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defirous he was to fucceed in this undertaking. The Ships, greet prefs*
of which his Fleet was to confift, came from all parts to ""<">'•
the Mouth of the Seine, whilft the Princes his VaflaLs,
and the great Men of his Realm led their Troops to Roan^
where he had appointed the rendezvous of his Army.
Such vaft preparations could not be long concealed from m. Paris,
King John, who for his part ufed his utmoft endeavours p- »33>*34-
to oppofe the thrcatned Invafion. He fummoned all the
Tenants in chief to meet him at Dover with their Troops,
under pain of forfeiting their Fiefs, and being exemplarilv
punifhed in their Perfons. At the fame time, he iffued
orders, that all the Ships belonging to his Subjects fhould
be ready at the fame place, threatning to banifh the Ma-
tters that fhould fail to be there on any pretence whatever.
His orders were fo urgent, and his threats had fo fudden
an effect, that in a little time he affembled more Ships
and Troops than he could maintain. Upon which ac-
count, he was forced to fend away part of his Fleet, and
to keep but fixty thoufand of the moft warlike Men (7),
a fufficient number to defend him from all infults, had
they heartily ferved him. But this Prince knew better
how to make himfelf feared, than beloved (8).

Whilft the two Monarchs were with equal ardor pre- Pindulpii
paring, the one to attack, and the other to defend ; whilft * Pf''
the Sea was covered with Ships, and both fhores over- %%££*"
fpread with Troops, expecting every moment to enter upon M. Parir.
action, the Pope gave his laft inftructions to Pandulph.
He was one of the two forementioned Nuntio's, who,
upon this occafion, was made Legate for England. His
publick inftructions, were to ufe his utmoft endeavours to
prevail with King John to fubniit to the Church. But his
private ones were, to put the laft hand to the project framed
by the Pope. He palled through France, where he be-
held Philip's great armament, and commended his zeal
and diligence ; after which he went to meet the Kin"- of
England at Dover. When he came into his prefence, he M " Pl " , >
reprefented to him, that his enemy's Forces were fo nume- m'w-H.
rous, that they were fufficient to conquer England, though
the whole Nation were united for their common defence ;
but that John was very far from being able to relv on the
People's affections. And to convince him of it bevond
all doubt, he difcovered to him, that Philip had received
private affurances, from moft of the great Men of Eng-
land, that, inftead of oppofing his arms, they would affifi
him to the utmoft of their power. This intelligence cor-

(1) He (hut hinvelf in Nottingham Caftle. and hired foreign Archers for his d-fcrce. Ann. Wa-verl. p. 173,

(2) Euflace de Vefci, and Robert Fitx-Wahcr , who were concerned in the Lonfpitaty againft him, retired : the firft into Scotland, and the latter into
France. M. Paris, p. 232.

(3) This year, in Lent. King John knighted Aitxander, Son to Jl'illiam King cf Scotland, at London. Llerr.. p. 231.

(4.) Mattluw Pant fays, Jocn was very inquifrtive to kiiov.' of the Hermit, whether it was by death or orherwife that he was to lo'e his Crown ; but g
he could get hum hiffi was, that he might be alTurcd he would not on that dsy be King j and faid, if he were convicted of a Lie, he might then deal with
him as he pleafed. Upon which the K : ng had him confined till he mould lee the IlTue of his Prediction. M. Paris.

(5) The Pope wrote ailb to the great Men, Knights, anJ Warriors of divers Nations, to undertake this War, ligning themfelves with the Crofs, as if it
were for that of the Holy Land. M. P.v is, p. 232.

$6) This year alfo, on Jay 10, great part of London was burnt down ; the Fire began in Soutbivark, and having confumed the ( hurch of St. Mary
Ciiery, went on to the Bridge ; and whilft great numbers of People ran, fome to behold, others to quench the Flmcs, the Houles < n the ctber er.d dJ tr.e
Bridge took lire j fo that the Multitudes being thus il.clofcd, m-inv Were forced to leap into the 1bajr-.es, whilft oihers crewding into the Boats that came to
their relief, were the Caufe of their own dcftrufticn, the Boats and People finking together; fo that what with the Fire, and what with the Water, near
three thoufand perfons periftied by this unfortunate accident, which happened on the tenth of July. M. Parts, p. 233. Ann. Wai-erl. p. 173. M. IVeft.

(7) Who were encamped upon Barlan- Doivn in Kent. The bifiiop of Norivtcb brought him five hundred Knights, and bocies cf i;crlc from Ire. and.
Al. Peril, p. 234..

(S) The Wiits, whiuh were IlTucd out upon this occafion, ( and which you m?y fee at large in M. Parit, ) plainly make appear, that there was na
fich thing in thofe days as (landing Armies either in England or France; but that the only Forces for the d fence of the Kincdorn were the Muitia
of England, confiding of the Earls and Batons, with their Ten.nts and ValTals under them, who were obliged by their Tenures to come into the Field
in cait of an Invafion from abroad, or a Rebellion at heme. The Writs are directed to ail the Sheriffs cf the Kingdom, commanding them to fummrr.
all che Eark, Barons, Knights, Freemen, and Efquircs. The Writs for the Ships were directed to ali the B'ylfts of Sca-poits, ir.-. Idem, p. 133,




1 z 1 3. refponding with what John had already received, he was

vilibly fhaken, neither could he hide from the Legate the

He offers bim feajs that had feized his Soul. This was precisely the

the Popes g tuat ; on wncre ; n Pandulph intended to put him. As foon

Protection, a , l .

Aft. Pub as he law him thus dtlpofed, he took occahoii to intimate
T. 1 p.i06, to n ; [r , 5 t ; iat there was but one way to fecure himfelf from
the impending danger ; and that was to put himfelf under
the Pope's protection, who, as a kind and merciful Fa-
ther, was ftill willing to receive him with open arms.
But, added he, to deferve this favor, you mujl become a
dutiful Son to the Church ; and to that end mujl promije
to perform faithfully whatever the Pope [hall enjoyn you ;
who, in imitation of him, whofe Reprefentative he is on earth,
deftres not the death of a Sinner, but rather that he jljould
turn from his evil ways.
The King's Never was Prince in fuch circumftances as John. Stan-
Ktfnlutiui. j- between two precipices equally dangerous, he was un-
der a neceffity of calling himfelf down one or other, with-
out having time to confider which was mod eligible.
Pandulph preiled him inceffantly to embrace the Pope's
gracious offer. On the other hand, Philip, ready to em-
bark, afforded him no time to confult what courfe he fhould
take. But what perplexed him moft, was, his diftruft of
his Army and his dread of a treachery, the confequences
whereof flared him in the face. On which fide foever
he turned, he faw himfelf on the point, either of falling
into the hands of his moft inveterate enemy, or of lying
at the mercy of a Pope, whom he had for fo long bra-
He yields to ve d, and who was the fole author of his misfortunes. Of
tkt Terms thefe two extremities, the laft feemed the leaft infupport-
f '^if » a ' 3 ' e ' tecaufe he faw not the Pope's whole delign. The
Aft. Pub. Legate took care, not to impart to him at firft all the
T. I p.170. conditions required by the Pope, for his favour and pro-
Forrw Pa- te £^ oru He was fatisfied for the prefent, with obliging
Tbt Condi- him by a folemn Oath, to obey the Pope in all things,
tum. f or which he was excommunicated (1) ; to make a full

M. Puis. f at ; s r a ft; on to the Clergy and Laicks for what damages
An. Burton, they had fullered on account of the Interdict ; to pay down,
in part of reftitution, the fum of eight thoufand pounds
Sterling ; to receive into favour the profcribed Bifhops,
and others, particularly Cardinal Langton, and the Prior
and Monks of St. Augujlin's (2) ; to confirm all thefe
things by his Letters Patents, and caufe fuch Bifhops and
Barons as the Pope or his Legate fhould appoint to ftand
Sureties for him ; to declare folemnly, if he, or any other
by his order, fhould violate this agreement, he would for
ever lofe the cuftody of vacant Churches, and the Bifhops
and Barons his Sureties, fhould be authorized to ferve the
Pope againft him. Moreover, he prornifed to fend Let-
ters of fafe-conduit to the Archbifhop of Canterbury, and
the other exiled Bifhops, that they might return to their
refpeclive Churches. Laftly, he fwore not to profecute
any Perron, whether Layman, or Ecclefiaftick, for any
matter relating to the affair in hand (3).
Another In the Hate John was reduced to, he would have

ConJit,™ tnou gh t ihefe conditions tolerable, had there been nothing
Vtrf,,, jlouid added. But the Oath exacted from him, to obey the
rcfign bis Pope in all things, included a tacit condition, the extent
Crow to hereof Pandulph did not think proper to tell him, before

toe rope, .1. Titrt 1 • « ■ 1 1

Knighton- he was entirely ingaged. When this Article came to be
M. Paris, explained , the Legate plainly told him, his offences
againft God and the Church were of fuch a nature, that
there could be no atonement without a relignation of his
Crown to the Pope : Adding, upon that condition only
he could give him abfolution. Such a propofal Could not
but extremely furprize the unfortunate King ; but he
was too far ingaged to recede. His late proceeding had
entirely alienated thofe of his Subjects, who ftill preferved
fome remains of affection. On the other hand, he per-
ceived, as he could not confide in his Troops, he had n6
He nli r *t otner means to refift Philip's powerful attacks. He lay
bis e'reiun, therefore under an indifpenfable neceffity to fubmit to this
and docs nar( j condition, which he would have infallibly rejected,
" b Tp%" could he have known the full extent of his Oath. Where-
A&. Pub. fore, on the morrow, he repaired to Dover Church, at-
T.i. pi?6- tended by the Legate, and a numerous train of Lords
Knighton, and Officers of the Army, to perform his engagements.
There, in the prefence of all the People, taking off his
Crown, he laid it, with the other enfigns of Royalty, at
the Legate's feet, as the Pope's Reprefentative. Alter

Vol. I.

which, he figned a Chirter, whereby he refigned to the (2tj.
Pope the Kingdom of England, and the Lordihip of Ire-
land. He declared in this Charter, that, neither out of
fear or confiraint, but of his own free Will, and with
the advice and confent of all the Barons of the Realm,
he made this refignacion, as having no other way to atone
for his offences againft God and his Church. From that
moment he acknowledged himfelf a Vaffal of the Holy
See, and, as fuch, bound himfelf to pay the yearly rent
of a thoufand marks ; namely, feven hundred for Eng-
land, and three hundred for Ireland. In fir.;", he agreed,
that if himfelf, or any of his Succeffors, denied the fub-
miffion due to the Holy See, he fhould forfeit his right to
the Crown (4). After this, he did Homage to the Pope m. Pm'j.
in the Perfon of the Legate ; who, to fliew the grandeur p- *J7-
of his Mafter, fpurned with his foot the Money offered
him by the King as an earned of his fubjection. They
that were prefent at this fhameful Ceremony, could not
behold fuch abject fubmiffions without indignation ; but
not one dared to fpeak againft them ; only the Archbifhop
of Dublin protefted againft them, but to no purpofe (j).
The Legate having obtained whatever he dented, kept
the Crown and Sceptre five whole days ; and then re-
ftored them to John, with an intimation that he was to
confider it as a fingular favor from the Holy See. So
extraordinary a tranfaction had its natural effect on the
People. If hitherto the King had been little regarded, this
bafe fubmiffion rendered him entirely contemptible. From
that time he was deemed unworthy to wear a Crown,
which he had fo fhamefully refigned to another. On the
other fide, Innocent's extreme pride gave occafion for re-
flections to his disadvantage. Though John fhould feem
to have been very fenlibly touched with what had hap-
pened, he appeared to be the firft that forgot it. He Tkt Hermit
even feemed to triumph in preferving his Crown in fpite banged for a
of the Hermit's prediction. Though his Prophecy was but f"'I'P"thet
too fully accomplifhed, John was fo cruel as to order him Knvhinn".
to be hanged (6) for a falfe Prophet.

Mean time, Pandulph, who had no farther bufinefs in Pandu'ph
England, was departed from Dover (7), without taking " d " s Philip
off the Interdid, or giving the King Abfolution. He was 'I d "}" mi
gone to Philip, who conlidered the Conquell of England m. Pa.i>.
as a thing certain. When he came to that Monarch, he
enjoined him, in the Pope's name, to delift from the in-
tended Expedition. He told him, the King of England
being now a dutiful Son of the Church, and the cccafion
of the armament ceafing, it was no longer necefiary to
execute the Pope's fentence. Philip was extremely fur- Philip «•-
prized at this difcourfe (8). But as he had not acted in/«/« "
this affair from a religious motive, he openly refufed to '*'•>' *"" •
obey the Legate's orders. He told him, he had made
thefe preparations againft England, at the Pope's preffing
inllances, for the remiffion of his Sins, and therefore no
contrary orders, nor all the threats in the World, fhould
hinder him from profecuting his defign. Thus refolved, . .
he called a Council of the chief Lords of the Kingdom, bnno bis
and of the Princes his Vaflals who were then about him. P'""°
As he was extremely provoked with Innocent, the terms J "*'
he ufed in fpeaking of him to the Aflembly were not
very refpectful ; and the more, as it was greatly for his
purpofe, to paint out the Pope's proceedings in the ftrong-
eft and moft lively colours. His aim was to peifwade
all the Lords to fwear, they would not forfake him,
though the Pope fhould thunder his cenfures againft him.
Accordingly this was the drift of his Speech.

The Princes and Lords who were prefent at the Coun- , Ttt F , .
cil feemed inclined to comply. The Earl of Flanders a- Flanders
lone oppofed it, and in a manner very reproachful to "ft f"
Philip. He reprefented, that the intended Expedition a-
gainft the King of England, was in itfelf neither juft nor
honorable, and belides was become impracticable, iince
the Pope refufed his approbation. He added, it would be
much more agreeable to the rules of honour and equity, to
rellore to that Prince what had been taken from him in
France, than to frame new projects to make an advan-
tage of his misfortunes. Philip offended at thefe bold ph[]: p turn
words, mixed with reproaches upon his conduct, thought *" *>**
it neceffary before all things, to humble the Earl of Flan- g^/'"
ders. His view was to terrify the reft of his Vaflals by Hill, of
this example, and withal deprive the King of England p hil. Aug.

M. Paria.

(1) Sixteen of the chief Earls and Barons of the Kngdom, fwore on John's behalf, that they would do their utmoft to compel him to keep what he
hao a'greed, if he (h.iu!d happen to dep..rt from it. M. Paris, p. 235. ......

(2) The Bifhops of London, Ely, Hereford, Bath, and Lincoln, are mentioned by name, as ire Robert Fitz Walter, and Evjtace de rijci, who had with-
lirnwn from the King into France. Ib.d. .

M) You have thefe Articles at large in M. Paris, drawn up in the Foim of a Charter, dated the 13th of May. being the Monday befoie Afccr.fion
<l.y. in which are recited the names of lour great Barons, viz. William Earl cf Sal.stury, Reginald Earl of Boulogne, William Earl of Warren, and
W.lham Earl of Ftrriri, wha all Iwore on the King's behalf, p. 235. .,,,,. . „ r .■ 1, a u-. ,. „ , .

14) Cadet a <ure Regni, M. Pjiu. where the Charter is at la 1 sit, and witnrlT. d by the King himfelf, in the Pretence ot Henry Archbifhop of Dub.n;
Jean BHhop of Nenoicb, ma divers Earls and Noblemen of the Kingdom, p 236, 237-

(5) M. Pans fays only, thai lie was offended .11 the hsughi) Carriage ol the Legale in fpnrning the Money, p. 237.

'6) He csufed him fi be dragged arwut the Streets ot War bam, anJ then hanged, with his Son. M. Pant, p. 237.

(7 Andtarried w.th him eight thoufaud Pounds to be dkfliibutcd, by way of reftitution, among the Archbiihop, the cifhops, and others that had been
WaniOitd. lord. , I 1 llj as he had fpent rtoye fitty tKcii&r.d Pounds in his Preparations. Ibid.



Book VIII.

7. John,



HI. faris,


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roved by

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John fcrfj ; j
n.i'ui r- . an v
f£* War r/;ro

M. Paris.

Vifrj Baron

refuje to
foli<nu btftrt
he is abj'ot-
V, ./.

M. Paris.
Att. Pub.
T. X. p 1 7 r-


arrives, and
gives the
King an
M- Pans.
p. 239.

//if gbfohttt


M. Pa Lis.


John rr- _
fumes bn fir-
mer deflgn,
<£be Ssrons
re/ufi tofoi-
Irw bin:.
M. Hans.


ro ebajiijc

I.injton '/>-

^5/irj rf, (WW 1

|l, Paris.

of the affiftance he might receive from fo firm a Friend.
It may be, he was very glad, the Earl furnifhed him with
an opportunity to free himfelf from his prefent embarafl-
ment. He could not, without difhonour, fubmit to the
Pope's orders, neither could he make War upon King
'John, without exporting his Perfon to an Excommunica-
tion, and )iis Kingdom to an Interdict-. Be this as it will,
he ordered his Elect to fail to the Coaft of Flanders,
whilft he marched himfelf with his Army to attack the
Earl by land. The progrefs of his Arms was at firft
very coiifidcrablc. Probably, the Earl of Flanders would
hare been ruined, if John had not fent his naval Force
to his Aid. The Earl of Salisbury, who commanded the
Englijh Fleer, furprizing that of Philip, entirely deftroyed
it. " It is (aid, the Englijh took three hundred Ships, and
funk one hundred, and that the French themfelves fet fire
to the reft, to prevent their falling into the Enemy's hands.
This fatal lofs blafted all Philip's grand Projects, and ob-
liged him to relinquifh his undertaking, and return to Pa-
ris extremely mortified.

This Victory fuddenly raifed the Courage of King
John. As he was allured for the future of the Pope's af-
fiftance, he refolved to carry the War into France, and
trv to recover his loft Dominions. He was the more en-
couraged to this Enterpri7.c, as the Emperor and the Earl
of Flanders promifed to make a powerful Diverfion in his
favour. Wherefore he caufed his Army to march to
Portsmouth, where he ordered his Fleet to meet him. But
juft as he was ready to embark, the Barons fent him
word, they could not attend him, unlcfs he was firft ab-
folvcd from his Excommunication (1). This Declaration
made him difoatch a Safe-conduct to Cardinal Langton,
and the reft of the Exiles, that they might come and ab-
fblve him. At the fame time, he acquainted them, he was
icady to perform all his Engagements, and particularly
thofe which concerned them. Upon their arrival (2) the
Bifhops went lo the King at Jf'inchefier, who, throwing
himfelf at their feet, befought them to have pitv on him
and the Kingdom. The Cardinal lifting him up, led him
to the Church, where in the prefence of all the People,
he adminiftred to him the following Oath : " That he
" would prote£t Holy Church to the utmoft of his power ;
" re-eftablifh the good Laws of his Predeceffors, and efpe-
" cially thofe of King Edward ; caufe Juftice to be mi-
" niftred to his Subjects according to the juft Judgment of
" his Court ; reftore to Corporations and private Perfons
" their Rights and Liberties ; and before Eajler next,
" make full Satisfaction for all the damages he had cau-
*' fed." This done, the King renewed his Oath of Feal-
ty and Obedience to the Pope, according to the Tenor
of his late Charter to the Legate ; after which, the Car-
dinal gave him Abfolution. The King appeared fo well
plesfed to fee himfelf at length freed from fo many trou-
bles, that to mow the Cardinal, he bore him no fecret
grudge, he made him that very day dine at the fame
Table with him.

This affair being thus ended, "John came to Portf-
moutb (^)y where he unexpectedly met with frefh obftacles.
When he talked of embarking, the Barons, who were
there upon his Summons, declared, they could not go with
him. They told him, they had ftayed fo long at Portf-
mouth, that all their Money, defigned for the Expedition,
was fpent, and therefore they were unable to attend him.
Though this disappointment heartily vexed him , he
thought beft to conceal it ; and, imagining he mould en-
courage them upon the Point of Honour, took fhipping
himfelf with his own Family, and failed for Jerjly. But
after waiting there fome days, and rinding himfelf for-
faken by all, he returned to England, with a refolution
to chaftife the difobedience of the Barons (4). Upon his
arrival, he raifed fome Troops, and marched towards the
Center of the Kingdom. His delign was to have it in
his power to prevent them from taking Arms, or to op-
preli thofe that fhould firft venture to appear. The Car-
dinal Archbifhop perceiving his Intention, came to him
at Northampton, and reprelented to him, that none of the
Barons having been legally (?) condemned, he could not
make War upon them without violating his late Oath.
The King, offended at this Remonftrance, anfwered with
a. loud Voice, he had no need of his Advice, and refufing


to hear him any more, continued Lis march as far as Not-
tingham. Langton, not difcouraged at this repulfe, follow-
ed him next day, and declared he would excommunicate
all that fhould take Arms before the relaxation of the In-
terdict. This threat making the King apprehenfive his ** ci l
Troops would defert him, he was forced to defift from his d ' J ^'''
Enterprise. However, he appointed a day for the Barons
to appear and anfwer for their difobedience.

Langton's Proceedings were diffident to fatisfy the King,
he was not heartily reconciled to him. But he had foon
a more convincing proof.

In an Affcmbly of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, I f n 8 ,< «
held at London about the reftirutibn promifed by the l Bimta
King, Langton took occafion to fpeak very warmly againft f-r. b! 'f ''"'
him. He faid, " That before he gave the King Abfolu- c * a ""°f

cc *• 1 r 1 1 • r /, . ° . ""■"" Henry 1.

tion, he caufed him to fwear to reftore the Church, m. Pari*,
" the Nobility, and the Commonalty, to their Rights P- 21 -
" and Privileges (6) : But it was vifible he had nut yet
" made the lcaft ftep towards the performance of his
" Oath : That on the contrary, he would have made
" War on his Barons, before they were legally tried,
" which was a clear Evidence of his ill defigns. And
" therefore, continued he, it was abfolutcly necelTary for
" the good of the Publick, to prefs him to perform his
" Engagements. But as difficulties might occur in the
" particulars to be required of the King, he faid, a Char-
" ter might be ufed of one of their former Kings, of
" which he had fortunately found a Copy, notwithftand-
" ing the pains taken to bury it in oblivion." The
Charter mentioned by the Cardinal, was that granted by
Henry I to his Subjects, in the beginning of his Reign (7).
Authentick Copies had been fent to all the principal mo-
nafleries, which were loft by the negligence of thofe
who had the Cuftody of them, or perhaps by the means
of Henry I himfelf, or his SucceiTors. This, which per-
haps, was the only one left, falling into the Cardinal's
hands, he publickly caufed it to be read before the Affem-
bly. The Barons, who had only a confufed Notion of
this Charter, were very well pleaied with its being found,
but more fo with the Contents. Therefore, without fur-
ther confideration, they refolved to make it the Foundation
of their demands. Then they entered into a Confederacy, 7i
and bound themselves by Oath, to ufe their utmoft endea- '"f^g'l
vours to obtain the Re-eftablifhment of their ancient Pri- A;^.' '
vileges, and mutually ftand by one another. The Cardi-
nal promifed for his part, to do all that lay in his power
to promote their defigns. This is the firft League or Con-
federacy made in England, in defence of the Nation's In-
tereft againft the King.

Though the Barons intended to keep their League pri- J? hn '""
vate, till a favorable opportunity offered to difcover their jw/prt -
defigns, the King was foon informed of it. He forefaw
the confequence?, but as it was not in his power to Ul p " * 45 '

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 115 of 360)