M. (Paul) Rapin de Thoyras.

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Mulutunt, C-r.an Fu-o-Hetas, «.-;. M. Paris, p. 254..

U) Who was thm at the New Temple ; which was where the Inner and Middle Temple now (land : They came to him in a miiitiiy Apparel. M. Peril,
P- 2 5 3- (4.) Or Confirmation. Ibid.

(5) Mttibevi Parii fay», the A:chbifhopof Canterbury, the Biihop of Ely, and William Eall-Maiihal were Sureties for the King, that on tile day ap-
pomted he would give them fatisfaction, p. 2$3-

(6) On February -■ More out of Fear than Religion, as M. Parii obfetves, p. 153.

(7) About the fame lim; alfo the King granted a Charter for the Freedom ot Elections to Bifhnpricks and Abbies, to chufe their Biffnps and Abbots,
without any Letters 01 Nomination or Recommendation from the King, which was contrary to the ufage of his Anceftors. So that the nominating to Aobie-,
Deans, and Chapters, f, t Pcrlons to be elrfted Bi/h ps, was never alter folly icllored to the Crown till the 15th of Henry VIII. Rymer's fad. Tom. I.
p. 197. M. tarn, p. 161.

(8) The words of the Oiiginal, viz. M. Pant, are here taken Inftcad of Rapins, which are not fo clear.

{9] They vr:re then at Brack'ey in Nortbamftonjcirt, At, tarn, (10; And the Archb'lhop of Caxttrkirj, &c. Uem. p. 254.



121 S.
U: rejeflt
tbei Pet


M. Pan'.


John had no fooner read this Memorial, but he fell into a But for the better fecuring the obfervance thereof, there 121:

violent paflion. He faid aloud, the Barons wanted no lefs were chofen, with the Kin^.% confent, five and twenty

than to deprive him of the Government of his Kingdom, Barons (7), to any of whom all Perfons might apply, to

and fwore a great Oath, he would never grant his Subject's complain of the breach of the Charters. Jt was further
fuch Liberties as would make himfelf a Slaw:.

J ,,•• . r •_-: .1 t>

Ibey cbu
General j


and begin


M. Paris.

Majien of
London i

■ T
M. Paris.
p. 255.



Ch.-.rti, aid
the Charter

agreed, that the four Barons, who were fir ft to be inform
The King's anfwer convincing the Barons, they ex- cd of any grievance, fhould acquaint the King with it,
petted in vain to obtain their demands otherwife than and if it was not redrafted within forty days, fhould give
by force, they chofe the Lord [Robert] Fitz-TFalter for notice of it to all the Barons, for whom, in that cafe, it
their General, filling him the Marjhal of the Army of God, fhould be lawful to take up Arms, and feize the King's
and of Hoh Church. At the fame time they marched to Caftles, in order to oblige him to redrefs the grievance.
Northampton, and befieged the Caftle fifteen days. That All violence, however, to the King's Perfon, the Queen,
place holding out longer than they expected, they raifed and their Blue, was excepted. But to remove the Peo-
the Siege and went to Bedford, of which they became maf- pie's fcruples, about taking up Arms againft their Sove-
ters (1)" A few days after, they received advice, that a reign, the King confented that all Perions fhould fivear
fecret Negotiation with fome of the chief Burghers of Lon- to aflift the Barons, in all cafes relating to the two Char-
don, had fucceeded to their wifh, and that one of the ters. Laftly, To all thefe conce/Tions he added Letters Mi Pj , ;
Gates of the City was to be put into their hands. The Patents, directed to all his Sheriffs, impowering them to p. 262.
hopes of ftrengthening themfelves with the affiftance of fo take the Oaths of all his Subjects, thct they would punc-
rich and powerful a City, whofe name alone would give tually obferve the two Charters, and if it was neceffary,
a reputation to their Party, caufed them to make fuch to compel the King to obferve the fame (8).

fpeed, that in two marches (2) they came to Aldgate. The faying of a Hiftorian up-.'n the like occafion, is J onn "/**
ybty become This Gate being opened to them, they entered the City very applicable here, thai the King intended not to bind', y,cYl,"ur,
at break of dav (3), before the King, who was in the himfelf with Chains of Parchment. All the precautions u. p. 164."
Tower, had the leaft notice of their approach. So great an taken by the Barons to tie up their Sovereign, ferved only
advantage enabling them to undertake any thing, they to make him the more eager to find means to free him-
amllefiege refolved to befiege the King in the Tozuer. Whilft they felf from 2 yoke, which to him feemed intolerable. Thofe
'tbe Tower" were e mp' o y e d in t ne Siege, which however they could that were about him being moftly Poreigners, helped alfo to
not begin without great preparations, they fent circular exafperate him, by aggravating the pride and infolence of
Letters to all the Lords of the King's Party, and to thofe the Barons. As they were fenfible, thefe Charters, which
that flood Neuter (4). Without any preface^ they let let bounds to the Regal Power, muft be prejudicial to
them know, their eftates would be plundered, and their them, they never ceafed reprefenting to him the injury he
Houfes demolifhed, if they did not come and join with had done himfelf in figning them. In fhort, all their dif-
them, in fupport of the common caufe of the Kingdom, courfes tended only, to put him upon meafures to free him-
Thefe threats had fo good an effect, that all the neutral felf from the fubjection, to which his conceflions had rcn-
Lords fided with the Barons. Nay, fome on whom the dered him liable. They very eafily fucceeded in their de-
King chiefly relied, deferred him for fear of the impend- fign ; but the greateft difficulty lay in the execution.
John it cm- j n o- evils. This defection rendering the King more trac- This unhappy Prince, continually tormented by his own.ibid.
table, he fent the Earl of Pembroke to inform the Barons, thoughts, and the virulent reproaches of his Courtiers,
he was ready to grant their demands. This was properly grew fo referved and melancholy, as fuffkiently difcovered
throwing himfelf upon their mercy. But as matters then his vexation. He confidered with himfelf, of means to be He „j ea .
flood, he had no other courfe to take. After a fhort revenged ; but knew not where to have Men and Money, to murs to an-
Negotiation, it was agreed, the King and the Barons that end. And indeed he faw no other remedy than to apply " uU ,hm '
fhould meet on a day prefixed, in a Meadow called Run- to the Barons themfelves, againft whom he defigned to ufe
nemede (5), to conclude this affair. them. But it was not eafy to deceive them, in their con-

The Barons came in great numbers to the place ap- tinual jealoufy of him. In fine, after turning himfelf every //( . ,..,-,, „
pointed, whilft the King appeared attended only by five way, his defpair fuggefted to him a means of railing. Treep >f
or fix Lords. Among whom was the Cardinal Archbi- Troops, without having wherewithal to pay them ; which A dvemunn
fhop, who affected to perform the Office of Mediator, was, to fend fome of his Confidents (9) into France, Ger- c««r!f"
M. Paiis^ though he was the principal author of the troubles. It was may, and Flanders, with orders to promife fuch as would M. Paris,
M'w' if" l " oon a g reec! > wnat Satisfaction the King fhould give the enter into his Service, the confifcated eftates of the rebel- p< l6;-
Barons. As they would make no conceflions, it was not lious Barons, as he called them. He gave thefe Agents
in the King's power to deny any thing. Befides, he con- likewife a power to make Grants beforehand of the Lands
fidered, the higher they ran in their demands, the more of the EngUJh Lords, and to pafs the deeds in form (10).
plaufible would "his pretence be, to retract when a favor- By the like ingagements IVilliam the Conqueror had for-
able opportunity offered. And therefore, without object- merly afiembled a numerous Army, which rendered him
ing to any of the Articles propofed, he pretended freely to mafter of England. They that were ingaged with that
s;rant, what in reality was extorted by Force. He fign- Prince were very fuccefsful. So the conlideration of the
ed two Charters, wherein the Barons inferted whatever they noble Eftates they had acquired in the Kingdom, induced
pleafed. The firft was called the Charter of Liberties, great numbers to try the fame way, in expectation of
or the Great Charter (6), the other, the Charter of the John's procuring them the fame advantages. At all times,
Liberties of the Forejl. By perufing thefe Charters, which there are but too many ambitious or defperate Perfons,
will be inferted at the end of this Reign, the Reader may who eagerly embrace all opportunities of enriching them-
fee what oppreflions the Englijlo had been liable to fince felves, without regarding the juftice or injuflice of the fide
the Conqueft, and what Privileges they gained on this they efpoufe ( 1 1 ).

occafion. From that time thefe two Charters have been Whilft his Agents were employed in levying Troops, He demands
the foundation of the EnglijJi Liberties, notwithftanding John was taking care to fecure the Court of Rome. He 't'/f 1 "''
the endeavours of John himfelf and fome of his Succeffors, knew by fata! experience, how capable the Pope's fcrmi-
to annull them. dable power was, of promoting or hindering the execution

. Thefe Charters were figned by the King, and all the of his defigns. And therefore he fent the Pope a Let- Aa Pub -

Jtbeha- Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the Realm, fealed with ter(i2), informing him of the conftraint put upon him, J^t ,? ' z<
' the Great Seal, and confirmed by the King's folemn Oath, though, as he allured him, he had protefted, that, being a m. Pari*.

p. 165.

M. Paris, p. 2 $4..

(3) 'On May 24. Ibid.

4. Namely, to William Marejlall Earl of Pembroke, Rarullh Earl of Cbrjler, William Earl of Salisbury, William Earl of Warren, William Earl of Al-
bemarle, H. Earl it Cornwall, n . and Philip de Albmey, Robert deVuupont, Peter Fux-Hubert, Brian de I'ljle, G. de Luci, G. de Fumi-aal, Ibmtal
Ball l, Henry dt Biatbrock, 'Jo'-n de Bajfingebrane, William de Canfelu, Henry de Cornbulle, 'John Fttzsllugb, Hvgb de Neville, John Marfcall, William
firuvierre, £c. Idem. p. 255.

> :'. Between Stain: and Windy.r. Runnemede, fays M. We/1, figniries the Mead of Council ; becaofe, from sntisr.t times, Treaties concerning the Peace
of the Kingdom had been often held there. Both Parties met on the 5th of June, and pitched their Tents afunder in the Meadow. On the King's Side ap-
p-ared the Archbifliops of Canterbury and Dublin, with the Lifhops of London. Wincbtjler, Lincoln, Bath, Wcrcefier, Coventry and Rocbefter ; Pandulpb the
Pope's Legate, and Almtric Mafter of the Knigbts-Tcmflart in England. And of the Laity, William .1 ai.l'.all Earl of Pembroke, the E»rb of Salisbury,
Warren, and Arundel j with the Barons, Alan de Gailiioay, William Fitz-Gera/d, Peter and A'.atlbeiv Fitz-Herbert, Ibomas and Alan Baffet, Hugh de
Neuil Hubirt de Burgh, Senekhal of Poiclou, Robert de Roffdey, John Marefcall, and Pbilip de Alb, my. As for thofe on the Barons Side, they are ft 11c:
to be numbered, as you may fee in Mat. Paris, under the year 1215. The chief were, Robert Fax. I! alter the General, &c. See their Names aboii,

fn Note (2), p. 275- . . . „ . ' „ .

(6) Cbarta Commumum Libert alum, or Magna Cbarta, M. Paris, An. 1215. (7) See their Names in M. Parts, p. 262.

($) By another Agreement, printed in Dr. Brady's Appendix, the City of Ltrdon was to remain in the Hands of the Barons mentioned in the Note
above, till the I jth of AuguJ} that >v-ar, and that the Archbirtiop fhould hold the Tower for the fame Term. See Rymer's Faed. Tom. I. p. 201.

fol His Acents were, Walter Biinop of Worcefler his Chancellor, John Bifiu>p 01 Norti'icb, Richard de Marifco, or Maris, who went to the Pope, ti'il-
Viam Gernon, and Hugb de Spues. M. Pans, p. 264.

ffo] Heordcred, that thofe fieign Tro -ps fhould be at Dcver by Micbaelmafi. Idem. p. 26;. Mat. Parit (ays, the King counterfeited the Biihops Seal.
■rote in thrir Names to all Nations, faying, That all the Enghjb were become Aportates ; and whoever would invade them, the King, with the Con-
kit of the Pope and B.fnops, would give them the Lands of thefe Apoftates, p. 255.

(11) He fent orders alfo to all the Wardens of his Caftles, to furnilh them with arms and Provifi ns. Idem. p. 265.

(12) The King's Lettei to the Pope concludes with thefe words: Pro certo habentei, auod pofi Dcum, prj:r.am \ejtram, 65* suclotitatem Sedis ApoflolicoT,
.tabtmui unilum & fitigulart p-j/idium, & fub wftri Confidents patrmmj rcfpiramut, fUrin.



mtgbt be

Art. Pub.
T. I- p. 201.
M. P-nis,
f. 262*

[I) The Caftle was put into their hands by William Biaucbamp the Owner.
[: In the firft day's mmh they came to Ware. Ibid.

Book VIII.

7. j O H I\f.


H, relief tc
M. Paris.

P . SO5.

21 r. Vaffal of the Holy Sec, he could do nothing without his
conTcnt. Witli this Letter lie font a Copy of the Char-
ters, and deft red the Pope to obferve, that all the Articles
were fo many Incroachments upon the Re.ial Powerj and
confequently upon the Lord Paramount, This was flatter-
in" the Pope in the moll fenfible part. Upon this foun-
dation he entreated him to abfolve him from his Oath,
that lie might, with a Cafe conlcicnce, ufe his endeavours
to free himfelf from fo heavy a Yoke. After taking thefe
meafures with all poffible fecrecy, fearing, if he appear-
ed too much in pubiick, his deligns might be difcovcred,
or guefi'd at, he chofe tiie I lie of JVight for his lelideiue.
In this retirement he kept himfelf as it were concealed a
good while, converting oniy with Fifhermcn and Sailors,
and diverting himfelf by walking on the Sea-Shore with
his Doniefticks. When the King was known to be re-
tired to the Ifle of JVight, People were in vain inquifitive
about the caufe of his Retreat. Some jok'd, and (aid
he was become a Fifhcrman or Merchant, others, that lie
defign'd to turn Pyrate. But though he was not ignorant
of thefe Scoff.., he never regarded them. During three
Months, lie waited patiently tor the return of his Agents,
and the Arrival of the foreign Troops, which he was made
to expect.

He met witli no difi-.cukies at the Court of Rome, whofe
threatens the ; ntere ft |r W as to fupport him. Innocent fell into a ftrange
Aft Pub. Paffion w'ith the Barons, lor daring, without consulting
T.ip.195, him, to caufe their King to fign Charters of that nature,
197,100, an j p Ut a C onftraint upon a Prince, who had taken the
M.iuih Crofs, and was under the Church's Protection. In his
Rage, he fwore [by St. Peter] that let what would be the
conlequence, their rafhnels ihould not go unpunifhed.
At the fame time he lent them a Letter, enjoining them
to renounce what they had extorted from their Sovereign,
unlets they would incur the Indignation of the Holy See.
But the Barons made light of his Injunctions, and without
fearing his Thunders, feized upon Roche ft cr {1), which
Cardinal Langim put into their hands (z). They found
there a prodigious quantity of Ammunition, laid in by the



Ihj mil ■
%ff of.t,
M. Paris.

tvth the
find abfolfes
tie King
from hit
ls&. Pub.

M. Paris

1U King 1 1
M r.wi«-
M. Weft.

tot Kin°diT.

King, to be ufed upon occafion. This was, probably, the
reafon of their taking that place.

Mean time the Pope annulling the two Charters, and
abfolving the King from his Oath, John's Affairs began to
have a new iace ; by the advice he received, that his A-
gents had lifted great numbers of Adventurers in his
fervice. Whereupon, John haffily quitted the Ifle of
Wight., and went to receive them at Dover. In a fhort
T.1.1.207. time, he had the fatisfaction to fee vail numbers arrive
Knighton. f rorn Brabant, Flanders [i,), Normandy, Poiclou, Gafcogne,
CrmtNum. all Soldiers of Fortune, and ready to venture their lives to
tttitffo- gain an Eflate. The number of thefe Adventurers was 10
r *''P s confiderable, that the Hifterians who mention it, are fcarce
to be credited. But by an unexpected Accident, one of
the Leaders, Hugh de Boves, with no lefs, as it is faid,
than forty thoufand Men, periflied in the Sea. If thefe
had fafely arrived, 'John would, doubtlefs, have had it in
his power, to treat the Normans fettled in England, in the
fame manner as William the Conqueror had formerly treated
the Englijb. But, notwithstanding this great lofs, there
were Troops enough left to enable him to trample upon
the Barons, who little expected fuch a revolution. His
iirft undertaking was the Siege of Rochejlcr, which, after
a long refiftance, furrendered at laft, in fpite of the Ba-
rons endeavours to throw in fome Succours. He was
io exafperated, that he would have hanged the whole Gar-
rifon, if his Generals had not reprefented to him, that
he would expofe his own Troops to the fame cruel U-
«yr»aj,i f a ge (4). After the taking of Rochejler, he divided his
Army into two Bodies. He gave one to his natural
Brother the Earl of Salisbury, to go and ravage the fou-
thern Counties, whilft with the other he marched into the
northern parts, to make them feel the effects of his ven-
geance. Never was England in fo deplorable a condition :
She had two Armies of hungry Foreigners in her Bowels,
ravaging the Country in a mercilefs manne r . We may ea-
fily guefs that they fpared not the Houfes and Lands of the
Barons, who, perceiving themfelves not ftrong enough to
appear in the Field, were retired to London.

Mean while, the Pope thundered out afl Exrornrmifiica- i:k.
tion againft the Baronsa and ordered Pandulpk, and the toePipent-
Bilhdp of Rochejlcr, to enjoin Cardinal Langtcn in his '^ l:
Name fo pubhfii the Bull. But the Archbifhop pretend- Aft. Pub.
ing the Pone was impofed upon, refufed to comply, till T- '• P ■'""•
lis himfelf had informed his Holinefs of all particulars. Lanp"nrf-
His true reafon wa;, becaufe he could not refolve to pto-fifei njub-
ceed againft chofe whom he had himfelf encouraged fo take ''J 1 " 1 ' *«»•
Arms. Upon his refufal, the two CommifTioiicis pub- //, „r u r
lifhed the Excommunication themfelves, and fufpended the pmded and
Archbifhop, purfuant to their orders. The Barons not 'I'^j" '"''"
valuing this Ccnfure, on pretence they were not particularly ibtBarmx
named in the Bull, continued their Endeavours to defend «/« it mi.
themlelvcs againlt the King. As for the Cardinal Arch- ThePoptis
bilhop, he was fent for to Rome, where he was like to be revenged of
depofed, but the Pope relenting at the Intteatics of the J,' 11 " 4 ',"'".'
other Cardinals* only confirmed his Sufpenlion. Some j>. 'a-i, *-■;,
time after, he found another occafion to mortify him, bv
voiding his Brother Simon's Election* who was chofen fa ? - ^.
Archbifhop of York, and putting his Enemy, II alter de
Grey in his room ; from whom however he exacted [ for
his Pall ] ten thoufand Pounds Sterling (5), (or the occa-
fionsof the Holy See. In fine, after fevetal mortifications
at Rome, Langton's Sufpenfion was taken off, on condition,
he would not [return to England till the Troubles weic en-
tirely appealed.

When Innocent was informed of the Barons pretence for Tic Bam-
not fubmitting to the Excommunication, he published an- "■'<*■ -<~
other Bull, wherein they were all excommunicated by u " aJ ^
Name. Their Lands were put under an Interdict, as Aft Pub.
well as the City of London, which had taken their part. T - ' ■ p-*'»-

1 *Tbev delpift

As the Barons expected this fecond Bull, they were re- lb / r ;
folved not to regard it, and prevent its being published in Centura.
London. They alledged in their vindication, that the M - r ' ,; '
Bull was obtained by falfe Suggeltions and confequently o'. f
no force ; that betides, it was not the Pope's Bufincfs to
meddle with Temporal Affairs, fnce St. Peter received
from Chrift only Spiritual Power ; lor which reafon it was
neither juft nor right, that Chriftians fnould fufier them-
felves to be governed by the Ambition and Avarice of the
Popes. One would hardly believe, they who talked at this
rate, were the fame Perfons who refufed to ferve the
King, becaufe he was excommunicated, were there not a
thoufand inftances to fhow, how apt Men are to fquare
their opinions by their interefts. Mean time, the Pope
had the mortification to fee his Authority contemned,
without being able to help it ; fince the People were not
for him, in which cafe he ever darts his Thunders to no
manner of purpofe. Whilft the Barons and Londoners were
taking thefe vigorous refolutions againft the Pope, John ]■•' s ■

continued ravaging the Kingdom, and especially the Lands """" i:s ,
of the confederate Barons (6). It is eafy to conceive, that r , ;
the manner of the foreign Troops executing his orders, p. 174.
was none of the mildeft, and that numberlefs outrages^ 1, , ''-'"
and cruelties were committed on this occafion, which
increafed the Animofity of the Barons againft the
King (7).

Mean time the confederate Barons were in a deplorable The Bonn:
condition. Infiead of recovering their privileges, they "J k '*.
beheld their Eftates plundered and given to Foreigners, c <
whilft the King was with pleafure glutting his revenge. Praia Lew-
Their wretched State caufed them at laft to take a defpe- jjX]
rate courfe, which engaged them to hazaid their own r . » 7 j.
with the whole Kingdom's Ruin, to have the fatisfaction M. Weft,
of being revenged on the King, though at the ex pence of ^ t . a ""
the poor People. They acquainted the King of France (o),
that if he would fend Prince Lewis his Son, they prnmifed
to fet the Crown of England on his head, provided he
brought fufficient Forces to free them from the Tyranny
of King Jchn. Philp did not want much intreaty to ac- l>y: T r- -
eept of the Barons Offer. He had once before thought of ""£■• " "l''fi
conquering England, and if the lofs of his Fleet, much more M '™p, r ; t ,
than the Threats of the Pope, had made him defift from ibid.
his Enterprize, he had ftill a longing defire to accomplifti
it, if a fair opportunity fhould offer. And as this, which
the Rupture between John and the Barons furnifhed him
with, feemed very favorable, he embraced it immediately.
He only deli red the Barons to deliver twenty five Holtages,

(1) Their Leader in this Adventure, was William Albiney. M. Parity p. 268.

(2) Qui, qnj corfcientia nefcio, ilind Regis inimicis trjd.dit. M. Par;i. Bapin.

(3) The Trcps from BrabaM and FUtideri were commanded by Walter Buck, Gerard Sottini, and Godefcball ; thofe ftoffl F«W« and Cifcegre, by
.Sj-wtv de Meulion, Geoffrey, and Oliver de Butevitle, Brothers. M. Parti, p. 26S.

(4) u ill; am de Albir.ry, whom the Barons h.\d lent for and made Governor under the Archbifhop, William de Lancajler, and William de Eireifcrd, and
fome others, were fent ciofe Prilbncrs to Ccrf Cattle. The oidinary Soldiers, except the Crofs-bow Men, were all hanged. Ibid- p. 270.

(c) Hence may be guefs'd what vaft Sums of Money the Pope in thofe D.iys extorted out of England, and what great Riches the Clersv poflclTcd, when
this Arrhbifliop was to pay the Pope as much as wou'd now be equal to fitty thoufand Pounds. He is laid to be promoted to the See 0! J^'- 1 Ijr not havirg
knov.11 Woman. l!>id.

(6 ; He marched through St. Albani, to Du-iJIable, Northampton, and Noningbam ; whilft William Earl of Salisbury, and Faleajiui with an Artsy of
Fo.eigners, ravaged Efe.r, Hertford, Middlejex, Cambridge, and HunlmgdonJ/jire. M. Parti, p. 274, 275. But in return for thefe Outrages, a ftrong
P;>rty of the Baions fjooilod ar.d ravaged the Counties of Cambridge, Nor/ilk, Hujfolk, Ejjtx, and Hertford ; or Oiofc parts of them at lead, that belonged
to the King's Adherents. M. Weft. p. 274.

'"; Roger de Wendcaer, (who was then alive,) as well as Padulpb of Coggefhal, has given ns a particular Account of the Barbarities committed by
King Join's Mercenaries, whom he calls, The Guards of Satan, ar.d Miniflers of the Deiil.

_ (8) By Sa-er Earl of Wmchefler, and Robert Fitz Walter, who carried Letters fealed with the Bnrons Seal. The Reafon of their appl;iog particularly t»
him, was, That molt of the Foreigner, in King Johns Service, were Philip's Subjects ; and Io they tttouid withdraw King jMf train Support, ty having
PI ■: 'pon their Side. M. Par,,, p . a 7g , * J r ' '

No 14. Vol. I. Aaaa foi


The H 1 STO R T of ENGLAND. Vol. I.

Online LibraryM. (Paul) Rapin de ThoyrasThe history of England : written in French (Volume 1) → online text (page 117 of 360)