,
L7a,"ii'r- it was at leaft evident, the murder could not be com mi t-
reJt.oly ted without his confent, or even his orders. The King
Fnmcf "^ oi F''"» ce -> w ^o wanted to improve this juncture, exafpe-
1: Emylius. rated them as much as poffible, by means of his Emiffaries.
He caufed it to be fuggefted to them, that in cafe they
applied to him, as John's Sovereign Lord, he would do



M. Paris,

p. 174.



John r.
crowned a

fourth lire.
Id. p. 175-,



The Bretons



Philip was refolved to pufh the affair, retired without
making any Anfwer, and returned with all fpecd to in-
form their mafter how the Court of France ftood affected.

As foon as the time appointed in the Summons w
expired, Philip caufed John to be condemned for Non
appearance, and ordered all his Dominions in France to he ' »*««»■
united to the Crown. It is remarkable, that in the Sen- Jj'^g,
'tence (6) there is not a word of the fatisfaction due to the
Bretons for the death of their Sovereign, though they were
Parties in the affair, and Philip feemed to concern him-
felf in it only upon their account. This is a clear Evi-
dence, his aim was not fo much to do them Juftice, as
to make ufe of this occafion to difpoffefs the Kings of Eng-
land. The Englijh loudly murmured at thefe Proceedings,
and the more, becaufe the King being actually in War
with France, he was under an abfolute neceflity of not ap-
pearing, both by being fummoned before Peace was con-
cluded, and denied a Safe-conducl for his return. But
without troubling himfelf about their Complaints, Philip
endeavoured to put the Sentence in execution (7).

Whilft the King of France was making his Preparation?, 1203.
John took no meafures for his defence. He prepofteroufly rhil; P »■-
considered the Sentence as a Bravado of Philip's,, and not
as a fixed rcfolution to invade his Dominions. Mean
time, as foon as the Seafon permitted, the King of France
took the Field at the head of a powerful Army, and as he
met with very little oppofition, reduced the beft part of and -
Normandy to his Obedience. The progrefs of his Arms pi*'ptt f
was uncapable of roufing King John, who feeming infenli- M '



(1) Nottmulto poft Arihurus fubito evanuit, modo fere omnibus igncto, utinam non ut Fama refirt ilrvida. M. Paris, p. 174.

fii Particn'arly Will, Bnto de Gift. R. Pbilp. p- 166, 167. The A». Margan lay, that his body was fnund by Fiihcrmen, and privately buried in

the Monaftery of St. Mary deiprex. p. 43.

(*•) D'ar^ertrc gives lh : s account of D- Arthur's death. 'John leading his Nephew afrei him, like a Lamb to the Slaughter, brought h'm frm
j, , for more privacy and better opportunities ro difpatch him. There, late in the Evening, followed only by a tew, he got on Honcb tk,

he Pfinc ride before him. Then leaving his Attendants behind, he went on along the G>alt, till he tad found a place fit for hrs purpele, v.
was a high Cliff hanging over the Sea. Being got there with the Prince, he fpuricd his Horle up ro h'm, and with his Swuid ran h-m through the I
the poor Prince cry i nc; rn vain lor mercy. That done, he pulled him to the ground, and dragging him by the Feet to the brink ot the 1 rcsipice, flung
him into 'be Sea, not being vet cj-iite dead, nor was the body ever feen afterwards, lift, de Brctag. c. 78. p. 211.

(4.) April 14, it Canterbury. M. lam, p. 208. M. Weftm. p. 164.

(5) Euftact I ifhop of Ely, and Hubert de Burgh. M. Farii, p. 183.

[6 f. .'Ennliui, in his Life r,f Philip, has recorded the Sentence to this effect: That J' hn Duke of Nrrmandy, being unmirdful of bis 0a' : ■ Pi

red bis elder Brothers Son, an Homager to the Crtnvn of France, tvitbin the Seignory rf that Kingdom; vsBenuf n be is judged a Trtyl -.
ar.d ai an Enemy to the Cr:,wn of France, to forjeit all bis Dominions which be held by Homage, and that Re-entry be made by force of Amu. f'auius JsZ-
zoil. de vita PhllippL

(7) This year King John caufed the fallowing Affize of Bread to be proclaimed through the whole Kingdom. It was to be 10, as that the B?kr*
might gain in every Quartet Three- pence, belides the Bran, and two Loaves at the Oven j wiih the following allowances : F- r tour Servants, Two pence ;
tor two Bevs, a Farthi gj for Salt, a Half penny J for Vert, a Half penny J for Candle, a Farthing ; for Wocd, three Farthings, for bruiting, a H..:-
penny. Then follows the Affize. When Wheat is fold lor lix Shillings the Quarter, then a Farthing white Le>af, well baked, lhall weigh fixtccn l
lings ; and a brown one of the fame price twenty four Shillings.

At five Shillings and Sixpence a Quarter, the Farthing white Loaf (hall weigh twenty Shillings, and the brown twenty e : ght Shi

At five Shillings, the while twenty-four Shillings, the brown thirty two Shillings.

At feur Shillings and Six-pence, the white thirty two Shillings, the brown forty-two Shillings.

At Pour Shillings, the white thirty fix Shillings, the brown forty- lix Shillings.

Ar three Shillings and Six pence, the white torty-two Shillings, the brown fifty- four Shillings.

At three Shillings, the white- forty-eight Shillings, the brown fifty four Shilling*.

At two Shillings and Six-pence, the white fifty-tour Shillings, the brown fevemy-two Shillings.

A vol hillings, the white fury two shillings, the brown four Hounds.

At Eighteen pence, the white leventy-feven Shillings, the brown four 1'ounds eight Shillings.

The Reader, 'o h ve a ri| 'it noli.m of thefe Weights, is to take notice, That Silver was then but at Twenty-pence an Ounce, every Pound being at
me a pound Weight ( whereas now every p. und of- Silver makes three Pounds Sterling : ) And accordingly, the Weigh: ot every Shilling was then
the twentieth p.trt 1 f a round. HI. t'aris, p. soS.



.



No 14. V 01. I,



X



x x



Vx



266






I hn'J

$■ jrvc jl'jtb-
fulnefs,
M. Paris-



The H I S 'I R Y of ENGLAND.



Vol. I



ble of his Loffes, thought of nothing but his Diverfions ( i ),
as if his affairs had been in the moft profperous condi-
tion. When News were brought him that Philip had
taken fuch a Place, he only replied with great confidence,
Iwillfion newer it again. However, without ftirrmg
from Roan, or making the leaft Preparations, he gave his
Enemy time to fecure, and daily inlarge his Conquefts.
In fine, he carried his Infenfibility fo far, that the People



Philip fent one into England as his Champion, who dial- ( 204.
lenged all that mould maintain the King his mafter was
in the wrong, for what he had done againft John. The
Court of England did not think fit to commit to the de-
cifion of a fingle Combat, their Right to complain of the
King of France's Proceedings. However, this valorous yi<
Champion was given to underftand, that fince he was fo '



Irift

/ 11 to



Mezen

An Wa«rl faidpublickly, he ivas beivitched. 'It is eafy to judge what
difficulties Philip would have met with in his Undertaking,
if he had been to deal with a lefs flothful Enemy, by the
Refiftance of one fingle Place called CaJlle-GaiUiard, which
coft him a five months Siege (2).
7ht En^ih The EngKfi Barons who attended the King into Nor-
Bann, leave m andy, earneftly befought him to exert himfelf. But
finding he was deaf to all their Remonftrances, they re-
turned to England, tired with being witneffes of his invin-
cible Sloth. Mean time, Philip taking advantage of his
Indolence, daily gained ground (3). Not content with what
he obtained by his Arms, he endeavoured, by his Emiffa-
ries, to ftir up in Normandy a general R.evolt, which might
give him opportunity of becoming at once mafter ot the
v. hole Provinces. He caufed it to be intimated to the Nor-
mans, that feeing they could hope for no affiftance from
England, it would be'better for them to return freely to
the Crown of France, from whence they were wrefted,
than be compelled to it by Arms : That by a voluntary
Submiffion, they would be fure to preferve their antient
Privileges, whereas a Reiiftance, which could not but
prove ineffectual, would infallibly deprive them of their Li-
berties. In however deep a Lethargy King John feemed
to be buried, his Prefence kept feveral of the principal
Cities of Normandy in Obedience. But the moment they
faw him about to depart for England, they thought it
lawful to provide for their fafety. Hardly was he em-
barked (4), before they concluded a Treaty with Philip,
obliging tbemfelves to own him for their Sovereign, pro-
vided thev were not relieved in a year. But when they
heard there were no Preparations making in England, moft
of them came in before the year was expired. Thus, of



bis Englifli
SssbjeSs ..7.
M. Paris,
v. 2.0.



and return

Philip n.

ttntiet bt\

toitb tut ip

t i' ■' •'"■
M. I'aris.



Id. p. 209.



He makes a
'Ireit? liiitb 1
tie Nor-
mans*
hid.



VIIUIIIl'lVII . . 44 ' t.1 . l-ll *.V^ U 1 1 — N- > 1 1.14 • I 1 . L I 1 v. I I t > •- ■_■ l._ V ,k J(^

defirous of fighting, a Man fhould be found with whom p
he might try his Strength. There was then confined in the
Tower, an Irijh Lord, John Curcy by name (6), Earl of
Uljler, a Perfon of gigantick Stature, and of known in-
trepidity, who was judged very proper to quell the French
Hector. The Prifoner being brought to Court, the
King asked him, whether he would fight in his Caufe ?
No, not in thine, anfwered the Earl fiercely, but the King-
dom's Right I will fight to the lajl drop of my Blood. But
whillt he was recovering his Strength, which was much
impaired by a long Iniprifonment, the French Champion
hearing of the prodigious Strength of his Adverfarv, pri-
vately withdrew into Spain, not daring to appear any
more either in France or England. It is related of this
fame Earl of Uljler, that afterwards being in France in the ' .
Englifli Army, Philip, at a Conference with John, dcfntd'o/tU Em
to fee fome Trial of his Strength. The Earl being come
into the prefence of the two Kings, ordered a lanre Stake
to be fixed in the ground, on which was placed a Helmet.
Then looking round with a menacing Afpect, he cut the
Helmet in two pieces with his Sword. The Blow was
fo violent, that the Sword ftuak fo faft in the Stake, that
none but himfelf could remove it. Philip asking him,
why he looked round fo fiercely, he made anfwer, that in
cafe he had miffed his Blow, he would have cut oft' the
Heads of all the Spectators, that no Man living might be
witnefs of his Shame.

What Philip could not compafs by a fingle Champion, Philip <«*«
he performed bv the help of many. Towaro's the end of Roar >-
Autumn, he laid Siege to Roan, the Citizens whereof fee- J^™'
ing no likelihood of being relieved, furrendered upon con-
dition they fhould enjoy their antient Privileges. But a^
a famous Hiftorian judicioufly obferves, This Precaution >;, .■„..




giving the Normans the affiftance they expected. Upi
his arrival in England, inftead of trying by all forts of
ways to gain his People's Aftedion, fo neceflary at that
iuncture, he charged his Barons with deferting him, and
occafioning the lofs of Normandy. Under this pretence,
the moft unreafonable that ever was, he extorted from
his Barons the feventh part of their moveables, and though
he had not the fame caufe of Complaint againft the
Clerey, made them liable to the fame Impofition. Hu-
bert Archbifhop of Canterbury, was himfelf his Inftrument
in oppreffing the Clergy, whilft the Jufticiary rigoroufly
exacted the^Money from the Laicks. All England beheld
with aftonifhment the King's Indolence. They could
not conceive that a Prince, who till then had not wanted
Courage, and appeared exceedingly attached to his In-
terelC could fee Normandy loft with fo much indifference.
So ftrange a Conduit made moft of the Englijh imagine,



agan

to that Monarchy, after a three hundred years fepara-
tion (7).

Aftej the Conqueft of Normandy, Phi lip invaded the The .-• -
reft of the Englifli Provinces (<S), which at length were l'?'"'"'" .
forced to fubmit to the Conqueror (9), after having in vain m. I
expected affiftance from England. Ot all that John's An- An. Wave.-l.
ceftors enjoyed in France, nothing remained but the
Duchy of Guicnnc, which Philip did not think fit to
invade.

Queen Eleanor, Widow of Henry IT, and Mother of Ds " b <■/
John, died this year in a very advanced Age. She had ,
the mortification, before her death, to behold the decline M,
of the Monarchy, to which fhe had given fo great a
Luftre, by the addition of fo many Provinces.



1 204.

<'. btaitlt
an aid for
lit War.
M. Paris.

He tries in
vain to make
Pe ice tuitb

Ph I.



tie contribute to his obtaining of the Parliament (5), an
Aid of two Mzrks and a half of every Knight's Fee,
which was granted, in expectation the Money would be
ufefully employed in the recovery of what he had lately
loft. But inftead of ufing this Aid, according to the In-
tention of the Parliament, he laid it out in vain Expences,
being fatisfied with fending Ambaffadors to France, to en-
deavour to procure a Peace. Philip, exajted with his
good Succefs, was fo far from leffening his Demands, that
he further required the Princefs Eleanor, Sifter of the late
Duke of Bretagne, for his fecond Son, with all the Terri-
tories the Englijh enjoyed in France for her Dower. This
demand could not but be rejected. John not only could
never refolve to give his Niece fuch a Dower, but it would
have been very dangerous to deliver Philip, a Princefs,
who, fince the death of the Duke her Brother, had the
fame Claim as he to the Crown of England. Thus the



So many and great Lofies, joined to the murmurs of I3 o-.
the Englijh, roufed John from his profound Lethargy. John re-
he had "fome 'great* defign in his head, which would be When leaft expefted, he feemed refolved ftrenuoufly to en- 1°'™^™
difcovered at a'proper Scafon. This notion did not a lit- deavour to regain both his ^Reputation, and the Territories "LpoitC

conquered by Philip. The Po'Ulcviris, difiatistied with M- Park.
being under the Dominion of the King of France, deter-
mining to revolt, fent to John for Affiftance. As he
imagined, all the other Provinces were in the fame mind,
he thought he could never have a fairer opportunity.
Wherefore he fummoned all the Barons to meet him witli
their Troops at Port/mouth, where he had ordered his Fleet
to be ready. But as he was going to embark, the Arch- l;
bifhop of Canterbury, and Earl of Pembroke, threw them- •
felves at his feet, befeeching him to defift from this E.\-



Ral. de



pediticn, which he could not expect to be fuccefsful. Cc
They reprefented to him, that neither in Poiclou, nor in An ■ ,-
any other neighbouring Province, had he any one Place to An.w«rwJ.



retire to in cafe of neceffity : That Philip would m„ke
War with too much advantage, fince he was mafter of all
the fortified Towns : That it was expofing himfelf to ma-
nifeft danger to truft the Poiilevins, who had fo olten de-
Negotiation broke off, and the Englijh reaped no Benefit ceived him, and pretended perhaps to invite him to their
from the Aid granted the King. affiftance, only to deliver him to his Enemy. In fine,

. ' Shortly after the departure of the Englijh Ambaffadors, they told him, that in an Enterprize of this nature, he

Franc

into EnVanJ f«l M. Pans fays, he continued at Caen, feafling magnificently with his new Queen, and lying in bed with her every nay till ! noon, p. i -c.

t>) l! was defended by Hugh, or Roger d? Lacy, Lonftable of CbeJIer ; who iignalized himfelf in the defence ct it. ice M. Peru, p. an. It v..
<V -.b 6. King Ricbard built it on the Rock of Andeli, on the Seine. * . .

(3) thigh de Gvmai furrendered to him the Caftle of Mo,,tf„t ; and Robert Fax. Walter, and Saer de gurnet the Town and Cadlc of Rdll, of which
they were Governors. M.Paris, p. 109. «

(4) He boded at Portjmoutb. December 6. Ibid. ( S ) 0%»Bfl». Al :£*/?* » J" ■ *• . f'* ,

!(•, This was the brave John de Curcy. who in the year 1177, conquered the Kingdom of Uljler in ijnluttd. iec C:r. Cambrcns. Hiber. exfugnata.
1. z. c. 16, 17 : and who had been treacheroufly taken Pr'loncr, as is related above, p. 164, Note (4 >

(l) It had been governed by twelve Dukes ot the Norman Race ( of which King 'John was the rt& J tot the fpace of three hondred and tw.- nty

.. >t Touraiiu An\ou and Pcitltu, with all the Cadles and Towns belonging r.-> them, except Roc belle, ''• star . and ffiorr. M. Fj-u,
; (O.J Through the Treachery or ill Conduit of miliar, dt Hunut, whom King John had made Cowrow of Nerni<usdy. .-, //Vt •/. p. 168,

ii)



Book VIII.



7. JOHN.



267



M. Pari

p. 2.11..



[o vifihly hazarded his own life, with his and the Nati-
on's honour, that his faithful Subjects could not fee it
with indifference, but muft u(<; their utmoft endeavours
to divert him from it. Thefe remonftrances making no
imprefiion upon him, they talked in a higher ftrain, and
added fuch threats, that he was forced at laft to follow their
advice. Therefore, fuddenly altering his refolution, he
was content with fending fuccours to the PoiSlevins, un-
der the command of the Earl of Salisbury, his natural
Brother. After which, lie difmifTedjthe Army and Fleet,
who curfed the authors of this advice (1). He was no



Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 112 of 360)