M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Tbe Kittg't The Pope's rigour was infufficient to bring the King to
SncnVy a compliance. On the contrary, John, finding the Court
"ihrgy! of Rome had thrown off all regard for him, refolved to
W. Pari?, act with the fame haughtinefs, and make the Pope know
■**• Wa,cr1, he was able to withftand him. Purfuant to this refolu-
tion, he confifcated the Eftates cf all the Ecclefiafticks who
obeyed the Interdict, and fent orders to the Sheriffs to
make Inquiry after them, and expel them the Kingdom.
But the Sheriffs perceiving they could not execute the
King's Orders, without uling great violence, durft not
pufh matters fo far. So that, notwithftanding the King's
intention, none went out of the Kingdom, but fuch as ha-

ier to 'war

ving too zealoufiy efpoufed the Pope's quarrel, chofe rather i2c8.
to go into voluntary Banifhment, than remain expofed to
the King's Indignation. However, they who flayed, were
in no better Chcumftances : Outrages were daily commit-
ted upon them, for which they could find no redrefs from
the Magiftrates, who always fent them to the Pope for

As in thofe days there was fcarce a Prieft but what M. Park-
kept a Concubine, the King, under pretence of cauline r '' *\j ,
the Canons of the Council to be obferved, ordered all
their Concubines to be irnprifoned, who were forced to
pay great Fines- for their Liber ly. Among the great num-
ber of Ecclcliaflicks in the Kingdom, there were fome,
who in fpite of the Interdict, adminiflred the Sacraments.
But as they were inceffantly expofed to the Infults of the
Zealots, the King took them under his Protection, and
ordered fuch as fhould do them any outrage, to be hanged
upon the next Tree. The Pope w.is no fooner informed
of this, but he excommunicated all who difobeyed the In-
terdict, or executed the King's Orders. Such was the
wretched State of the People of England. Thofe that were
faithful to their Sovereign, fell under the Pope's Cenfures,
and the King took care to perfecutc thofe who fubmitted
to the Orders of Rome.

Whilft the Kingdom was in this fad fituation, Henry 1209.
Brother of Otho the Emperor came to King John, in the J onn /'"<''
beginning of die year 1209. The defign of his Journey eZ'{VoI'. '
was, to demand, for the Emperor his Brother, an Aid of M - Paris.
Money, which the King liberally granted him (5), though £ ft j p '| b '
he was himfelf in extreme want.

The Calamities of the Englijh moved neither the King John Imiei
nor the Pope. They both continued inflexible, each re- <•&■«" &•
folvine to run all hazards, rather than yield to his Adver- wy "" f

f t T -v ; • t lerce to

fary. However, John was not without his uneafinefs. againft
Indeed, he did not fear the Pope's Thunders with refpect Scotland,
to Spirituals. But he could not fee without extreme ^"'pa""'
trouble, the generality of the P«»p]e inclined to the Court M. Well!
of Rome. This obfervation infpiring him with a dread
that, fooner or later, fome Plot would be formed againft
him, he thought proper to prevent the defigns of his E-
nemiesj by raifing an Army. For a pretence, he com-
plained, that the King of Scotland, contrary to the Treaty
of Lincoln, had married one of his Daughters, without
his confent. It was eafy to forefee, that a Prince, who
had fuffered fa many Provinces in France to be taken,
without any refiftance, did not intend vigorously to pro-
fecute this War, upon fo flight an occafion. Accordingly u
he contented himfelf with the firft offers made him "by p\f"l\t,
the King of Scotland, to give him fifteen thou fan d &"£ of
Marks, and his two Daughters in Hoftage. In his re- Sc < > ll3nd -
turn from the northern Frontiers, where he had led his t. i. p.i«.
Army, he ordered all the Hedges to be cut down, and H < etaftifs
the Ditches to be filled up throughout lire Forefts, that {?'" • A
the Deer might have liberty to feed every where. In all m!"pj7:«
likelihood, the People of thofe Parts having too openly de-
clared for the Pope, he had a mind to punifh them for
it (6). Perhaps too^ he defigned to fhew the reft of his
Subjects, that in like cafe he would not want means to
chaftife them. When he came to Northampton (7), he
was met by the Prince of Wales, who, fearing he intend- Jfvfli'"'
ed to carry the War into his Country, made hafle to pre- J-« t,m
vent him by his Submiflion. This Prince accompanied Hcm H''
the King as far as H'oodjlock^ where he did him Ho- lb ' d "
mage (8).

The continuation of the Interdict was a clear Evidence ] c kn caufe,
to the King, that the Pope had no defign to defift from his MbitVtf.
Pretenfions, but would, upon this means not fucceeding f allt °";
ufe more violent methods. Wherefore, he judged it re- "ut-L'e"
quifite to take care before-hand, to fcreen himfelf from his Ibid.
Thunders. Nothing feemed to him more proper to fruftrate
the defigns of the Court of Rome (9), than to caufe his
Vaffals to renew their Homage. He hoped fo fecure them
by that Bond, and reltrain them from too readily joining
with the Court of Rome.

Mean while, the Pope perceiving, the Interdict, which T ,
had now continued above a year, did not anfwer his — - - £$ -
Expectations, refolved at length to pronounce upon John '■""'•
the Sentence of Excommunication, and committed the M ' Pari ''
Publication thereof to certain Bifhops (10). But as theft; p '" s "

(>) By Cod't Tettb. ( his ufual Oath. ) M. Pant, p. 226.

(2) He was born at Wtrxbefter , Otlcber !• 1207, Ann. Waver! p. 169. M. Wcji. p. 269. M. Parii, p. 225.

(3) January 5. M. IVefi. p. 269. (4) March 13. M. Pani, p. 126. M. Jf'iRm . p. 263.

(5) A thou land Marks. Rymer's Fad. Tom. i. p. 154.

(6) This yearal'.'o the King ilTued a Proclamation at Br:J!>l, fnibidding the taking of all forts of feathered Game throughout Englard.
M. Parity p. 227. Which was the firft Edicl of this kind made by any King be'ore, as fjrrel obferves, B. vii. p. 739.

(7) "Where he removed his Exchequer after Ajtcha.tmjjt, tecaule the Londoners had diiiibliged him. M. Pant, p. 227.

(8) An unlucky Acc.dcnt happpned at this time, which was a great pr-jud'ie to Oxford, and fcrves to (how the flourifliing Condition o
thole days. A certain Clerk having by chance kiileda Woman, made his efedpe. The Mayor coming to his Lodging, found three cthe
in the lame Houle which they had hired together. Thcfc be ng feized, weie a few days after, by the King's Order, hanged up, in Cci
clefiaftical Liberty ; upon which near three thoufard Scholars lift that Univeifity, fome goir.g to Cambridge, others tc Reading. M. Pa

(9) He made all the Freeho ders in Er.^Und, from twelve yeirs old and upwards, renew their Homage. The reafi n of his dning it,
feared the Pope (hould excommunicate him, and abfolve his Subjects from their Oa;h of Allegiance. M. Pant, p. 22S. M ll.Ji. p.

(10) Lordm, Ely, and Worcefier, who were to have it publifti-d every Sti-.day and Holiday in ill the Churches throughout EngLnd.

M. Wefi. p. 26S.

f the University in
Clerks that lived'
ntempt of the Ec-
i>. M. Heft.
was, that he daily
■ M Pari 1,

No. 14 V 1. I,

y y




1209. Prelates had ftill great' regard for the King, they did not
think fit to execute their orders with that readinefs the
Pope defired. However, the news of the King's Excom-
munication was' fo fpread over the Kingdom, that not a
Soul was, ignorant of it, tho' the Sentence was not yet
M. P^s. publifhed. The Archdeacon of Norwich, one of the Officers
of the Exchequer, having notice of it, quitted his Office
without leave, alledging, his Confcience would not fuffer
him to ferve an excommunicated Prince. This Proceeding
coft him dear. The King, provoked at his difrefpect, or-
dered him to be confined in a clofe Prifon (1), where it is
affirmed, his death was haftcned by violent means (:).
Mis imp-Jed This Inftanceof the Kind's Severity was not capable of
Tl h ''!-' preventing Hugh de Wells, lately elected Bifhop of Lincoln,

B 1 (hop of * ° ... ° . .... • r ri_i T'u:,.

Lincoln. trom wounding the King in a more fenhble part. 1 his
M. Paiis, Prelate having obtained leave to be confecrated by the
f ' " 9 ' Archbifhop of Roan, inflead of going to Normandy, went
directly to Rome {*,), where he received Confecration at
the hands of Cardinal Langton. Had he been in the King's
power, he would, doubtlefs, have been no more fpared than
the Archdeacon of Norwich. But the King, being all he
could do, was content with feizing his Revenues (4).'
The Prelate was unconcerned, plainly forefeeing that the
King would be obliged in the end to fubmit to the Pope ;
whereas by difobeying his Holinefs, he was in danger of
lofing his Bifhoprick (5).
mo. The Excommunication made no Impreffion on the King,

John leads who ftill remained unmoved. Befidcs, as the Sentence
an Army '»- was not y et publifhed, and Ignorance might be pleaded,
M.'patis"! 5 the greateft part of the Nobility ftill adhered to their
An.Waml. Prince (6), notwithffanding his being excommunicated.
Nay, he was not without hopes, that the Sentence was
only a penal threatning which might be revoked, upon
his fhewing fome fteadinefs. However, as it would have
been imprudent to depend upon that, he levied a great
Army, well-knowing, nothing was more capable of break-
ing the Pope's meafures, than to be always well armed.
Some Commotions in Ireland were made the occafion
and pretence for this Armament, the Charges whereof
were paid by the Jews, not voluntarily, but by a Seizure
of their Effects (7). John himfelf imbarking with his
Army (8), fafely arrived at Dublin, where he was met
by above thirty (9) petty Princes, who came to fwear
Fealty to him. After receiving their Homage, he marched
againft the King of Connaught, Author of the diliurbances
that had brought him into Ireland. This Prince being
taken Prifoner in a Battle, the War was happily ended,
and the whole Ifland reduced to the King's Obedience
andefia- as formerly. Before he returned, "John caufed the Laws
%'<.^r»/ and Cuftoms o( England <° be eftablifhed for the future
England 1 .' in Ireland, and made the Bifhop of Norwich his Juftici-
M. Paris, ary (10). It was expected in England, that at his return
the Army would be disbanded. But, to have a pietence
to keep it ftill on foot, he quarrelled with the Prince of
He taxes tbc Wales. In the mean time, as Money was wanted for
Clergy. the maintenance of the Troops, he impofed, by his own
Id. p. 230. Authority, a Tax of a hundred thoufand Marks (11) upon
the Effaces of the Eccleiiafticks. After which he marched
againft the IP'eljh, and compelled them to deliver twenty
eight Hoftages (1 2).

The meafures taken by John to render himfelf formi-
1bc~ Pofe dable, created no fmall uneafinefs in the Pope, who could
fends two not bear to fee the King's Inflexibility. He perceived, it
jvWio'j equally danrrerous to the Holy See to give over the

into Engtind n ' , r • r .i_ * • f .u

M- Pails. Conteft, and to prolecute it any iarther, uncertain 01 the

IfTue. And indeed, it might be of great confequence,

even with refpect to other States. Before he came to any

refolution in this matter, Innocent fent two Nuncio's into

England (13), under colour of procuring Peace between

the King and his Clergy. However, nothing was farther

from his Intention, than to endeavour a reconciliation,

which could not but be very prejudicial to him. His fole

aim was to difcover John's, deiigns, that he might take

his meafures accordingly. The two Nunrio"., being ar- rzsi.
rived, fo wrought on the King, that at length he yielded Johnwu&i
fo far, as to promife the Eccleiiafticks leave to return to V0r ^ m
their Churches. He farther agreed, that Cardinal Larg- Aectmmuta.-
tok fhould take poffeffion of the See of Canterbury, and *""•
promifed, that the Church of England fhould have all the A ' Vi j> urt ' .i,
Liberties, Privileges, and Immunities, enjoyed in the time p 263.
of Edward the ConfeJJor. One would think fo conuderable <n,„ a „ r ,_
Advances fhould have fatisfied the Nuntio's. And fadied, jefltd by At
the King .gave up the main Point, in offering to receive I '' s " s "'' s >
Cardinal Langton as Archbifhop. Befidcs, . they fhould
have previously fuppofed, that in an Accommodation, it
was reafonable, the Pope and Clergy fhould like-wife make
fome Conceffions on their part. But this rule takes not
place in affairs where the Church is concerned. Whit
fhe calls an Accommodation, is an entire Submifiion to
her orders, and a perfect Compliance with all her de-
mands. We have feen a remarkable Inftance of this in
the affair of Thomas Beckct : And here is another which
confirms the fame truth, befides thofe that will aooear in
the courfe of this Hiitory. Had John fhewn mote refolu-
tion, or at lead ftaid till the Nuncio's had, of themselves,
made thefe Propofals, and then feerred'to accept them with
reluctance, perhaps there it. ight poffibly' have been a re-
conciliation upon thefe Terms. But he had to deal with
Perfons m re fubile than hiir.felf, and whofe fole aim
was to difcover his Sentiments, in order to take advantage
of it againft himfelf. When they faw he complied fo far,
they demanded farther the reftitution of all that was taken
from the Ecclefiafticks, and full reparation for the da-
mages fuftamed by them on occafion of this Controverfv.
And becaufe he would not agree to this, which in effect w*» «■««-
was impoffible, the Negotiation broke off, and the Nuncio's "■"" ca ' c <*«
returned (14), after publifhing the King's Excommunica- M^ris.
tion (1 5), which the Bifhops tiil then declined (16). An. t.urton.

The Pope faw, by John's Advances, that he really f ' *f 6-
wanted to be clear of this affair at any rate. He rhanifeftly j : s,tftle
knew, it was only through Inability that he had rejected P't-
the lalt Article propofed him. As this Pope was very po-
litick, and had great Views, he lormed the Project of reap-
ing advantages, before unthought of, from this fame Inabi-
lity. But as the difcovery of his Intentions might greatly •
obftruct their execution, he carefully concealed them, till
he had forced the difobedient King to caft himfelf upon his'
Mercy. Though he had nothing lefs in view than the
Clergy of England's reparation, he continued alvvavs to
in lift on that Article, in order to have occafion to carry
things to the point he defired. He knew John was not
beloved by the People, and ftill lefs by the Nobility, who
had great caufe to complain of him, and were kept in O-
bedience, only by their Oath of Fealty. He believed
therefore, that, to alienate entirely the hearts of the Englijh,
it was neceffary to break that bond by which they ftill
were attached to their Sovereign. For that purpofe, ta- HiatfsJw
king occafion from the King's Inability, which he was plea- ,is E "S ,;0,
fed to ftile Rebellion and Obftinacy, he publifhed a Bull/o^b'tT
abfolving Jehu's Subjects from their Oath of Alle°-iancey AlUgiana.
and enjoining them, upon pain of Excommunication, to re- lN:- l ' a ' i ""
fufe him all Obedience. This terrible blow had lb great m" w-ft."
an effect, that moil of the Barons, overjoyed at havin«- an
opportunity to be revenged of the King, began to combine
together to place another on the Throne. Some Hiliorians m. Paris
even allure us, the Majority figned an Addrefs to the KingP- 2 3 2 -
of Fiance, inviting him to England, and promiling to own
him for their Sovereign.

Mean time, John, who had no Intelligence of their
defigns, lived in a Security that aftonifhed all the world. j.,h„ d,Lu
Far from forefeeing the impending danger, he fpenc his " '"~"dc
time in Entertainments and Diverlions, as if he had no ^ a 'p S ".
affairs upon his hands, and the Pope's Bull was of no con- Knighton,
fequence. At the fame time the IVelfli, who could never
long remain quiet, making Incurfions into the Engii/h
Territories, John fell into fo great a rage, that he com-

(1) By William Talbot, a Knight. M Paris, p. 22S.

(2) A leaden Cope was put upon h'm, wiih the prefTure of which, and for want of victuals, he died in a few days. Ibid.
(j) He went only as far as the Abbey of Por:t/gny, where Langton then refided. See TyrrJ, Vol. III. p. 741.

(4) llugb was alfo Chancellor, but the King delivered the Seal to Walter de Gray, and made him Chancellor- M. Paris, p. 228.

(5) This ycarthe King fent CommiiTioners to Canterbury , to meet the Bith ps of Lcndon, Ely, and Wcncjler, who came to tieat rf a reconci'iaf : on between
him and Langton j but when matters were nearly adjulted, the Treaty broke oft, and fo nothing was brought to a Cor.clufion. See Ann Waverl. p. ij t ,

(6) All the great Men of the Kingdom attended him at Wmdfcr this year, nolwithftanding he was excommun : cated. M. Pans, p. 229.

(7) M. Paris lays, the Jews of both Sexes were fciztd alt over England, and cruelly tieated, till they would ranfim themfelvrs ace -idirg to the K:n:'i
pleafurc. Among the reft, a Jew at BrtJUl, thouth ciueily tormented, refuting to rarilVm himJt.lt, the King oidersd, that his Tormenters fhou.'d every
day pull out one of his Cheek Teeth, tiil he wouid piy down ten thoufand Mark ■:. Accoidir.giy they pulled out feven in ••! many days, but on the eighth
day he relented, and fo with the lots of feven Teeth, parted with the ten thoufand Marks to lave the relt, p. 229. King John got irom the Jt-ns about
(jxty thoufand Marks. Ann. War'erl. p. 172.

(8) At Pembroke, and arrived at Dublin, June 6. HI. Paris, p. 230. He returned to England, Auguji 20. Ib'd.

(9) Above twenty, lays M. Paris, ibid. He drove out ot the Kingdom Hugh de Lacy Eail of UlJIer, and took Carrittf.r^us Caftlc. Ann. Ma -.
p. 14. T. Wikes, p. 36.

(10) Jobr. de Grey, who caufed the Money to be coined of the fame weight and finenefs as in England ; that the like Money might be common in both
Kingdoms. M. Pans, p. 130. He left there William Marctcalt, a t Lieutenant. Ann. Waniert. p. 172.

fill A hundred thouland founds, fays M. tar:s, p. 230. (12) He marched into Wales, July 8. 1211. Ibid.

(13) Pandulpb a Subdeacon, and Durand a Knight Templar. They met the King at Nertbamftcn, in his return from his tXjedltion into Wain. Ibid.

(14) They went into Wales. Ibid.

(15) What Perllns were excommunicated with him, fee in Al. Paris, p. 731. M. WeJI. p. 270.

(16; The King took, of all thofe that held by Knight's Service, and hid not attended him into Hales, 1 Scutajc of two Maiks of Siiv 1. /,.'. Paris,

p. ZjO.



7. JOHN.


He receives
Intetti cnce
of a I'Lt
againft bins.
M- 1'iri.s,
p. 131,231

He mflruftl
and disbands
bit Army.

M. Pa™>

ttemari on
of King
M. Paris,

Tie remar-
kable predie-
ttcn of a
M Paris.

Tie P^e

depots John.


rounded the twenty-eight Hoftages, lie had in his power,
to be hanged. After which, as if he had nothing elfe to
do, he refolvcd to carry War into their Country and ut-
terly root them out.

Whilft he was preparing for this expedition, the King
of Scotland fent hirn notice of a dangerous Confpiracy
forming againft him in England. But 'John imagined,
none would dare ftir, whilft he was at the head of the
Army. So without giving the leaft heed to this informa-
tion, he continued his march to ChrJIcr, with defign to
begin the War with the IVelJh. Upon his arrival at that
City, he received frefh intelligence about the Confpiracy,
which was confirmed from fo many different places, that
he could no longer doubt. Then it was, that his fecurity
giving place to his fears, he began to coniider the Officers
of his Army, as fo many fecret enemies whom he could
not truft. PoflilTed with this notion, he difniiffed his
Troops and retired to London, where he thought himfelf
morefafe(i). Sorne time after, his fears being fomewhat
abated, by certain advice, that the Barons were in no
readinefs to execute their defigns, he demanded Hoftages
of them as pledges of their obedience. There were but
few that ventured to deny him (z), for fear of being fa-
crificed to his fufpicions, before they were in a ftate of
defence. Indeed, their meifures were yet very uncertain.
If it be true, that they had applied to the King of France,
that Monarch had not yet given them any pofitive promifc.
Tn all appearance, he had a mind to ftay till matters were
more embroiled, before he openly declared his intention (3).

In this place it is, that Matthew Paris the Hiftorian
takes occafion to difplay the tyrannical conduct of John
in very black colours. He fays, that he had no manner
of regard for the Englijl) ; debauched the Wives and Daugh-
ters of the prime Nobility ; bariiflied fome the Realm,
upon bare fufpicions, and reduced others, who were the
moft favorably treated, to extreme poverty, by the confif-
cation of their Eflates, and other illegal practices. But
the fame remark is to be made here, that was made elfe-
where : Namely, we mult read with great caution the
Monki/h Hiftorians, when they relate any thing in which
the Court of Rome was concerned. It is true, this Hifto-
rian inveighs now and then very fharply againft the Per-
fon of Innocent III. But however, it is vifible, his aim
was to vindicate the Pope's extreme rigour to King 'John.
This he could not do more artfully than by blackening
the reputation of that Prince, in order to divert the Rea-
der's compalTion.

Whilft 'John was anxioufly waiting the IfTue of his
enemy's Plots, he met with a mortification, which troub-
led him very much, though he pretended to flight it.
One Peter de Pontfrail a Hermit, who was famous in the
Kingdom for foretelling things to come, prophefied pub-
lickly, that by Afcenfion-day following, John fhould be
depofed, and the Crown transferred to another. The King
being informed of it, fent for the Hermit, who in his
prefence flood to what he had faid, whereupon he was or-
dered to Prifon (4).

Mean time the Pope, who had no mind to halt in fo
fair a way, took at Rome all neceffary meafures to accom-
plifh his project. As he was defirous, it fhould appear to
the World, that zeal for juftice and Religion was the
fole motive of his actions, he took particular care to fhew
he had no perfonal intereft in his quarrel with the King
of England. The better to hide his defign, he caufed
a Petition to be prefented him by Cardinal Langton, and
the reft of the profcribed Bifhops, humbly intreating him
to apply a remedy to the evils, the Church of England
had fo long endured. This petition furnifhing him with
a pretence to call a Confiftory, he made a Speech to
the Cardinals, aggravating to the utmoft of his power,
the injuries King John had done, and daily did do to
the Church. He concluded with faying, the obftinacy
of that Prince not being to be conquered by the Church's
cenfures, he had called them together to confider of means

to make this ftift-necked Son return to his duty. The 1212,
refult of the Council was, that John being convicted of
Rebellion againft the Holy See, defcrved to be depofed, and
his Holinefs fhould place another King over England.
Purfuant to this advice, Innocent thundered out the fen- A *& '*//«j*
tence of depofiti-m againft King John. After that, hz'tj^***
commiffioned Philip King of France to execute the fen- ex.cur, ibt
tence, promifing for reward, the remiflion of all his Sins, £"?*?
together with the Crown of England to him and his Heirs
for ever, when once he had dethroned the prefl-nt Ty-
rant. A few days after, he publifhed a Bull, exhorting
all Chriftian Princes to promote, as far as in them lay,
this expedition, which was fiilely intended to revenge the
injuries done to the Catholick Church. In t/ii-s Bull he
took into his protection whoever fhould contribute either
Money or other afliltance, to fubdue the enemy of the
Church, granting them the fame privileges, with thofe
who vifited the Holy Sepulchre (5).

Towards the end of this year, Geoffrey Archbifhop of Geoffrey
York, natural Son of Henry II, departed this Life. He f^f?
was a Prelate of a narrow genius, but proud, pragmati- ibd.
cal, and exceeding pallionate, one that would have done a
world of mifchicf, had he been as able as he wa; wil-
ling (6).

'1 he Commiffion Philip lately received of the Pope, ,' Z1 3-
fet him at the height of his wifhes. Not content with' \'!,"! v "'
depriving King John of great part of his Dominions, he p ./,•, cca-
devoured already in his imagination the Kingdom of Eng- m 'lT> u > ;
land. By his preparations it was evident, how extremely a»rf «"*'«'

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